Petroleum products - Guidelines for good housekeeping - Part 1: Automotive diesel fuels

This document provides general guidance on diesel fuel housekeeping. It does not pre-empt national or local regulations but addresses the issues of contamination by water, sediment, inorganic contaminants, or microbial growth that may occur in the supply chain during manufacture, blending, storage and transportation. It does not address contamination by other fuel products nor does it address possible contamination by water or sediment that may occur on-board vehicles. An informative note on vehicle factors is presented in Annex A, however

Mineralölerzeugnisse - Leitfaden für eine gute Systemwartung - Teil 1: Dieselkraftstoffe für Kraftfahrzeuge

Dieses Dokument gibt allgemeine Ratschläge für eine gute Systemwartung für Dieselkraftstoff, die dazu dienen, angemessene Sauberkeit sicherzustellen und die Weiterverbreitung von Verunreinigungen zu verhindern.
Es beabsichtigt nicht, nationale oder lokale Vorschriften vorwegzunehmen, sondern thematisiert Verunreinigungsprobleme durch Wasser, Sedimente, anorganische Verunreinigungen oder mikrobielles Wachstum, die in der Versorgungskette bei Produktion, Mischung und Lagerung oder beim Transport auftreten können. Das Dokument behandelt dabei keine Probleme, die durch Verunreinigungen mit anderen Kraftstoffprodukten oder durch Verunreinigungen mit Wasser oder Sedimenten im Kraftfahrzeug auftreten können. Informationen zu Einflussfaktoren der Dieselfahrzeuge sind in Anhang A angegeben.

Produits pétroliers - Guide pour une bonne maîtrise de la qualité du produit - Partie 1: Carburants diesels pour automobiles (gazoles)

Naftni proizvodi - Smernice za skrbno ravnanje in skladiščenje - 1. del: Dizelsko gorivo za motorna vozila

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Feb-2020
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
26-Feb-2020
Completion Date
26-Feb-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2020
01-maj-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2014

Naftni proizvodi - Smernice za skrbno ravnanje in skladiščenje - 1. del: Dizelsko

gorivo za motorna vozila

Petroleum products - Guidelines for good housekeeping - Part 1: Automotive diesel fuels

Mineralölerzeugnisse - Leitfaden für eine gute Systemwartung - Teil 1: Dieselkraftstoffe

für Kraftfahrzeuge

Produits pétroliers - Guide pour une bonne maîtrise de la qualité du produit - Partie 1:

Carburants diesels pour automobiles (gazoles)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 15367-1:2020
ICS:
75.160.20 Tekoča goriva Liquid fuels
75.200 Oprema za skladiščenje Petroleum products and
nafte, naftnih proizvodov in natural gas handling
zemeljskega plina equipment
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2020
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2020
CEN/TR 15367-1
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
February 2020
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 75.160.20; 75.200; 03.100.50 Supersedes CEN/TR 15367-1:2014
English Version
Petroleum products - Guidelines for good housekeeping -
Part 1: Automotive diesel fuels

Produits pétroliers - Guide pour une bonne maîtrise de Mineralölerzeugnisse - Leitfaden für eine gute

la qualité du produit - Partie 1: Carburants diesels pour Systemwartung - Teil 1: Dieselkraftstoffe für

automobiles (gazoles) Kraftfahrzeuge

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 29 December 2019. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

19.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2020
CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 3

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................ 5

4 Adulterants and contaminants in the supply chain ................................................................. 5

4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Water ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.3 Sediment .................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.4 Metal ions ................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.5 Biological contamination ................................................................................................................... 7

5 Housekeeping guidelines .................................................................................................................. 7

5.1 Elements of good housekeeping ..................................................................................................... 7

5.1.1 Operations .............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1.2 Hardware ................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1.3 Maintenance ........................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Detailed recommendations .............................................................................................................. 8

5.2.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.2 Refineries ................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2.3 Terminals ................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2.4 Transport and operations ............................................................................................................... 11

5.2.5 Filling stations ..................................................................................................................................... 12

5.3 Handling of biofuels .......................................................................................................................... 12

5.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.3.2 Sampling and testing ......................................................................................................................... 13

5.3.3 Operations ............................................................................................................................................ 13

Annex A (normative) Diesel vehicle factors ........................................................................................... 14

A.1 General remarks ................................................................................................................................. 14

A.2 Fuel tank ................................................................................................................................................ 14

A.3 Fuel system temperature cycles ................................................................................................... 14

A.4 Filters ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

Annex B (normative) Abrasive particles ................................................................................................. 15

Annex C (normative) After-market additives ........................................................................................ 17

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 18

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2020
CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 15367-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 19

“Gaseous and liquid fuels, lubricants and related products of petroleum, synthetic and biological

origin”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN/TR 15367-1:2014.

The update to this document primarily addresses quality issues that can be associated with hard

abrasive particles in diesel fuel that can cause wear damage to high pressure common rail fuel

injection systems.

CEN/TR 15367 consists of the following parts, under the general title Petroleum products -

Guidelines for good housekeeping:
— Part 1: Automotive diesel fuels
— Part 2: Automotive petrol fuels
— Part 3: Prevention of cross-contamination

This part of this standard describes the distribution of automotive fuels in general and diesel in

specific detail. Part 2 was subsequently published to provide guidance on petrol distribution and

specifically to address ethanol issues. Finally, Part 3 was published to provide additional guidance

on preventing cross-contamination of fuel products in common supply and distribution systems.

For further information on the relationship between and the history behind each of the parts, see

the Introduction to this document.
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2020
CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 (E)
Introduction

During its meeting held in Cannes on June 27 2003, WG 24 “Specification for Automotive diesel”

decided that a guidance document on good housekeeping could be instrumental in preventing

potential motoring problems caused by contamination in the supply chain. This was endorsed by

CEN/TC 19 resolution 24.5 and resulted in an effective publication of the first Technical Report in

March 2006.

Subsequently at the CEN/TC 19/WG 24 meeting on 18 October, 2017 in Zurich, Switzerland there

were technical presentations describing serious wear and damage problems in modern high

pressure diesel vehicle fuel injection systems in Northern Germany and the South East of the United

Kingdom. A CEN task force was formed in January 2018 to investigate these wear and damage

issues.

Investigations by that CEN/TC 19/WG 24 Abrasive Particles task force have shown internal damage

to fuel injector moving parts, internal valves and pressure relief valves causing internal injector

leakage, engine malfunction indicator light illumination, poor engine operation and in some cases

complete engine shutdown [9]. The damage is believed to be caused by hard particulates in the

diesel fuel abrading moving components.

This guidance document has been updated to reflect the abrasive particle contamination issue.

When a similar guideline for petrol was being drafted, it was decided to link these two. The best

option was to publish them as separate parts of the same CEN document, which is achieved by

revising the original CEN/TR 15367:2006 Petroleum products — Automotive Diesel Fuels — Guide

for good housekeeping as part 1. Apart from some harmonization of wording no changes have been

incorporated.

Two additional reports have now been published in this series regarding Automotive Petrol Fuels

(Part 2) and the Prevention of Cross Contamination (Part 3).The work on these three documents

has been carried out with support from CONCAWE and other stakeholders.

Automotive fuel specifications generally apply at the point of delivery to the customer. To ensure

the quality at this point, the best practice is to make sure that the product meets specification when

it is dispatched from the refinery and to have systems in place to ensure that it cannot go off-

specification on its way to the customer. There will be more than one method or procedure to

handle many of the potential contamination issues throughout the distribution chain, thus the

advice in this document outlines principles to apply, but does not specify the precise detail of the

methods to be adopted in all cases. Nevertheless, it is strongly recommended that all the

procedures or measures to be applied along the distribution chain should be defined using a Total

Quality Assurance methodology.
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CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document provides general guidance on diesel fuel housekeeping to ensure appropriate

cleanliness and to prevent onward distribution of contaminants.

It does not pre-empt national or local regulations but addresses the issues of contamination by

water, sediment, inorganic contaminants, or microbial growth that may occur in the supply chain

during manufacture, blending, storage and transportation. It does not address contamination by

other fuel products nor does it address possible contamination by water or sediment that may

occur on-board vehicles. Information on vehicle factors is presented in Annex A, however.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.
EN 590, Automotive fuels - Diesel - Requirements and test methods
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
supply chain
process consisting of the following four parts:
— refineries,
— terminals (storage and blending sites),
— filling stations (including retail and industrial customer sites), and

— transportation from refineries to terminals, terminals to terminals and from terminals to filling

stations.

Note 1 to entry: Information on additives beyond the supply chain is given in Annex C.

4 Adulterants and contaminants in the supply chain
4.1 General

EN 590 requires that “Diesel fuel shall be free from any adulterant or contaminant that may render

the fuel unacceptable for use in diesel engine vehicles”. This subclause describes some of the more

common causes
Impacted by EN 590:2013+A1:2017.
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CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 (E)
4.2 Water

Water may be picked up by the diesel fuel product at various stages of the supply chain and can be

present either as free or dissolved water or as an emulsion with small droplets of water suspended

in fuel. The presence of FAME can increase fuel/water emulsions. The presence of free water can

be a contributory cause of corrosion and biological contamination. Entry points for water include:

a) dissolved or emulsified water can occur during diesel fuel or FAME manufacturing.

Dissolved or emulsified water can remain suspended in fuel or may separate and become free

water further along the supply chain depending on the composition of the fuel and storage

conditions. Cooling of the fuel blend can cause the dissolved water to coalesce and separate

from the fuel;

b) free water can occur due to ingress or leaks as a result of, for example, heavy rainfall or

through cracks in equipment;

c) water vapour (humid air) can enter storage tanks through air vents followed by cooling or

condensation on tank walls or vehicle tanks;

Because it is virtually impossible to stop water from entering the supply chain, proper water

management is essential. Tank inspections should routinely look for free water at the bottom of

storage tanks.

Free water, along with emulsified fuel, should be drained to ensure that the remaining fuel is clear

and bright and free of extraneous material.
4.3 Sediment

Sediment may be due to inorganic or organic contaminants in the fuel. Inorganic contaminants can

consist of rust, dirt, dust, corrosion products, and trace materials retained from fuel and FAME

production. Organic contaminants can consist of oxidation products, biological growth, and trace

materials from fuel and FAME production. Sediments may form over a long period of time under

storage conditions.

The Abrasive Particles task force investigations have shown that hard < 4µm sediment particles

can cause serious abrasive wear to modern diesel vehicle high pressure fuel injection systems. Soft

particles such as those typically found in FAME do not appear to cause abrasive wear.

[20]

The total contamination test (EN 12662 ) does not provide protection against abrasive particle

erosion issues since it is a gravimetric test that is unable to distinguish very small, hard particles

with sufficient resolution. As such it does not guarantee product quality with respect to the abrasive

particle failure-mode.
Guidance on particulate measurement and levels is found in Annex B.

For more information on preventing contamination by water or sediment that may occur in the

supply chain or for avoiding cross contamination, it is advisable to evaluate the ‘good

housekeeping’ practices recommended in CEN/TR 15367 3 and to check the report on the

investigation regarding internal diesel injector sticking deposits mechanisms [1].

4.4 Metal ions

Sodium at trace levels in diesel fuel has been found to cause deposit problems in some types of

diesel fuel injectors resulting in engine failures. Trace sodium can originate from many sources,

cannot be easily controlled or corrected in a multi-product distribution system, and cannot be

routinely measured at historical concentrations except in a very well-equipped analytical

laboratory. Due diligence is therefore advised for ensuring the integrity of vehicle fuel systems by

controlling potential sources of sodium and other deposit-forming materials in fuel. Potential

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2020
CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 (E)

sources for sodium in diesel fuel are pipeline corrosion inhibitors, refinery process additives,

import terminal or refinery salt driers, refinery processing units, biodiesel blending, contamination

from sea water due to logistics systems or airborne sodium in coastal locations (sea salt). See for

[1]

more detail CEN/TR 16680 . There are currently no known or intended limits for sodium

concentrations in diesel fuel.

Other metal ions of concern are zinc, copper and lead. Zinc has a tendency to accumulate in spray-

holes and contributes to nozzle coking. Lead is attacked by fuel acids and forms voluminous soap

precipitates. Copper is known to catalytically accelerate fuel oxidation.
4.5 Biological contamination

Biological contamination can result from the action of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and

yeasts, which are ubiquitous in the environment. Microbes can bloom whenever there is a source

of water, air (oxygen), and fuel (as food). The presence of FAME in fuel can encourage growth. As a

result, biological contamination is more common in diesel fuels containing FAME than in gasoline

containing bio-products.

Biological contamination can lead to bio-derived films and sediments in storage tanks, pipelines,

and filters, potentially causing serious operational problems including filter-blocking and fuel

dispenser malfunctions. Microbiological growth can also lead to corrosion which can become a

source of hard particles generation.

While good housekeeping, including the elimination of water bottoms in tanks, reduces biological

growth, severely contaminated tanks may require more severe treatment, including biocide

additives.
5 Housekeeping guidelines
5.1 Elements of good housekeeping
5.1.1 Operations

Proper attention to detail during all operating activities from product manufacturing to final

delivery is essential to guarantee product quality. Operating procedures should be in place covering

receipt, delivery, sampling, inspection, testing, and tank draining. These procedures should be

reviewed and updated as required, when product quality changes are taking place as a result of

new regulations or the introduction of new fuel types.

It is essential that personnel involved at each step in fuel transfers, both company employees and

contractors, are properly trained so that they are aware of and understand the importance of

applying and continuously improving operating procedures.

Diesel products should not be transported or stored in systems used intermittently for black oil

products due to the impact on product quality. Robust quality control needs to be in place to detect

and prevent contamination. If the use of chemicals is considered anywhere in the supply chain for

housekeeping purposes (e.g. corrosion protection or biological remediation) the potential impact

on fuel quality and performance should be investigated thoroughly. Non-chemical solutions are

generally preferred.
5.1.2 Hardware

The age and design of existing hardware along the supply chain vary widely and yet it is possible

to control product quality properly with differently engineered installations. Quality control,

however, is much easier if hardware is first designed with the intention to facilitate good

housekeeping as described in the following sections.
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CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 (E)
5.1.3 Maintenance

No matter how well designed an installation may be, equipment faults and deterioration and

corrosion of hardware can develop over time if the equipment is not inspected and properly

maintained. Inadequate maintenance can eventually affect the ability of the operator to maintain

product quality at the required level.
5.2 Detailed recommendations
5.2.1 General

Recommendations in this section are divided into four sections covering various elements related

to refineries, terminals, filling stations and transportation. This guidance represents current

industry best practices but is largely based on experience of handling diesel fuels.

5.2.2 Refineries
5.2.2.1 Testing

Batches of diesel fuel should first be visually assessed for clear and bright appearance with no free

water and free from visible sediment. When testing for visual appearance [10], the prevailing

ambient temperature should be considered. Alternative methods such as online haze meters may

be used. The product shall meet the water content and total contamination requirements of EN 590.

When a sample is not visually acceptable, the product should be isolated and analysed to quantify

the problem. Analysis at this point enables any issues to be resolved at the refinery and avoid the

problem becoming more widespread.

Product imports at refineries should be tested using the same procedures recommended for

terminals (see 5.2.3). Batches that are delivered by barge or by sea-going vessels or pipeline should

receive special attention to ensure that they conform to quality specifications. Test records and

retained samples should be kept for a sufficient period to cover market needs.
5.2.2.2 Sampling

Upper, middle and lower samples should be taken from fixed off-take storage tanks for visual

assessment and analysis. All three samples should be examined for visual appearance in addition

to any other tests to confirm the product is not layered. Composite samples may be used for the

other routine specification tests.

No special requirements are specified with respect to settling time, after blending and before

sampling. If product samples do not satisfy the visual appearance, water content or sediment tests,

allowing time for settling is one measure that can be employed to bring the product on

specification. It should be noted, however, that settling time alone is unlikely to alleviate sediment

particles in the low µm size range as well as high water contents in diesel fuels, in particular those

containing FAME. Water can remain dispersed in the fuel increasing the potential for water

accumulation or biological contamination problems elsewhere in the supply chain.
5.2.2.3 Operations

Although some storage tanks have floating off-take points, most have fixed off-take points so that

procedures to avoid build-up of water bottoms are essential. Most storage tanks are flat bottomed,

although they can be in a cone-up or cone-down configuration. Procedures to control water build-

up (e.g. by regularly checking for water bottoms and draining off water as required) should be

established based on local experience with the particular tank configuration, fuel production

process and local climate. Water bottom checks should be carried out frequently and tanks should

ideally be checked both before and after the receipt of new product. These procedures should

ensure that water and sediments are not carried forward to the next stage of the supply chain.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2020
CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 (E)

Diesel tanks should also be checked periodically for biological contamination and there should be

a procedure in place to deal with such contamination if it is detected. Once established, biological

growth can be difficult to rectify – prevention is better than a cure and is best achieved by good

water management.
5.2.2.4 Hardware requirements

New tanks should be designed to optimize water draw-off capability and be fitted with anti-swirl

systems to minimize mixing of tank bottoms during filling.
They should also have convenient facilities for taking three samples:
— upper sample at one-sixth of the depth of liquid below the maximum level;
— middle sample halfway down the depth of the liquid;

— lower sample at approximately one-sixth up from the bottom level representing the product

which will be drawn out of the off take system. The precise height for the lower sample should

be based on details of tank configuration including the height of the off-take point.

Filtration of the final product is not generally necessary to control water and sediment. Filters may

be installed as an additional safeguard in some situations.
5.2.2.5 Maintenance

Tank cleaning is a major disruptive operation which requires completely draining the tank and

physical scraping to remove biofilms, corrosion products and other sediments.

Tanks should be inspected on a regular basis and cleaning should be carried out if there is evidence

of a build-up of contamination. Routine cleaning is normally carried out on a several years schedule,

coinciding if possible with (statutory) inspection and maintenance requirements. Good

housekeeping can help to extend the periods between tank cleaning.
5.2.3 Terminals
5.2.3.1 General

A documented procedure should be in place for product sampling and quality monitoring upon

product receipt. Checks should confirm that the product has not become contaminated with water

or sediment. These principles should also apply to product imports into refineries.

5.2.3.2 Testing

Visual checks should be carried out to assess the quality of the product and additional analysis may

be carried out if needed.

Batches delivered by barge or by sea-going vessels or pipelines need more careful attention to

conform to quality specifications.

Test records and retained samples should be kept for a sufficient period to cover market needs.

5.2.3.3 Sampling

In order to avoid possible contamination of clean product tanks or onward distribution of

contaminants, sampling should be considered from:

— from the transport unit (e.g. barge) delivering the product before discharging into storage

tanks;
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15367-1:2020
CEN/TR 15367-1:2020 (E)

— during product transfer to the receiving tank (including tank to tank transfer). In some cases,

e.g. for pipeline deliveries, online or running samples should be monitored;
— in the storage tank after receipt;
— prior to release to filling stations;

— prior to release of product from terminal to mode of transport for supply of another terminal.

Checks should ensure that water and sediments are not carried forward to the next stage of the

supply chain. It is recommended to retain samples of representative product prior to transport

and/or onward release to filling stations.

Because the receiving tank will likely be used for deliveries, it should be sampled in any case based

on upper/middle/lower samples as with the refineries. The quality of the existing product in the

receiving tank before transfers should also be known.

As recommended at refineries, no special requirements are specified with respect to settling time

before sampling. If product samples do not satisfy the visual appearance, water content or

sediment tests, allowing time for settling is one measure that can be employed to bring the product

to specification.

It should be noted, however, that settling time alone is unlikely to alleviate high water contents in

diesel fuels containing FAME. Water can remain dispersed in the fuel increasing the potential for

water accumulation or biological contamination problems elsewhere in the supply chain.

5.2.3.4 Operations

Normal practice should include that the product is not dispatched from a running tank, i.e. from a

tank that is receiving product at the same time. Where terminal operations require product

delivery from a running tank, additional precautions should be taken to ensure that quality is

maintained, e.g. pre-delivery checks on the receipt tank a
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 15367-1:2019
01-november-2019

Naftni proizvodi - Smernice za skrbno ravnanje in skladiščenje - 1. del: Dizelsko

gorivo za motorna vozila

Petroleum products - Guidelines for good housekeeping - Part 1: Automotive diesel fuels

Mineralölerzeugnisse - Leitfaden für eine gute Systemwartung - Teil 1: Dieselkraftstoffe

für Kraftfahrzeuge

Produits pétroliers - Guide pour une bonne maîtrise de la qualité du produit - Partie 1:

Carburants diesels pour automobiles (gazoles)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 15367-1
ICS:
75.160.20 Tekoča goriva Liquid fuels
75.200 Oprema za skladiščenje Petroleum products and
nafte, naftnih proizvodov in natural gas handling
zemeljskega plina equipment
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 15367-1:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 15367-1:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 15367-1:2019
FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL REPORT
FprCEN/TR 15367-1
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
September 2019
ICS
English Version
Petroleum products - Guidelines for good housekeeping -
Part 1: Automotive diesel fuels

Produits pétroliers - Guide pour une bonne maîtrise de Mineralölerzeugnisse - Leitfaden für eine gute

la qualité du produit - Partie 1: Carburants diesels pour Systemwartung - Teil 1: Dieselkraftstoffe für

automobiles (gazoles) Kraftfahrzeuge

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 19.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 15367-1:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 15367-1:2019
CEN/TR 15367-1:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 5

3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 5

4 Adulterants and contaminants in the supply chain .................................................................... 6

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2 Water ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3 Sediment ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Metal ions ................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Biological contamination ...................................................................................................................... 7

5 Housekeeping guidelines ..................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Elements of good housekeeping ........................................................................................................ 7

5.1.1 Operations ................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1.2 Hardware .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.3 Maintenance .............................................................................................................................................. 8

5.2 Detailed recommendations ................................................................................................................. 8

5.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2.2 Refineries ................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.3 Terminals ................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.4 Transport and operations ................................................................................................................. 11

5.2.5 Filling stations ....................................................................................................................................... 12

5.3 Handling of biofuels ............................................................................................................................ 13

5.3.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.3.2 Sampling and testing ........................................................................................................................... 13

5.3.3 Operations .............................................................................................................................................. 13

Annex A (normative) Diesel vehicle factors ............................................................................................. 14

A.1 General remarks ................................................................................................................................... 14

A.2 Fuel tank .................................................................................................................................................. 14

A.3 Fuel system temperature cycles ..................................................................................................... 14

A.4 Filters ........................................................................................................................................................ 15

Annex B (normative) Abrasive particles ................................................................................................... 16

Annex C (normative) After-market additives .......................................................................................... 18

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................... 19

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European foreword

This document (FprCEN/TR 15367-1:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC

19 “Gaseous and liquid fuels, lubricants and related products of petroleum, synthetic and biological

origin”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TR.
This document will supersede CEN/TR 15367-1:2014.

The update to this document primarily addresses quality issues that can be associated with hard

abrasive particles in diesel fuel that can cause wear damage to high pressure common rail fuel

injection systems.

CEN/TR 15367 consists of the following parts, under the general title Petroleum products -

Guidelines for good housekeeping:
— Part 1: Automotive diesel fuels
— Part 2: Automotive petrol fuels
— Part 3: Prevention of cross-contamination

This part of this standard describes the distribution of automotive fuels in general and diesel in

specific detail. Part 2 was subsequently published to provide guidance on petrol distribution and

specifically to address ethanol issues. Finally, Part 3 was published to provide additional guidance

on preventing cross-contamination of fuel products in common supply and distribution systems.

For further information on the relationship between and the history behind each of the parts, see

the Introduction to this document.
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Introduction

During its meeting held in Cannes on June 27 2003, WG 24 “Specification for Automotive diesel”

decided that a guidance document on good housekeeping could be instrumental in preventing

potential motoring problems caused by contamination in the supply chain. This was endorsed by

CEN/TC 19 resolution 24.5 and resulted in an effective publication of the first Technical Report in

March 2006.

Subsequently at the CEN/TC 19/WG 24 meeting on 18 October, 2017 in Zurich, Switzerland there

were technical presentations describing serious wear and damage problems in modern high

pressure diesel vehicle fuel injection systems in Northern Germany and the South East of the United

Kingdom. A CEN task force was formed in January 2018 to investigate these wear and damage

issues.

Investigations by that CEN/TC 19/WG 24 Abrasive Particles task force have shown internal damage

to fuel injector moving parts, internal valves and pressure relief valves causing internal injector

leakage, engine malfunction indicator light illumination, poor engine operation and in some cases

complete engine shutdown [9]. The damage is believed to be caused by hard particulates in the

diesel fuel abrading moving components.

This guidance document has been updated to reflect the abrasive particle contamination issue.

When a similar guideline for petrol was being drafted, it was decided to link these two. The best

option was to publish them as separate parts of the same CEN document, which is achieved by

revising the original CEN/TR 15367:2006 Petroleum products — Automotive Diesel Fuels — Guide

for good housekeeping as part 1. Apart from some harmonization of wording no changes have been

incorporated.

Two additional reports have now been published in this series regarding Automotive Petrol Fuels

(Part 2) and the Prevention of Cross Contamination (Part 3).The work on these three documents

has been carried out with support from CONCAWE and other stakeholders.

Automotive fuel specifications generally apply at the point of delivery to the customer. To ensure

the quality at this point, the best practice is to make sure that the product meets specification when

it is dispatched from the refinery and to have systems in place to ensure that it cannot go off-

specification on its way to the customer. There will be more than one method or procedure to

handle many of the potential contamination issues throughout the distribution chain, thus the

advice in this document outlines principles to apply, but does not specify the precise detail of the

methods to be adopted in all cases. Nevertheless, it is strongly recommended that all the

procedures or measures to be applied along the distribution chain should be defined using a Total

Quality Assurance methodology.
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1 Scope

This document provides general guidance on diesel fuel housekeeping to ensure appropriate

cleanliness and to prevent onward distribution of contaminants.

It does not pre-empt national or local regulations but addresses the issues of contamination by

water, sediment, inorganic contaminants, or microbial growth that may occur in the supply chain

during manufacture, blending, storage and transportation. It does not address contamination by

other fuel products nor does it address possible contamination by water or sediment that may

occur on-board vehicles. Information on vehicle factors is presented in Annex A, however.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.
EN 590, Automotive fuels - Diesel - Requirements and test methods
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
supply chain
process consisting of the following four parts:
— refineries,
— terminals (storage and blending sites),
— filling stations (including retail and industrial customer sites), and

— transportation from refineries to terminals, terminals to terminals and from terminals to filling

stations.

Note 1 to entry: Information on additives beyond the supply chain is given in Annex C.

Impacted by EN 590:2013+A1:2017.
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4 Adulterants and contaminants in the supply chain
4.1 General

EN 590 requires that “Diesel fuel shall be free from any adulterant or contaminant that may render

the fuel unacceptable for use in diesel engine vehicles”. This subclause describes some of the more

common causes
4.2 Water

Water may be picked up by the diesel fuel product at various stages of the supply chain and can be

present either as free water or as an emulsion with small droplets of water suspended in fuel. The

presence of FAME can increase fuel/water emulsions. The presence of free water can be a

contributory cause of corrosion and biological contamination. Entry points for water include:

a) dissolved or emulsified water can occur during diesel fuel or FAME manufacturing.

Dissolved or emulsified water can remain suspended in fuel or may separate and become free

water further along the supply chain depending on the composition of the fuel and storage

conditions. Cooling of the fuel blend can cause the dissolved water to coalesce and separate

from the fuel;

b) free water can occur due to ingress or leaks as a result of, for example, heavy rainfall or

through cracks in equipment;

c) water vapour (humid air) can enter storage tanks through air vents followed by cooling or

condensation on tank walls or vehicle tanks;

Because it is virtually impossible to stop water from entering the supply chain, proper water

management is essential. Tank inspections should routinely look for free water at the bottom of

storage tanks.

Free water, along with emulsified fuel, should be drained to ensure that the remaining fuel is clear

and bright and free of extraneous material.
4.3 Sediment

Sediment may be due to inorganic or organic contaminants in the fuel. Inorganic contaminants can

consist of rust, dirt, dust, corrosion products, and trace materials retained from fuel and FAME

production. Organic contaminants can consist of oxidation products, biological growth, and trace

materials from fuel blends and FAME production. Sediments may form over a long period of time

under storage conditions.

The Abrasive Particles task force investigations have shown that hard < 4µm sediment particles

can cause serious abrasive wear to modern diesel vehicle high pressure fuel injection systems. Soft

particles such as those typically found in FAME do not appear to cause abrasive wear.

[20]

The total contamination test (EN 12662 ) does not provide protection against abrasive particle

erosion issues since it is a gravimetric test that is unable to distinguish very small, hard particles

with sufficient resolution. As such it does not guarantee product quality with respect to the abrasive

particle failure-mode.
Guidance on particulate measurement and levels is found in Annex B.
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4.4 Metal ions

Sodium at trace levels in diesel fuel has been found to cause deposit problems in some types of

diesel fuel injectors resulting in engine failures. Trace sodium can originate from many sources,

cannot be easily controlled or corrected in a multi-product distribution system, and cannot be

routinely measured at historical concentrations except in a very well-equipped analytical

laboratory. Due diligence is therefore advised for ensuring the integrity of vehicle fuel systems by

controlling potential sources of sodium and other deposit-forming materials in fuel. Potential

sources for sodium in diesel fuel are pipeline corrosion inhibitors, refinery process additives,

import terminal or refinery salt driers, refinery processing units, biodiesel blending, contamination

from sea water due to logistics systems or airborne sodium in coastal locations (sea salt). See for

[1]

more detail CEN/TR 16680 . There are currently no known or intended limits for sodium

concentrations in diesel fuel.

Other metal ions of concern are zinc, copper and lead. Zinc has a tendency to accumulate in spray-

holes and contributes to nozzle coking. Lead is attacked by fuel acids and forms voluminous soap

precipitates. Copper is known to catalytically accelerate fuel oxidation.

For more information on preventing contamination by water or sediment that may occur in the

supply chain or for avoiding cross contamination, it is advisable to evaluate the ‘good

housekeeping’ practices recommended in CEN/TR 15367-3 and to check the report on the

investigation regarding internal diesel injector sticking deposits mechanisms [1].

4.5 Biological contamination

Biological contamination can result from the action of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and

yeasts, which are ubiquitous in the environment. Microbes can bloom whenever there is a source

of water, air (oxygen), and fuel (as food). The presence of FAME in fuel can encourage growth. As a

result, biological contamination is more common in diesel fuels containing FAME than in gasoline

containing bio-products.

Biological contamination can lead to bio-derived films and sediments in storage tanks, pipelines,

and filters, potentially causing serious operational problems including filter-blocking and fuel

dispenser malfunctions. Microbiological growth can also lead to corrosion which can become a

source of hard particles generation.

While good housekeeping, including the elimination of water bottoms in tanks, reduces biological

growth, severely contaminated tanks may require more severe treatment, including biocide

additives.
5 Housekeeping guidelines
5.1 Elements of good housekeeping
5.1.1 Operations

Proper attention to detail during all operating activities from product manufacturing to final

delivery is essential to guarantee product quality. Operating procedures should be in place covering

receipt, delivery, sampling, inspection, testing, and tank draining. These procedures should be

reviewed and updated as required, when product quality changes are taking place as a result of

new regulations or the introduction of new fuel types.

It is essential that personnel involved at each step in fuel transfers, both company employees and

contractors, are properly trained so that they are aware of and understand the importance of

applying and continuously improving operating procedures.
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Diesel products should not be transported or stored in systems used intermittently for black oil

products due to the impact on product quality. Robust quality control needs to be in place to detect

and prevent contamination. If the use of chemicals is considered anywhere in the supply chain for

housekeeping purposes (e.g. corrosion protection or biological remediation) the potential impact

on fuel quality and performance should be investigated thoroughly. Non-chemical solutions are

generally preferred.
5.1.2 Hardware

The age and design of existing hardware along the supply chain vary widely and yet it is possible

to control product quality properly with differently engineered installations. Quality control,

however, is much easier if hardware is first designed with the intention to facilitate good

housekeeping as described in the following sections.
5.1.3 Maintenance

No matter how well designed an installation may be, equipment faults and deterioration and

corrosion of hardware can develop over time if the equipment is not inspected and properly

maintained. Inadequate maintenance can eventually affect the ability of the operator to maintain

product quality at the required level.
5.2 Detailed recommendations
5.2.1 General

Recommendations in this section are divided into four sections covering various elements related

to refineries, terminals, filling stations and transportation. This guidance represents current

industry best practices but is largely based on experience of handling diesel fuels.

5.2.2 Refineries
5.2.2.1 Testing

Batches of diesel fuel should first be visually assessed for clear and bright appearance with no free

water and free from visible sediment. When testing for visual appearance [10], the prevailing

ambient temperature should be considered. Alternative methods such as online haze meters may

be used. The product shall meet the water content and total contamination requirements of EN 590.

When a sample is not visually acceptable, the product should be isolated and analysed to quantify

the problem. Analysis at this point enables any issues to be resolved at the refinery and avoid the

problem becoming more widespread.

Product imports at refineries should be tested using the same procedures recommended for

terminals (see 5.2.3). Batches that are delivered by barge or by sea-going vessels or pipeline should

receive special attention to ensure that they conform to quality specifications. Test records and

retained samples should be kept for a sufficient period to cover market needs.
5.2.2.2 Sampling

Upper, middle and lower samples should be taken from fixed off-take storage tanks for visual

assessment and analysis. All three samples should be examined for visual appearance in addition

to any other tests to confirm the product is not layered. Composite samples may be used for the

other routine specification tests.

No special requirements are specified with respect to settling time, after blending and before

sampling. If product samples do not satisfy the visual appearance, water content or sediment tests,

allowing time for settling is one measure that can be employed to bring the product on

specification. It should be noted, however, that settling time alone is unlikely to alleviate sediment

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particles in the low µm size range as well as high water contents in diesel fuels, in particular those

containing FAME. Water can remain dispersed in the fuel increasing the potential for water

accumulation or biological contamination problems elsewhere in the supply chain.
5.2.2.3 Operations

Although some storage tanks have floating off-take points, most have fixed off-take points so that

procedures to avoid build-up of water bottoms are essential. Most storage tanks are flat bottomed,

although they can be in a cone-up or cone-down configuration. Procedures to control water build-

up (e.g. by regularly checking for water bottoms and draining off water as required) should be

established based on local experience with the particular tank configuration, fuel production

process and local climate. Water bottom checks should be carried out frequently and tanks should

ideally be checked both before and after the receipt of new product. These procedures should

ensure that water and sediments are not carried forward to the next stage of the supply chain.

Diesel tanks should also be checked periodically for biological contamination and there should be

a procedure in place to deal with such contamination if it is detected. Once established, biological

growth can be difficult to rectify – prevention is better than a cure and is best achieved by good

water management.
5.2.2.4 Hardware requirements

New tanks should be designed to optimize water draw-off capability and be fitted with anti-swirl

systems to minimize mixing of tank bottoms during filling.
They should also have convenient facilities for taking three samples:
— upper sample at one-sixth of the depth of liquid below the maximum level;
— middle sample halfway down the depth of the liquid;

— lower sample at approximately one-sixth up from the bottom level representing the product

which will be drawn out of the off take system. The precise height for the lower sample should

be based on details of tank configuration including the height of the off-take point.

Filtration of the final product is not generally necessary to control water and sediment. Filters may

be installed as an additional safeguard in some situations.
5.2.2.5 Maintenance

Tank cleaning is a major disruptive operation which requires completely draining the tank and

physical scraping to remove biofilms, corrosion products and other sediments.

Tanks should be inspected on a regular basis and cleaning should be carried out if there is evidence

of a build-up of contamination. Routine cleaning is normally carried out on a several years schedule,

coinciding if possible with (statutory) inspection and maintenance requirements. Good

housekeeping can help to extend the periods between tank cleaning.
5.2.3 Terminals
5.2.3.1 General

A documented procedure should be in place for product sampling and quality monitoring upon

product receipt. Checks should confirm that the product has not become contaminated with water

or sediment. These principles should also apply to product imports into refineries.

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5.2.3.2 Testing

Visual checks should be carried out to assess the quality of the product and additional analysis may

be carried out if needed.

Batches delivered by barge or by sea-going vessels or pipelines need more careful attention to

conform to quality specifications.

Test records and retained samples should be kept for a sufficient period to cover market needs.

5.2.3.3 Sampling

In order to avoid possible contamination of clean product tanks or onward distribution of

contaminants, sampling should be considered from:

— from the transport unit (e.g. barge) delivering the product before discharging into storage

tanks;

— during product transfer to the receiving tank (including tank to tank transfer). In some cases,

e.g. for pipeline deliveries, online or running samples should be monitored;
— in the storage tank after receipt;
— prior to release to filling stations;

— prior to release of product from terminal to mode of transport for supply of another terminal.

Checks should ensure that water and sediments are not carried forward to the next stage of the

supply chain. It is recommended to retain samples of representative product prior to transport

and/or onward release to filling stations.

Because the receiving tank will likely be used for deliveries, it should be sampled in any case based

on upper/middle/lower samples as with the refineries. The quality of the existing product in the

receiving tank before transfers should also be known.

As recommended at refineries, no special requirements are specified with respect to settling time

before sampling. If product samples do not satisfy the visual appearance, water content or

sediment tests, allowing time for settling is one measure that can be employed to bring the product

to specification.

It should be noted, however, that settling time alone is unlikely to alleviate high water contents in

diesel fuels containing FAME. Water can remain dispersed in the fuel increasing the potential for

water accumulation or biological contamination problems elsewhere in the supply chain.

5.2.3.4 Operations
Normal practice should include that the product is not d
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