Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 110: Interaction principles (ISO 9241-110:2020)

This document describes principles for interaction between a user and a system that are formulated in general terms (i.e. independent of situations of use, application, environment or technology). This document provides a framework for applying those interaction principles and the general design recommendations for interactive systems.
While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics of every application domain (e.g. safety critical systems, collaborative work, artificial intelligence features).
It is intended for the following audiences:
— analysts of requirements (including market requirements, user requirements, and system requirements);
— designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers and developers;
— designers of user interfaces who will apply the guidance during the design activities (either directly, based on training, or by using tools and style guides which incorporate the guidance);
— developers who will apply the guidance during the development process;
— evaluators who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the general design recommendations contained in this document;
— buyers who will reference this document in contracts during product procurement.
This document focuses on interaction principles related to the design of interactions between user and interactive system. ISO 9241-112 provides further guidance on the presentation of information.
This document does not consider any other aspect of design such as marketing, aesthetics and corporate identity.

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 110: Interaktionsprinzipien (ISO 9241-110:2020)

Dieses Dokument beschreibt Interaktionsprinzipien zwischen einem Benutzer und einem System in allgemeiner Form (d. h. unabhängig von Benutzungssituationen, Anwendung, Umgebung oder Technik). Dieses Dokument stellt einen Rahmen bereit für die Anwendung dieser Interaktionsprinzipien und der allgemeinen Gestaltungsempfehlungen für interaktive Systeme.
Während dieses Dokument auf alle Arten von interaktiven Systemen anwendbar ist, deckt es nicht die Besonderheiten jedes einzelnen Anwendungsgebiets ab (z. B. sicherheitskritische Systeme, Gruppenarbeit, KI Funktionen).
Dieses Dokument ist für die folgenden Zielgruppen gedacht:
- Anforderungsanalysten (u. a. für Marktanforderungen, Nutzungsanforderungen und System-anforderungen);
- Designer von Entwicklungswerkzeugen für Benutzungsschnittstellen und von Styleguides (Empfehlungen und Gestaltungsrichtlinien), damit diese von Designern von Benutzungsschnittstellen und Entwicklern verwendet werden;
- Designern von Benutzungsschnittstellen, die die Empfehlungen im Rahmen von Gestaltungsaktivitäten anwenden (entweder direkt, auf der Grundlage von Schulungen oder durch die Verwendung von Werkzeugen und Styleguides, die die Empfehlungen beinhalten);
- Entwickler, die die Empfehlungen während des Entwicklungsprozesses anwenden;
- Bewerter, die dafür verantwortlich sind sicherzustellen, dass das Produkt den allgemeinen Gestaltungsempfehlungen dieses Dokumentes entspricht;
- Käufer, die sich in Verträgen bei der Produktbeschaffung auf dieses Dokument beziehen.
Dieses Dokument fokussiert auf Interaktionsprinzipien, die sich auf die Gestaltung von Interaktionen zwischen Benutzer und interaktivem System beziehen. ISO 9241 112 enthält weitere Empfehlungen zu Grundsätzen der Informationsdarstellung.
Dieses Dokument betrachtet nicht solche Aspekte der Gestaltung wie Marketing, Ästhetik oder Corporate Identity.

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 110: Principes d’interaction (ISO 9241-110:2020)

Le présent document décrit les principes d'interaction entre un utilisateur et un système, énoncés en termes généraux (c'est-à-dire indépendamment des situations d'utilisation, de l'application, de l'environnement ou de la technologie). Le présent document fournit un cadre pour l'application de ces principes d'interaction et des recommandations générales de conception pour les systèmes interactifs.
Bien que le présent document soit applicable à tous les types de systèmes interactifs, il ne couvre pas les spécificités de tous les domaines d'application (par exemple les systèmes critiques pour la sécurité, le travail collaboratif, les fonctions d'intelligence artificielle).
Il est destiné aux publics suivants:
— les analystes des besoins (y compris les besoins du marché, les exigences des utilisateurs et les exigences des systèmes);
— les concepteurs d'outils de développement d'interfaces utilisateur et de guides de style destinés à être utilisés par les concepteurs et les développeurs d'interfaces utilisateur;
— les concepteurs d'interfaces utilisateur qui appliqueront les recommandations lors des activités de conception (soit directement, sur la base d'une formation, soit en utilisant des outils et des guides de style qui intègrent les recommandations);
— les développeurs qui appliqueront les recommandations au cours du processus de développement;
— les évaluateurs qui sont tenus de s'assurer que les produits sont conformes aux recommandations générales de conception contenues dans le présent document;
— les acheteurs qui se réfèreront au présent document dans les contrats lors de l'achat du produit.
Le présent document est centré sur les principes d'interaction associés à la conception des interactions entre l'utilisateur et le système interactif. L'ISO 9241-112 fournit des recommandations supplémentaires relatives à la présentation de l'information.
Le présent document ne tient compte d'aucun autre aspect de la conception tel que le marketing, l'esthétique et l'image de marque.

Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 110. del: Načela medsebojnega delovanja (ISO 9241-110:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
10-Jun-2020
Completion Date
10-Jun-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
01-december-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2007
Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 110. del: Načela medsebojnega
delovanja (ISO 9241-110:2020)

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 110: Interaction principles (ISO 9241-

110:2020)

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 110: Interaktionsprinzipien (ISO 9241-

110:2020)
Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 110: Titre manque (ISO 9241-
110:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 9241-110:2020
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020 de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
EN ISO 9241-110
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.180 Supersedes EN ISO 9241-110:2006
English Version
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 110:
Interaction principles (ISO 9241-110:2020)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 110:

110: Principes d'interaction (ISO 9241-110:2020) Interaktionsprinzipien (ISO 9241-110:2020)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 May 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 9241-110:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
EN ISO 9241-110:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
EN ISO 9241-110:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 9241-110:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159

"Ergonomics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 9241-110:2006.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 9241-110:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 9241-110:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9241-110
Second edition
2020-05
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 110:
Interaction principles
Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système —
Partie 110: Principes d’interaction
Reference number
ISO 9241-110:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
ISO 9241-110:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
ISO 9241-110:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Interaction principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Coverage of this set of interaction principles and general design recommendations............... 5

4.3 Use of the interaction principles in human-centred design ............................................................................. 5

4.4 Contribution of the interaction principles to usability ........................................................................................ 6

4.5 Relationships between interaction principles ............................................................................................................. 6

4.6 Framework for using this document .................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Principles and recommendations ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 Suitability for the user’s tasks .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.2 Recommendations related to identifying suitability of the interactive

system for a given task ........................................................................................................................................... ..... 9

5.1.3 Recommendations related to optimizing effort in task accomplishment ...................... 9

5.1.4 Recommendations related to defaults supporting the task ........................................................ 9

5.2 Self-descriptiveness .........................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.2 Recommendations related to presence and obviousness of the information ..........10

5.2.3 Recommendations related to clear indication of processing status .................................11

5.3 Conformity with user expectations ....................................................................................................................................11

5.3.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.3.2 Recommendations related to appropriate system behaviour and responses .........12

5.3.3 Recommendations related to consistency (internal and external) ...................................13

5.3.4 Recommendations related to changes in the context of use ...................................................13

5.4 Learnability .............................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.4.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................14

5.4.2 Recommendations related to discovery ...................................................................................................14

5.4.3 Recommendations related to exploration...............................................................................................15

5.4.4 Recommendations related to retention ....................................................................................................15

5.5 Controllability .......................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.5.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

5.5.2 Recommendations related to interruption by the user ...............................................................16

5.5.3 Recommendations related to flexibility ....................................................................................................16

5.5.4 Recommendations related to individualization .................................................................................17

5.6 Use error robustness ......................................................................................................................................................................18

5.6.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................18

5.6.2 Recommendations related to use error avoidance .........................................................................18

5.6.3 Recommendations related to use error tolerance ...........................................................................19

5.6.4 Recommendations related to use error recovery .............................................................................19

5.7 User engagement ...............................................................................................................................................................................20

5.7.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................20

5.7.2 Recommendations related to motivating the user to use the system .............................21

5.7.3 Recommendations related to trustworthiness of the system ................................................22

5.7.4 Recommendations related to increasing user involvement with the system ...........23

Annex A (informative) Checklist to aid in applying the recommendations in this document ...............24

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................31

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
ISO 9241-110:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human-system interaction.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 9241-110:2006), which has been

substantially technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the principle of individualization has been merged into the principle of controllability;

— a new principle on user engagement has been developed;
— existing principles and general design recommendations have been revised.
A list of all parts in the ISO 9241 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
ISO 9241-110:2020(E)
Introduction

This document describes interaction principles (formerly referred to as "dialogue principles") and

general design recommendations which are independent of any specific interaction technique and

which are applicable in the analysis, design and evaluation of interactive systems.

This document significantly revises and updates the first edition. It incorporates relevant guidance

previously contained in ISO 14915-1. The general design recommendations in this document are derived

from a combination of ergonomics research and various sources of general and heuristic guidance

[16] [19] [23] [24] [29]
(including Bastien , Dzida , Molich , Nielsen and Tognazzini ).

These interaction principles and general design recommendations can guide the development and

evaluation of user interfaces, leading to improved usability.

The priority with which each interaction principle or general design recommendation is applied depends

on the purpose of the interactive system, the characteristics of the intended and foreseeable users of

the system, the tasks, the environment, the specific interaction technique used and the consequences

arising from use. Guidance on identifying relevant aspects of the users, tasks and environment of use is

given in ISO 9241-11.

The ultimate beneficiary of this document will be the user of an interactive system. Although it is

unlikely that the user will read this document or even know of its existence, its application by the

developers of the interactive system will lead to user interfaces which are more usable, accessible,

consistent and that enable greater productivity and a more positive user experience, and which avoid

harm from use. The benefits for suppliers of interactive systems include increased sales, customer

satisfaction and loyalty, decreased costs of providing service.

Applying these interaction principles and the associated general design recommendations also helps

prevent users of those products from experiencing usability problems such as:
— additional unnecessary steps not required as part of the task;
— misleading information;
— insufficient and poor information on the user interface;

— unexpected responses of the interactive system (including those leading to harm from use);

— navigational limitations during use; and
— inefficient error recovery.
This document comprises the following:

a) a framework for applying the interaction principles and general design recommendations;

b) the interaction principles;
c) general design recommendations corresponding to the interaction principles.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 9241-110:2020(E)
Ergonomics of human-system interaction —
Part 110:
Interaction principles
1 Scope

This document describes principles for interaction between a user and a system that are formulated

in general terms (i.e. independent of situations of use, application, environment or technology). This

document provides a framework for applying those interaction principles and the general design

recommendations for interactive systems.

While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics

of every application domain (e.g. safety critical systems, collaborative work, artificial intelligence

features).
It is intended for the following audiences:

— analysts of requirements (including market requirements, user requirements, and system

requirements);

— designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers

and developers;

— designers of user interfaces who will apply the guidance during the design activities (either directly,

based on training, or by using tools and style guides which incorporate the guidance);

— developers who will apply the guidance during the development process;

— evaluators who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the general design recommendations

contained in this document;

— buyers who will reference this document in contracts during product procurement.

This document focuses on interaction principles related to the design of interactions between user and

interactive system. ISO 9241-112 provides further guidance on the presentation of information.

This document does not consider any other aspect of design such as marketing, aesthetics and corporate

identity.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
ISO 9241-110:2020(E)
3.1
accessibility

extent to which products, systems, services, environments and facilities can be used by people from a

population with the widest range of user needs, characteristics and capabilities to achieve identified

goals in identified contexts of use

Note 1 to entry: Context of use includes direct use or use supported by assistive technologies.

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-112:2017, 3.15]
3.2
context of use
combination of users, goals and tasks, resources, and environment

Note 1 to entry: The “environment” in a context of use includes the technical, physical, social, cultural and

organizational environments.
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:2018, 3.1.15]
3.3
goal
intended outcome
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:2018, 3.1.10]
3.4
interactive system

combination of hardware and/or software and/or services and/or people that users interact with in

order to achieve specific goals

Note 1 to entry: This includes, where appropriate, packaging, user documentation, online and human help,

support and training.

Note 2 to entry: The term “system” is often used rather than “interactive system”.

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:2018, 3.1.5, modified — Note 2 to entry has been added.]
3.5
task
set of activities undertaken in order to achieve a specific goal
Note 1 to entry: These activities can be physical, perceptual and/or cognitive.

Note 2 to entry: While goals are independent of the means used to achieve them, tasks describe particular means

of achieving goals.

Note 3 to entry: The term “task” is used here, as in ISO 9241-11, in its widest sense, rather than in reference to the

specifics of use of the interactive system.
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:2018, 3.1.11, modified — Note 3 to entry has been added.]
3.6
usability

extent to which a system, product or service can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals

with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use

Note 1 to entry: The “specified” users, goals and context of use refer to the particular combination of users, goals

and context of use for which usability is being considered.

Note 2 to entry: The word “usability” is also used as a qualifier to refer to the design knowledge, competencies,

activities and design attributes that contribute to usability, such as usability expertise, usability professional,

usability engineering, usability method, usability evaluation, usability heuristic.

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:2018, 3.1.1]
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
ISO 9241-110:2020(E)
3.7
use error

user action or lack of user action while using the system, product or service that leads to a different

result than that intended by the manufacturer or expected by the user

Note 1 to entry: Use error includes the inability of the user to complete a task.

Note 2 to entry: Use errors can result from a mismatch between the characteristics of the user, user interface,

task, or use environment.
Note 3 to entry: Users might be aware or unaware that a use error has occurred.

Note 4 to entry: A malfunction of an interactive system that causes an unexpected result is not considered a

use error.

Note 5 to entry: The term use error is used in preference to user error or human error in order to avoid the

implied assignment of responsibility for the error to the user.
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:2018, 3.3.3]
3.8
user
person who interacts with the system, product or service

Note 1 to entry: Users of a system, product or service include people who operate the system, people who make

use of the output of the system and people who support the system (including providing maintenance and

training).
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:2018, 3.1.7]
3.9
user experience

combination of user’s perceptions and responses that result from the use and/or anticipated use of a

system, product or service

Note 1 to entry: Users’ perceptions and responses include the users’ emotions, beliefs, preferences, perceptions,

comfort, behaviours, and accomplishments that occur before, during and after use.

Note 2 to entry: User experience is a consequence of brand image, presentation, functionality, system

performance, interactive behaviour, and assistive capabilities of a system, product or service. It also results from

the user’s internal and physical state resulting from prior experiences, attitudes, skills, abilities and personality;

and from the context of use.

Note 3 to entry: The term “user experience” can also be used to refer to competence or processes such as user

experience professional, user experience design, user experience method, user experience evaluation, user

experience research, user experience department.

Note 4 to entry: Human-centred design can only manage those aspects of user experience that result from

designed aspects of the interactive system.
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:2018, 3.2.3]
3.10
user interface

set of all the components of an interactive system that provide information and controls for the user to

accomplish specific tasks with the interactive system
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 9241-110:2020
ISO 9241-110:2020(E)
3.11
user-system interaction
user interaction

exchange of information between a user and an interactive system via the user interface to complete

the intended task

Note 1 to entry: User-system interaction represents a subset of human-system interaction that only focusses on

intended users and not other humans who can be affected by the interactive system.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 25060:2010, 2.22, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4 Interaction principles
4.1 Overview

This clause introduces the interaction principles. Seven principles have been identified as being

important for the design and evaluation of interactive systems.

— Suitability for the user’s tasks: An interactive system is suitable for the user's tasks when it

supports the users in the completion of their tasks, i.e. when the operating functions and the user-

system interactions are based on the task characteristics (rather than the technology chosen to

perform the task).

— Self-descriptiveness: The interactive system presents appropriate information, where needed by

the user, to make its capabilities and use immediately obvious to the user without unnecessary

user-system interactions.

— Conformity with user expectations: The interactive system’s behaviour is predictable based on

the context of use and commonly accepted conventions in this context.

— Learnability: The interactive system supports discovery of its capabilities and how to use them,

allows exploration of the interactive system, minimizes the need for learning and provides support

when learning is needed.

— Controllability: The interactive system allows the user to maintain control of the user interface

and the interactions, including the speed and sequence and individualization of the user-system

interaction.

— Use error robustness: The interactive system assists the user in avoiding errors and in case of

identifiable errors treats them tolerantly and assists the user when recovering from errors.

— User engagement: The interactive system presents functions and information in an inviting and

motivating manner supporting continued interaction with the system.

NOTE The order in which the principles are presented here does not imply any priority.

For each of the principles, this document provides a list of general design recommendations. The

application of a single recommendation does not mean that the application of a principle has been fully

satisfied.

Table 1 identifies the main categories used to structure recommendations for each of the principles.

These recommendations help in the identification and specification of user requirements relevant to

specific contexts of use (see ISO 25065).
...

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