Earthworks - Part 4: Soil treatment with lime and/or hydraulic binders

This European Standard applies to the treatment with binders of natural soils, weak rocks, intermediate rocks, chalk, recycled materials and artificial materials for the execution of earthworks during the construction and maintenance of roads, railways, airfields, platforms, dykes, ponds and any other types of earth structure.
It relates only to the treatment in layers, produced for earthworks in situ or from a mixing plant, as opposed to the treatment by columns for example.
The standard specifies the requirements for the constituents of the mixtures, the preliminary laboratory testing methodology, the laboratory performance classification, the execution and control.
NOTE 1   The informative annexes also give example of good practices for execution and control.
The laboratory performance classification specified in this European Standard covers the two types of treatment: improvement and stabilization.
For improvement, the classification relates to the short term performance.
For stabilization, the classification relates to the medium to long term performance.
NOTE 2   FprEN 16907-4 prepared by CEN/TC 396 “Earthworks” is for improvement and stabilization in earthworks applications. EN 14227-15 prepared by CEN/TC 227 “Road materials“ is for stabilization only in pavement applications.
NOTE 3   For stabilization, the performance classification specified in FprEN 16907-4 uses generally the same laboratory performance classification specified in EN 14227-15, except for the performance classification diagram according to “Rt and E” specific to pavements in EN 14227-15, which has been replaced in FprEN 16904-4 by a performance classification diagram according to “Rt and E” specific to earthworks (Figure 1).

Erdarbeiten - Teil 4: Bodenbehandlung mit Kalk und/oder hydraulischen Bindemitteln

Diese Europäische Norm gilt für die Behandlung mit Bindemitteln von natürlichen Böden, brüchigem Fels, mittelfestem Fels, Kreide, rezyklierten Materialien und industriell hergestellten Materialien für die Ausführung von Erdarbeiten beim Neubau und der Erhaltung von Straßen, Schienenwegen, Flugbetriebsflächen, Flächenbefestigungen, Deichen, Becken und sonstigen Arten von Erdbauwerken.
Die Norm gilt nur für Bodenbehandlungen für Erdbauwerke, die im Baumischverfahren vor Ort oder von einer Mischanlage hergestellt und lagenweise eingebaut werden, im Gegensatz z. B. zur Bodenverbesserung mit Säulen.
Die Norm legt die Anforderungen an die Bestandteile der Gemische, das Vorgehen bei der Eignungsprüfung, die Kennwerte und Klassifizierung sowie die Ausführung und die Kontrolle fest.
ANMERKUNG 1   Die informativen Anhänge enthalten auch Beispiele für die gängigen Verfahrensweisen und Kontrolle.
Die in dieser Europäischen Norm festgelegte Klassifizierung des im Labor bestimmten Gebrauchsverhaltens der Bodenbehandlungen beinhaltet die Bodenverbesserung und die Bodenstabilisierung.
Hinsichtlich der Bodenverbesserung bezieht sich die Klassifizierung auf das Kurzzeitverhalten.
Hinsichtlich der Bodenstabilisierung bezieht sich die Klassifizierung auf das mittel- bis langfristige Verhalten.
ANMERKUNG 2   EN 16907 4, erarbeitet von CEN/TC 396 „Erdarbeiten“, behandelt die Bodenverbesserung und  stabilisie¬rung von Anwendungen des Erdbaus. EN 14227-15, erarbeitet von CEN/TC 227 „Straßenbaustoffe“, behandelt nur die Bodenstabilisierung von Anwendungen des Oberbaus.
ANMERKUNG 3   Für die Stabilisierung nutzt die in EN 16907 4 festgelegte Klassifizierung des Gebrauchs¬verhaltens im Allgemeinen die gleiche Klassifizierung des im Labor bestimmten Gebrauchsverhaltens, die in EN 14227 15 festgelegt ist, mit Ausnahme des Diagramms der Klassifizierung des Gebrauchsverhaltens nach „Rt und E“, das in EN 14227 15 speziell für den Oberbau gilt und das in EN 16907 4 durch ein Diagramm der Klassifizierung des Gebrauchsverhaltens nach „Rt und E” ersetzt wurde, das speziell für Erdbauwerke gilt (Bild 1).

Terrassements - Partie 4: Traitement des sols à la chaux et/ou aux liants hydrauliques

Zemeljska dela - 4. del: Tretiranje zemljin z apnom in/ali hidravličnimi vezivi

Ta evropski standard se uporablja za tretiranje naravnih zemljin, šibkih in vmesnih kamnin (vključno s kredo), recikliranih materialov ter umetnih materialov z vezivi za izvajanje zemeljskih del med gradnjo in vzdrževanjem cest, železnic, letaliških stez, platform, zadrževalnih nasipov, ribnikov ter drugih vrst zemeljske strukture. Nanaša se samo na obdelavo po slojih za zemeljska dela, za razliko od na primer obdelave po stebrih. Standard določa zahteve za sestavine zmesi, metodologijo za začetno laboratorijsko testiranje, klasifikacijo usposobljenosti laboratorija ter izvajanje in nadzor. Opomba 1: Informativni dodatki navajajo tudi primere dobrih praks pri izvajanju in nadzoru. Klasifikacija usposobljenosti laboratorija, določena v tem evropskem standardu, zajema dve vrsti obdelave: izboljšavo in stabilizacijo. − Za izboljšavo klasifikacija upošteva kratkoročno usposobljenost. − Za stabilizacijo klasifikacija upošteva srednje- do dolgoročno usposobljenost. Opomba 2: Za stabilizacijo klasifikacija temelji na klasifikaciji usposobljenosti laboratorija, določeni v standardu EN 14227-15, razen za klasifikacijo v skladu z Rt in E, ki jo je nadomestila klasifikacija usposobljenosti v skladu z Rt in E, značilna za zemeljska dela.

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Erdarbeiten - Teil 4: Bodenbehandlung mit Kalk und/oder hydraulischen BindemittelnTerrassements - Partie 4: Traitement des sols à la chaux et/ou aux liants hydrauliquesEarthworks - Part 4: Soil treatment with lime and/or hydraulic binders93.020Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod zemljoEarthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground worksICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16907-4:2018SIST EN 16907-4:2019en,fr,de01-april-2019SIST EN 16907-4:2019SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16907-4:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16907-4
December
t r s z ICS
{ uä r t r English Version
Earthworks æ Part
vã Soil thydraulic binders Terrassements æ Partie
vã Traitement des sols à la
Erdarbeiten æ Teil
vã Bodenbehandlung mit Kalk This European Standard was approved by CEN on
s v May
t r s zä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x { r yæ vã t r s z ESIST EN 16907-4:2019

EN 16907-4:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 6 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 7 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 9 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 9 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................ 11 4 Symbols and abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 14 5 Constituents ................................................................................................................................................... 15 5.1 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 15 5.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15 5.1.2 Natural soils and processed aggregates ............................................................................................... 15 5.1.3 Low strength, intermediate strength and high strength rocks, and chalk .............................. 15 5.1.4 Recycled materials ....................................................................................................................................... 15 5.1.5 Artificial materials ....................................................................................................................................... 15 5.2 Binders ............................................................................................................................................................. 15 5.2.1 Cement ............................................................................................................................................................. 15 5.2.2 Fly ash ............................................................................................................................................................... 16 5.2.3 Slag .................................................................................................................................................................... 16 5.2.4 Hydraulic road binder ................................................................................................................................ 16 5.2.5 Lime ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 5.2.6 Blends ............................................................................................................................................................... 16 5.3 Water ................................................................................................................................................................ 16 5.4 Other constituents ....................................................................................................................................... 16 6 Mixtures ........................................................................................................................................................... 16 6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16 6.2 Proportioning ................................................................................................................................................ 16 7 Laboratory testing methodology ............................................................................................................ 17 7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17 7.2 Identification tests ....................................................................................................................................... 17 7.2.1 Identification of the materials to be treated ...................................................................................... 17 7.2.2 Identification of the binders .................................................................................................................... 17 7.3 Feasibility of treatment ............................................................................................................................. 17 7.4 Workability period ...................................................................................................................................... 18 7.5 Characteristics for execution ................................................................................................................... 18 7.5.1 Improvement ................................................................................................................................................. 18 7.5.2 Stabilization ................................................................................................................................................... 18 7.6 Mechanical performance ........................................................................................................................... 19 7.6.1 Curing conditions ......................................................................................................................................... 19 7.6.2 Resistance to water ..................................................................................................................................... 19 7.6.3 Strength for direct construction trafficking ....................................................................................... 19 7.6.4 Resistance to frost ........................................................................................................................................ 19 7.6.5 Performance classification testing ........................................................................................................ 19 7.6.6 Other performance tests............................................................................................................................ 20 7.7 Preparation of the specimens .................................................................................................................. 20 7.7.1 Particle size of the material ...................................................................................................................... 20 SIST EN 16907-4:2019

EN 16907-4:2018 (E) 3 7.7.2 Production of the mixtures ....................................................................................................................... 20 7.7.3 Dimensions of the specimens ................................................................................................................... 20 7.7.4 Compaction procedures ............................................................................................................................. 20 7.7.5 Curing ................................................................................................................................................................ 21 7.8 Content of the laboratory studies ........................................................................................................... 21 7.8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21 7.8.2 Identification of the constituents ............................................................................................................ 21 7.8.3 Improvement .................................................................................................................................................. 21 7.8.4 Stabilization .................................................................................................................................................... 21 7.9 Laboratory testing report .......................................................................................................................... 22 8 Performance classification of the mixtures ........................................................................................ 23 8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 8.2 Improvement .................................................................................................................................................. 23 8.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 8.2.2 Immediate bearing index ........................................................................................................................... 24 8.2.3 Moisture condition value ........................................................................................................................... 24 8.2.4 Degree of compaction.................................................................................................................................. 24 8.2.5 Swelling ............................................................................................................................................................ 25 8.3 Stabilization .................................................................................................................................................... 25 8.3.1 Requirements for the fresh mixture ...................................................................................................... 25 8.3.2 Laboratory mechanical performance classification ........................................................................ 28 8.3.3 Resistance to water ...................................................................................................................................... 32 8.3.4 Strength for direct construction trafficking ........................................................................................ 34 8.3.5 Resistance to frost ........................................................................................................................................ 34 8.3.6 Other performance....................................................................................................................................... 34 9 Execution and control ................................................................................................................................. 34 9.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 34 9.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 34 9.1.2 Prerequisites .................................................................................................................................................. 34 9.2 Preliminary engineering check ............................................................................................................... 35 9.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 35 9.2.2 Site investigation .......................................................................................................................................... 35 9.2.3 Sulfide, sulfate, organic matter and other deleterious materials ............................................... 35 9.2.4 Influential parameters ................................................................................................................................ 36 9.2.5 Prior laboratory testing ............................................................................................................................. 36 9.3 Binders ............................................................................................................................................................. 36 9.4 Soil treatment plant types ......................................................................................................................... 36 9.5 Soil improvement ......................................................................................................................................... 37 9.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 37 9.5.2 Materials suitable for improvement ...................................................................................................... 37 9.5.3 Improvement during excavation ............................................................................................................ 37 9.5.4 Improvement in fill area ............................................................................................................................ 37 9.5.5 Binder spreading .......................................................................................................................................... 37 9.5.6 In situ mixing .................................................................................................................................................. 38 9.5.7 Compaction ..................................................................................................................................................... 38 9.5.8 Protection of the works .............................................................................................................................. 38 9.5.9 Climatic considerations .............................................................................................................................. 38 9.6 Soil stabilization ............................................................................................................................................ 38 9.6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 38 9.6.2 Material suitable for stabilization .......................................................................................................... 39 9.6.3 Soil preparation ............................................................................................................................................ 39 9.6.4 Stabilization processes for capping and embankment ................................................................... 40 SIST EN 16907-4:2019

EN 16907-4:2018 (E) 4 9.6.5 Other applications ....................................................................................................................................... 42 9.6.6 Layer Interface and organization of the work ................................................................................... 42 9.7 Testing and Compliance ............................................................................................................................. 43 9.7.1 Specification ................................................................................................................................................... 43 9.7.2 Compliance tests and records .................................................................................................................. 43 9.7.3 Completion reports ..................................................................................................................................... 45 9.8 Climatic and practical considerations .................................................................................................. 46 Annex A (informative)

Production of test specimens for treated materials ...................................... 47 A.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 47 A.2 Sampling .......................................................................................................................................................... 47 A.3 Water content ................................................................................................................................................ 47 A.4 Maximum size of the particles ................................................................................................................. 47 A.5 Treatment ....................................................................................................................................................... 48 A.6 Mellowing and compaction of the treated material in the specimen mould .......................... 49 A.7 Curing and storage ....................................................................................................................................... 49 A.8 Removing sample from the mould ......................................................................................................... 50 A.9 Reporting ........................................................................................................................................................ 51 Annex B (informative)

Loading speed for the strength and modulus tests ........................................ 52 Annex C (informative)

Non destructive seismic test method for mechanical performance ......... 54 C.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 54 C.2 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................. 54 C.3 Test apparatus............................................................................................................................................... 54 C.4 Definitions and theoretical approach ................................................................................................... 55 C.5 Principle of test method ............................................................................................................................ 56 C.6 Significance and use .................................................................................................................................... 56 C.7 Measurement ................................................................................................................................................. 57 C.8 References ...................................................................................................................................................... 59 Annex D (informative)

Example of evaluation of performance variability of treated soil as a result of variation during implementation

Binder percentage adjustment and method for compensating it ..................................................................................................................... 60 Annex E (informative)

Examples of age of classification and curing regimes for mechanical performance of treated materials for earthworks .......................................................................... 62 Annex F (informative)

Other performance characteristics for treated materials............................. 63 Annex G (informative)

Field and laboratory identifications of common sulfide and sulfate minerals ........................................................................................................................................................... 64 G.1 Field Identification ...................................................................................................................................... 64 G.2 Laboratory Identification .......................................................................................................................... 64 G.3 References ...................................................................................................................................................... 65 Annex H (informative)

Soil Treatment Plant Types ..................................................................................... 66 SIST EN 16907-4:2019

EN 16907-4:2018 (E) 5 H.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 66 H.2 Binder storage units .................................................................................................................................... 66 H.3 Binder spreading units ............................................................................................................................... 66 H.4 Soil preparation plant ................................................................................................................................. 67 H.5 In situ mixing plant ...................................................................................................................................... 67 H.6 Fixed or semi mobile mixing plants ....................................................................................................... 69 H.7 Water bowsers ............................................................................................................................................... 71 H.8 Compaction plant .......................................................................................................................................... 71 Annex I (informative)

Treatment sequence and processes ....................................................................... 72 Annex J (informative)

Other applications for stabilized materials ......................................................... 78 J.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 78 J.2 Filling in narrow places .............................................................................................................................. 78 J.3 Construction of lower layers in high embankments built with water sensitive soils or evolutive rocks which may be subject to occasional flooding. ..................................................... 79 J.4 Steepened slopes of embankment .......................................................................................................... 79 J.5 Slope repairs................................................................................................................................................... 80 J.6 Reinforced slopes ......................................................................................................................................... 80 J.7 Foundations .................................................................................................................................................... 80 J.8 Load transfer platforms ............................................................................................................................. 80 J.9 Water retaining structures ....................................................................................................................... 81 J.10 Contaminated soils ....................................................................................................................................... 81 Annex K (informative)

Site Stabilization checklist ........................................................................................ 82 Annex L (informative)

Safety considerations .................................................................................................. 85 L.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 85 L.2 Specific protective equipment ................................................................................................................. 85 Annex M (informative)

Climatic and practical considerations ................................................................. 86 M.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 86 M.2 Weather ............................................................................................................................................................ 86 M.3 Binder dust emission................................................................................................................................... 87 M.4 Run off and leachate .................................................................................................................................... 88 Annex N (informative)

Method and charts to determine the quantity of lime needed to reach a targeted IPI value .......................................................................................................................... 89

SIST EN 16907-4:2019

EN 16907-4:2018 (E) 6 European foreword This document (EN 16907-4:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 396 “Earthworks”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2019. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document is one of the European Standards within the framework series of EN 16907 on Earthworks, as follows: — Part 1: Principles and general rules; — Part 2: Classification of materials; — Part 3: Construction procedures; — Part 4: Soil treatment with lime and/or hydraulic binders (this document); — Part 5: Quality control; — Part 6: Land reclamation earthworks using dredged hydraulic fill; — Part 7: Hydraulic placement of extractive waste. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16907-4:2019

EN 16907-
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