Welding - Recommendation for welding of metallic materials - Part 6: Laser beam welding

This document gives general guidance for laser beam welding and associated processes of metallic materials in all forms of product (e.g. cast, wrought, extruded, forged).
NOTE   Some guidance on laser beam cutting, drilling, surface treatment and cladding is given in Annex F.

Schweißen - Empfehlungen zum Schweißen metallischer Werkstoffe - Teil 6: Laserstrahlschweißen

Diese Europäische Norm enthält allgemeine Anleitungen für das Laserstrahlschweißen und verwandte Prozesse zum Fügen metallischer Werkstoffe für alle Erzeugnisformen (z. B. gegossen, gewalzt, strang gepresst, geschmiedet).
ANMERKUNG   Einige Anleitungen zum Laserstrahlschneiden, -bohren, -randschichtbehandeln und -plattieren werden in Anhang F beschrieben.

Soudage - Recommandations pour le soudage des matériaux métalliques - Partie 6 : Soudage par faisceau laser

Le présent document fournit des lignes directrices générales pour la mise en œuvre du soudage et des techniques connexes par faisceau laser des matériaux métalliques, quelle que soit la forme de produit (par exemple, moulé, corroyé, extrudé, forgé).
NOTE   Quelques lignes directrices concernant le coupage, le perçage, le traitement de surface et le revêtement par laser sont fournies à l’Annexe F.

Varjenje - Priporočila za varjenje kovinskih materialov - 6. del: Lasersko varjenje

Ta evropski standard podaja splošna navodila za lasersko varjenje in sorodne postopke za kovinske materiale v vseh oblikah izdelka (npr. liti, gnetljivi, ekstrudirani, kovani).
OPOMBA:   Nekaj navodil glede laserskega varjenja, vrtanja, površinske obdelave in oblaganja je v dodatku F.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Dec-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
05-Dec-2018
Completion Date
05-Dec-2018

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
EN 1011-6:2019
English language
45 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Schweißen - Empfehlungen für das Schweißen von metallischen Werkstoffen - Teil 6: LaserstrahlschweißenSoudage - Recommandations pour le soudage des matériaux métalliques - Partie 6 : Soudage par faisceau laserWelding - Recommendation for welding of metallic materials - Part 6: Laser beam welding25.160.10Varilni postopki in varjenjeWelding processesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1011-6:2018SIST EN 1011-6:2019en,fr,de01-marec-2019SIST EN 1011-6:2019SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1011-6:20061DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1011-6:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 1011-6
December
t r s z ICS
t wä s x rä s r Supersedes EN
s r s sæ xã t r r wEnglish Version
Welding æ Recommendation for welding of metallic materials æ Part

xã Laser beam welding Soudage æ Recommandations pour le soudage des matßriaux mßtalliques æ Partie

x ã Soudage par faisceau laser
Schweißen æ Empfehlungen zum Schweißen metallischer Werkstoffe æ Teil
xã LaserstrahlschweißenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on
t { July
t r s zä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s r s sæ xã t r s z ESIST EN 1011-6:2019
EN 1011-6:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 5 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9 4 Health and safety and protection of the environment ....................................................................... 9 5 Quality requirements .................................................................................................................................... 9 6 Equipment ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10 6.2 Provisions for acceptance testing .......................................................................................................... 10 6.3 Provisions for maintenance and calibration ...................................................................................... 10 7 Qualification of welding personnel ....................................................................................................... 10 8 Welding procedure specification ........................................................................................................... 10 9 Welding procedure test ............................................................................................................................. 10 10 Consumables .................................................................................................................................................. 11 10.1 Filler metals ................................................................................................................................................... 11 10.2 Gases ................................................................................................................................................................. 11 11 Design ............................................................................................................................................................... 11 11.1 Overall design of structure or product ................................................................................................. 11 11.2 Joint design ..................................................................................................................................................... 11 11.3 Joint preparation .......................................................................................................................................... 12 12 Laser beam welding .................................................................................................................................... 13 12.1 Characteristics .............................................................................................................................................. 13 12.1.1 Modes................................................................................................................................................................ 13 12.1.2 Energy transfer ............................................................................................................................................. 13 12.1.3 Pulsed beam welding .................................................................................................................................. 14 12.1.4 Beam oscillation ........................................................................................................................................... 14 12.1.5 Ramping ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 12.1.6 Beam focussing ............................................................................................................................................. 14 12.1.7 Gas shielding .................................................................................................................................................. 14 12.1.8 Use of consumables ..................................................................................................................................... 14 12.1.9 Hybrid processes .......................................................................................................................................... 14 12.2 Advantages and limitations ...................................................................................................................... 15 12.3 Assembling and fixtures ............................................................................................................................ 15 12.4 Process control.............................................................................................................................................. 15 12.5 Inspection and testing ................................................................................................................................ 16 12.6 Imperfections ................................................................................................................................................ 16 Annex A (informative)

Equipment ...................................................................................................................... 17 A.1 Description of laser process ..................................................................................................................... 17 A.1.1 Principles ........................................................................................................................................................ 17 A.1.2 Components ................................................................................................................................................... 17 SIST EN 1011-6:2019

EN 1011-6:2018 (E) 3 A.2 Laser beam sources...................................................................................................................................... 18 A.2.1 CO2 lasers ......................................................................................................................................................... 18 A.2.2 Nd:YAG lasers, lamp pumped ................................................................................................................... 19 A.2.3 Nd:YAG lasers, diode pumped .................................................................................................................. 19 A.2.4 Yb:YAG lasers, diode pumped (disc lasers) ......................................................................................... 20 A.2.5 High power diode array lasers ................................................................................................................. 20 A.2.6 Fibre lasers ..................................................................................................................................................... 21 A.2.7 Other types of lasers .................................................................................................................................... 21 A.3 Guiding, shaping and focusing the beam .............................................................................................. 21 A.3.1 Guiding the beam .......................................................................................................................................... 21 A.3.2 Beam shaping devices (focusing optics) ............................................................................................... 22 A.4 Devices used to create a relative movement between the laser beam and the work piece .................................................................................................................................................................. 25 A.5 Fixtures used to hold the work piece .................................................................................................... 26 A.6 Cooling systems ............................................................................................................................................. 27 A.7 Control systems ............................................................................................................................................. 27 Annex B (informative)

Laser beam properties ............................................................................................... 28 Annex C (informative)

Information about weldability of metallic materials ...................................... 30 C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 30 C.2 Steels and iron alloys................................................................................................................................... 30 C.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 30 C.2.2 C-Mn and structural steels ......................................................................................................................... 31 C.2.3 Alloy steels ...................................................................................................................................................... 31 C.2.4 Stainless steels ............................................................................................................................................... 31 C.2.5 Cast irons ......................................................................................................................................................... 31 C.2.6 Soft iron ............................................................................................................................................................ 31 C.3 Nickel alloys .................................................................................................................................................... 32 C.4 Aluminium and magnesium alloys ......................................................................................................... 32 C.5 Copper and its alloys ................................................................................................................................... 32 C.6 Refractory and reactive metals ............................................................................................................... 32 C.7 Titanium and its alloys ............................................................................................................................... 33 C.8 Dissimilar metals .......................................................................................................................................... 33 C.9 Non-metals ...................................................................................................................................................... 33 Annex D (informative)

Information about causes of weld imperfections and prevention ............. 34 Annex E (informative)

Beam control and monitoring .................................................................................. 37 E.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 37 E.2 Focus point ...................................................................................................................................................... 37 E.3 Beam alignment and pilot beam coincidence ..................................................................................... 37 E.4 Beam power .................................................................................................................................................... 38 E.5 Beam power distribution ........................................................................................................................... 38 E.6 Nozzle alignment .......................................................................................................................................... 38 E.7 Pulsed beam power data ............................................................................................................................ 39 E.8 Manipulators, guides, etc. .......................................................................................................................... 39 Annex F (informative)

Laser beam processing ............................................................................................... 40 F.1 Laser beam cutting ....................................................................................................................................... 40 F.1.1 Characteristics ............................................................................................................................................... 40 F.2 Laser beam drilling ...................................................................................................................................... 41 F.2.1 Characteristics ............................................................................................................................................... 41 F.2.2 Advantages and limitations ...................................................................................................................... 42 F.2.3 Surface preparation ..................................................................................................................................... 42 F.3 Laser beam surface treatment ................................................................................................................. 42 SIST EN 1011-6:2019

EN 1011-6:2018 (E) 4 F.3.1 Characteristics .............................................................................................................................................. 42 F.3.2 Advantages and limitations ...................................................................................................................... 42 F.3.3 Surface preparation .................................................................................................................................... 43 F.4 Laser beam cladding characteristics ..................................................................................................... 43 F.4.1 Modes................................................................................................................................................................ 43 F.4.2 Advantages and limitations ...................................................................................................................... 43 F.4.3 Surface preparation .................................................................................................................................... 43 F.5 Laser beam marking and engraving ...................................................................................................... 43 F.5.1 Characteristics .............................................................................................................................................. 43 F.5.2 Advantages and limitations ...................................................................................................................... 44 F.5.3 Surface preparation .................................................................................................................................... 44 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 45

SIST EN 1011-6:2019

EN 1011-6:2018 (E) 5 European foreword This document (EN 1011-6:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 121 “Welding and allied processes”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2019. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 1011-6:2005. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows: a) the normative references and bibliography have been updated; b) subclause 12.3 (Assembling and fixtures) has been modified; c) fiber laser has been added in Annex A (Equipment). EN 1011 consists of the following parts, under the general title Welding — Recommendations for welding of metallic materials: — Part 1: General guidance for arc welding; — Part 2: Arc welding of ferritic steels; — Part 3: Arc welding of stainless steels; — Part 4: Arc welding of aluminium and aluminium alloys; — Part 5: Welding of clad steel; — Part 6: Laser beam welding; — Part 7: Electron beam welding; — Part 8: Welding of cast irons. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 1011-6:2019

EN 1011-6:2018 (E) 6 Introduction This document is being issued in several parts in order that it can be extended to cover the different types of metallic materials that will be produced to all European Standards for weldable metallic materials. When this document is referenced for contractual purposes the ordering authority or contracting parties should state the need for compliance with the relevant parts of this document and such other annexes as are appropriate. This document gives general guidance for the satisfactory production and control of welding and associated processes and details of some of the possible detrimental phenomena that can occur, with advice on methods by which they can be avoided. It is generally applicable to laser beam processing of metallic materials and also to some extent for non-metallic materials. It is appropriate regardless of the type of fabrication involved, although the relevant product standard, structural code or the design specification can have additional requirements. Permissible design stresses, methods of testing and inspection levels are not included because they depend on the service conditions of the fabrication. These details should be obtained from the relevant application standard or by agreement between the contracting parties. It has been assumed in the drafting of the standard that the execution of its provisions is entrusted to appropriately qualified, experienced and trained personnel. SIST EN 1011-6:2019

EN 1011-6:2018 (E) 7 1 Scope This document gives general guidance for laser beam welding and associated processes of metallic materials in all forms of product (e.g. cast, wrought, extruded, forged). NOTE Some guidance on laser beam cutting, drilling, surface treatment and cladding is given in Annex F. 2 Normative references The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 14717, Welding and allied processes - Environmental check list EN ISO 636, Welding consumables - Rods, wires and deposits for tungsten inert gas welding of non-alloy and fine-grain steels - Classification (ISO 636) EN ISO 3834-2, Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials - Part 2: Comprehensive quality requirements (ISO 3834-2) EN ISO 3834-5, Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials - Part 5: Documents with which it is necessary to conform to claim conformity to the quality requirements of ISO 3834-2, ISO 3834-3 or ISO 3834-4 (ISO 3834-5) EN ISO 6520-1, Welding and allied processes - Classification of geometric imperfections in metallic materials - Part 1: Fusion welding (ISO 6520-1) EN ISO 9013, Thermal cutting - Classification of thermal cuts - Geometrical product specification and quality tolerances (ISO 9013) EN ISO 11145:2016, Optics and photonics - Lasers and laser-related equipment - Vocabulary and symbols (ISO 11145) EN ISO 13919-1, Welding - Electrons and laser beam welded joints - Guidance on quality levels for imperfections - Part 1: Steel (ISO 13919-1) EN ISO 13919-2, Welding - Electron and laser beam welded joints - Guidance on quality levels for imperfections - Part 2: Aluminium and its weldable alloys (ISO 13919-2) EN ISO 13920, Welding - General tolerances for welded constructions - Dimensions for lengths and angles - Shape and position (ISO 13920) EN ISO 14175, Welding consumables - Gases and gas mixtures for fusion welding and allied processes (ISO 14175) EN ISO 14232-1, Thermal spraying - Powders - Part 1: Characterization and technical supply conditions (ISO 14232-1) EN ISO 14341, Welding consumables - Wire electrodes and weld deposits for gas shielded metal arc welding of non alloy and fine grain steels - Classification (ISO 14341) EN ISO 14343, Welding consumables - Wire electrodes, strip electrodes, wires and rods for arc welding of stainless and heat resisting steels - Classification (ISO 14343) SIST EN 1011-6:2019

EN 1011-6:2018 (E) 8 EN ISO 14732, Welding personnel - Qualification testing of welding operators and weld setters for mechanized and automatic welding of metallic materials (ISO 14732) EN ISO 14919, Thermal spraying - Wires, rods and cords for flame and arc spraying - Classification - Technical supply conditions (ISO 14919) EN ISO 15609-4, Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials - Welding procedure specification - Part 4: Laser beam welding (ISO 15609-4) EN ISO 15614-11, Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials - Welding procedure test - Part 11: Electron and laser beam welding (ISO 15614-11) EN ISO 15616-1, Acceptance tests for CO2-laser beam machines for high quality welding and cutting - Part 1: General principles, acceptance conditions (ISO 15616-1) EN ISO 15616-2, Acceptance tests for CO2-laser beam machines for high quality welding and cutting - Part 2: Measurement of static and dynamic accuracy (ISO 15616-2) EN ISO 15616-3, Acceptance tests for CO2-laser beam machines for high quality welding and cutting - Part 3: Calibration of instruments for measurement of gas flow and pressure (ISO 15616-3) EN ISO 16834, Welding consumables - Wire electrodes, wires, rods and deposits for gas shielded arc welding of high strength steels - Classification (ISO 16834) EN ISO 17632, Welding consumables - Tubular cored electrodes for gas shielded and non-gas shielded metal arc welding of non-alloy and fine grain steels - Classification (ISO 17632) EN ISO 17633, Welding consumables - Tubular cored electrodes and rods for gas shielded and non-gas shielded metal arc welding of stainless and heat-resisting steels - Classification (ISO 17633) EN ISO 17634, Welding consumables - Tubular cored electrodes for gas shielded metal arc welding of creep-resisting steels - Classification (ISO 17634) EN ISO 17662, Welding - Calibration, verification and validation of equipment used for welding, including ancillary activities (ISO 17662) EN ISO 18273, Welding consumables - Wire electrodes, wires and rods for welding of aluminium and aluminium alloys - Classification (ISO 18273) EN ISO 18274, Welding consumables - Solid wire electrodes, solid strip electrodes, solid wires and solid rods for fusion welding of nickel and nickel alloys - Classification (ISO 18274) EN ISO 18276, Welding consumables - Tubular cored electrodes for gas-shielded and non-gas-shielded metal arc welding of high strength steels - Classification (ISO 18276) EN ISO 21952, Welding consumables - Wire electrodes, wires, rods and deposits for gas shielded arc welding of creep-resisting steels - Classification (ISO 21952) EN ISO 22827-1, Acceptance tests for Nd:YAG laser beam welding machines - Machines with optical fibre delivery - Part 1: Laser assembly (ISO 22827-1) EN ISO 22827-2, Acceptance tests for Nd:YAG laser beam welding machines - Machines with optical fibre delivery - Part 2: Moving mechanism (ISO 22827-2) EN ISO 24373, Welding consumables - Solid wires and rods for fusion welding of copper and copper alloys - Classification (ISO 24373) SIST EN 1011-6:2019

EN 1011-6:2018 (E) 9 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 11145:2016 apply. ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

4 Health and safety and protection of the environment See EN 14717 for a general environmental checklist which is also applicable to laser beam welding. Laser beam processing introduces additional hazards over and above those normally experienced in arc welding. Specialist advice should be sought, see e.g. EN 60825-1 and EN ISO 11553-1. Guidance for safety aspects related to the application of industrial robots for manipulation of the focussing devices and/or the components to be welded can be found in EN ISO 10218-1 and EN ISO 10218-2. 5 Quality requirements Laser beam welding is a complex process needing detailed process control. All processing is performed under numerical control necessitating programming of each single operation. The application shall be controlled at a level compatible with EN ISO 3834-2 and EN ISO 3834-5. This does not entail a requirement for certification but the process control should operate in accordance with EN ISO 3834-2 and EN ISO 3834-5. It is a condition for efficient process control that quality requirements for joint geometry and other relevant requirements have been specified prior to start of fabrication. A number of European Standards specify joint geometry and relevant quality criteria and can be used for reference, as appropriate: Table 1 — Quality criteria Requirements and tolerances Standard no. Quality requirements t

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.