Plastics - Development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests for plastics products - Part 1: General guidance (ISO 15791-1:2014)

ISO 15791-1:2014 provides a framework guide for the development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests for products made of or containing plastics. The guidance identifies typical applications of plastics products and possible fire scenarios that can arise involving products in these applications. The development and use of intermediate-scale tests is described to ensure their relevance to the end use of the product.

Kunststoffe - Entwicklung und Anwendung von Brandprüfungen im mittleren Maßstab für Kunststofferzeugnisse - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anleitung (ISO 15791-1:2014)

Dieser Teil von ISO 15791 liefert eine Rahmenanleitung für die Entwicklung und Anwendung von Brandversuchen im mittleren Maßstab für Erzeugnisse, die vollständig oder teilweise aus Kunststoff bestehen.
Die Anleitung beschreibt typische Anwendungen von Kunststofferzeugnissen und mögliche Brandszenarien, die bei diesen Anwendungen mit den Erzeugnissen auftreten können. Die Entwicklung und Anwendung der Brandversuche im mittleren Maßstab wird beschrieben, um deren Relevanz für die Endanwendung des Erzeugnisses sicherzustellen.

Plastiques - Développement et utilisation des essais au feu à une échelle intermédiaire pour les produits plastiques - Partie 1: Lignes directrices générales (ISO 15791-1:2014)

L'ISO 15791-1:2014 fournit un cadre directeur pour la mise au point et l'utilisation d'essais au feu à une échelle intermédiaire applicables aux produits fabriqués en matériaux plastiques ou en contenant. Les lignes directrices identifient des applications types de produits en matériaux plastiques, ainsi que des scénarios d'incendie susceptibles de se produire avec ces produits utilisés dans les applications en question. L'élaboration et l'utilisation d'essais à échelle intermédiaire sont décrites de façon à garantir leur pertinence vis-à-vis de l'utilisation finale du produit.

Polimerni materiali - Razvoj in uporaba lestvice požarnih preskusov za proizvode iz polimernih materialov - 1. del: Splošno navodilo (ISO 15791-1:2014)

Standard EN-ISO 15791-1 zagotavlja okvirne smernice za razvoj in uporabo lestvice požarnih preskusov za proizvode iz polimernih materialov ali proizvode, ki vsebujejo polimerne materiale. Smernice opisujejo običajno uporabo polimernih materialov in morebitne požarne scenarije, ki se lahko pojavijo pri navedenih vrstah uporabe teh izdelkov. Razvoj in uporaba lestvice požarnih preskusov je opisana z namenom, da se zagotovi njihova ustreznost pri končni uporabi izdelka.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Dec-2013
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
18-Dec-2013
Completion Date
18-Dec-2013

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
01-maj-2014
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
Polimerni materiali - Razvoj in uporaba lestvice požarnih preskusov za proizvode
iz polimernih materialov - 1. del: Splošno navodilo (ISO 15791-1:2014)

Plastics - Development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests for plastics products -

Part 1: General guidance (ISO 15791-1:2014)

Kunststoffe - Entwicklung und Anwendung von Brandprüfungen im mittleren Maßstab für

Kunststofferzeugnisse - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anleitung (ISO 15791-1:2014)

Plastiques - Développement et utilisation des essais au feu à une échelle intermédiaire

pour les produits plastiques - Partie 1: Lignes directrices générales (ISO 15791-1:2014)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 15791-1:2013
ICS:
13.220.40 Sposobnost vžiga in Ignitability and burning
obnašanje materialov in behaviour of materials and
proizvodov pri gorenju products
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 15791-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
December 2013
ICS 13.220.40; 83.080.01 Supersedes EN ISO 15791-1:2004
English Version
Plastics - Development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests
for plastics products - Part 1: General guidance (ISO 15791-
1:2014)

Plastiques - Développement et utilisation des essais au feu Kunststoffe - Entwicklung und Anwendung von

à une échelle intermédiaire pour les produits plastiques - Brandprüfungen im mittleren Maßstab für

Partie 1: Lignes directrices générales (ISO 15791-1:2014) Kunststofferzeugnisse - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anleitung (ISO

15791-1:2014)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 30 November 2013.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 15791-1:2013 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
EN ISO 15791-1:2013 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
EN ISO 15791-1:2013 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 15791-1:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61 “Plastics” in

collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics” the secretariat of which is held by NBN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2014, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by June 2014.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 15791-1:2004.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 15791-1:2014 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 15791-1:2013 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15791-1
Second edition
2014-01-15
Plastics — Development and use
of intermediate-scale fire tests for
plastics products —
Part 1:
General guidance
Plastiques — Développement et utilisation des essais au feu à une
échelle intermédiaire pour les produits plastiques —
Partie 1: Lignes directrices générales
Reference number
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
ISO 2014
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Types of plastics and typical products ........................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Generic types ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.2 Typical applications ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.3 Composites ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.4 End-use conditions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Fire scenarios ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Ignition stage ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.3 Fire growth stage .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.4 Large room fire ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Thermal characteristics of ignition sources ............................................................................................................................ 5

7 Design requirements .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

8 Guidance for intermediate scale tests .........................................................................................................................................11

9 Examples of intermediate-scale tests for plastics products .................................................................................12

9.1  IEC 61034-2 — 3 m cube test ...............................................................................................................................................12

9.2  ISO 5658-4 — Vertical flame spread test ...................................................................................................................12

9.3  ISO 14696 — Intermediate-scale calorimeter (ICAL) test ..........................................................................12

9.4  EN 13823 — Single burning item (SBI) test ............................................................................................................12

9.5  ISO 24473 — Open calorimetry .........................................................................................................................................13

9.6  ISO 21367 — Medium scale fire test for plastics.................................................................................................13

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (normative) Different scale fire tests for obtaining information on fire performance of

material and product ....................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Example of reference scenarios ................................................................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 4, Burning

behaviour.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 15791-1:2002), which has been technically

revised.

ISO 15791 consists of the following parts, under the general title Plastics — Development and use of

intermediate-scale fire tests for plastics products:
— Part 1: General guidance

Guidance on product fire testing for semi-finished and finished products is to form the subject of a

future part 2.
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
Introduction

Products for many applications are made of or contain substantial proportions of plastics. The fire

performance of a product depends on the materials from which it is made, the design of the product and

its environment.

Industry needs to test products used for different applications for regulatory, quality control,

development and pre-selection purposes.

Numerous regulations and regional, state and local codes make reference to combustibility tests and

standards, and ranking of products derived from these tests are the most commonly available means

of comparing the various combustion characteristics of products. More than one test and possibly

intermediate- or full-scale tests may be necessary to qualify products containing plastics for intended

or proposed use or representative product end-use conditions.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
Plastics — Development and use of intermediate-scale fire
tests for plastics products —
Part 1:
General guidance
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15791 provides a framework guide for the development and use of intermediate-scale

fire tests for products made of or containing plastics.

The guidance identifies typical applications of plastics products and possible fire scenarios that can

arise involving products in these applications. The development and use of intermediate-scale tests is

described to ensure their relevance to the end use of the product.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943 and the following apply.

3.1
fire scenario

qualitative description of the course of a fire with respect to time, identifying key events that characterize

the studied fire and differentiate it
[SOURCE: of ISO 13943:2008, definition 4.129, modified.]
3.2
intermediate-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of medium dimensions

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, definition 4.200, modified — The note has been omitted.]

3.3
large-scale fire test

fire test that cannot be carried out in a typical laboratory chamber, performed on a test specimen of

large dimensions

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, definition 4.205, modified — The note has been omitted.]

3.4
product
manufactured article ready for end use
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
3.5
material
basic single substance or uniformly dispersed mixture

Note 1 to entry: Metal, stone, timber, concrete, mineral fibre and polymers are examples.

[SOURCE: ISO 5659-2:2012, 3.6]
3.6
semi-finished product
manufactured articles ready for assembly for an end use application
3.7
small-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of small dimensions

[SOURCE: of ISO 13943:2008, definition 4.292, modified — The note has been omitted.]

3.8
test specimen
item subjected to a procedure of assessment or measurement

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, definition 4.321, modified — The note has been omitted.]

4 Types of plastics and typical products
4.1 Generic types

Products containing materials that are either thermoplastics or thermosets are subject to a fire

performance assessment. Such plastics can be elastomers, fibres or foams (cellular materials) and can

contain additives (including fibre reinforcements).
4.2 Typical applications

Some typical applications for plastics, which present particular problems in small-scale tests for their

fire performance assessment and which may require the use of intermediate-scale fire testing, are listed

below:
— semi-finished products;
— housings for electrical appliances;
— profiled sheets, e.g. roofing, or panels for containers;
— profiles, e.g. conduits for electric cables, window-frames, extruded sections;
— weatherproof glazing for agricultural buildings;
— foam pipe-sections;
— pipes, e.g. rainwater drainage and discharge pipes;
— furniture, e.g. chairs;
— pipes for air ventilation systems in e.g. ships, trains, aircraft;
— containers for liquids (e.g. oil, kerosene);
— waste containers (for recycling materials or for rubbish).
NOTE This list is not exhaustive.
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
4.3 Composites
The following special composites should be considered:
— laminates, e.g. melamine-formaldehyde-covered chipboard;
— laminated film and sheet, e.g. weatherproofing membranes;
— moulded foams, e.g. for packaging;
— structural mouldings, e.g. for ships, lorries, coaches, trains;

— composite panels, e.g. rigid foams faced with metal sheets (especially steel or aluminium sheets) or

inorganics (especially gypsum or plasterboard) for thermal insulation;
— fibre-reinforced products.
4.4 End-use conditions

Assessment of structural composite panels, thermoplastic glazing and similar plastics products, etc.

can only be done by taking into account their end-use conditions and installations. Orientation of test

specimens with respect to the ignition source of the fire test should reflect the actual possible heat

exposure at the end use condition. For non-planar products, different parts of the specimen will be

heated at different flux levels at any given time.
5 Fire scenarios
5.1 General

The fire scenario (see 3.1) should reproduce the conditions in which the hazard exists. Any additional

assumptions, such as the environmental conditions, should be defined. The subject of the assessment,

i.e. the material, product or system, should be determined by an investigation of the contribution of the

subject in the assumed fire scenario and the stage of the fire.
NOTE Annex B gives examples of standardized reference test scenarios.
5.2 Ignition stage

The ignition source used in the test should represent the fire hazard in end use conditions and may

result in different fire responses of the materials and product. The ignition source may pose a variety of

hazards dependent on the associated environmental conditions and on a number of characteristic fire

test responses of materials, products or assemblies, including ease of ignition, flame spread, rate of heat

release, smoke generation, toxicity of combustion products and ease of extinction.

5.3 Fire growth stage

In small rooms, the typical primary ignition source is small, e.g. candles, matches and hot electrical

wires. The relevant parameters for further assessing the fire hazard are flame spread and rate of heat

release. Combustible materials in the vicinity of the first ignited item are heated by convection and

irradiance, and the oxygen content in the room air, almost 21 % initially, begins to decrease. After a

certain time, flashover may occur, at which stage the room temperature can exceed 500 °C and the

irradiance at floor level can typically exceed 25 kW/m (see Figure 1). In such cases, the oxygen content

in small rooms is not normally sufficient for complete combustion.

Smouldering fires will not significantly increase room temperatures but may begin to deplete oxygen

and cause smoke. Typical ignition sources for smouldering fires can be a cigarette on a mattress or a

faulty electric blanket. Smouldering rates can be derived from experiments.
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)

Another scenario is a flaming fire caused by primary ignition sources igniting, for example waste-paper

baskets, curtains and mattresses. These sources can lead to secondary ignition of other combustible

products.

Small ignition sources cause accelerated development of fire when stored combustible liquids result

[29]

in flashover. In such cases, the heat release can be expressed as the hydrocarbon curve. Relatively

high ventilation is necessary for such development, and the CO /CO ratio is about 100. Fires with low

ventilation are likely to lead to temperatures in the range 600 °C to 900 °C.
5.4 Large room fire

In large rooms such as theatres, open-plan offices, warehouses, supermarkets and sports halls, fires are

freely ventilated for a long time. In contrast to small rooms, there are hardly any interrelated effects

and development of fire is directly dependent on the successive combustion of the burning items. The

scenario can be compared with fires in the open air for a certain period of time. Flashover causes a rapid

decrease in the CO /CO ratio.
Y1 Y2
> 700 > 40
50 - 100 20 - 40
13 45
Key
1 time to ignition
2 T > 100 °C, I > 25 kW/m close to ignited item
3 developing fire
4 flashover
5 fully developed fire
X time
Y1 average temperature T in fire compartment (°C)
Y2 average irradiance I in fire compartment (kW/m )
Figure 1 — Typical course of a fire in a room

Evaluation of fire development is linked to the quantification of a design fire as described in ISO/TR 13387-

2. It is necessary to define design fires and design fire scenarios because the course of real fires varies

4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)

depending on the nature of the combustibles, the ignition source, the fire load and the conditions in

the fire compartment. It is practically impossible to predict the real fire taking into account all these

interactions and real boundary conditions.

There are two distinctly different methods of determining the design fire for a given scenario. One is

based on knowledge of the amount, type and distribution of combustible materials in the compartment

of fire origin. The other is based on knowledge of the type of occupancy, where very little is known about

the details of the fire load.

A design fire may be needed for a wide range of design fire scenarios. These may be internal or external

fire scenarios. Examples of typical design fire scenarios include:
— large/medium/small-room fires (corner, ceiling, floor, wall);
— corridor fires;
— roofing fires;
— cavity fires;
— staircase fires;
— fires in/on façades;
— single burning item fires (furniture, cable conduits, pipes).

Design fire specifications should be translated into characteristics of the fuel load environment near the

initial fire.

These regimes are used to determine the growth of the initial fire as a function of time.

6 Thermal characteristics of ignition sources

Design fires are usually quantified in terms of the heat release rate of the assumed ignition source as a

function of time. Once the heat release rate is known, the flame area and height can be estimated. The

heating of a second object can then be predicted. Typical ignition source heat release rates are shown in

Table 1.
Table 1 — Heat release rates for typical ignition sources
Heat output
Source
Match 0,1
Waste-paper basket 10 to 40
Small chair 10 to 300
Upholstered furniture, large wood crib > 300

If the net heat flux from the surface of actual ignition sources is known, these ignition sources can be

simulated by radiant panels. Typical fluxes are shown in Table 2.
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
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Table 2 — Typical heat fluxes
Heat flux
Source
kW/m
Match flame 18 to 20
Developing fire 20 to 60
Paper bag, wood crib 25 to 50
Oxidative pyrolysis with oxygen concentration of 5 % to < 25
21 %
Small gas-diffusion flame 30 to 40
Fully developed low-ventilation fire 40 to 70
Premixed-gas burner 50 to 70
Fully developed high-ventilation fire 50 to 150
Premixed-gas blow torch 140 to 150
Peak value for hydrocarbon-fire resistance test 200
Jet fire 350
Theoretical maximum for organic fire 1 500

When gas burners or radiant panels are used as ignition sources, it should be recognized that the thermal

shock created by these heating regimes may influence especially the charring and melting behaviour

and have an influence on the performance of many plastics products.

Figure 2 shows typical characteristics of a natural source (i.e. a 35 kg wood crib) and a gas burner

source as defined in ISO 9705.
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ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
1 000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0 51015202530
Key
1 35 kg wood crib
2 propane burner (as specified in ISO 9705)
X time (min)
Y heat release rate (kW)

Figure 2 — Comparison of heat release characteristics of a natural source and a gas burner

National and international standards (see Figures 3 and 4 and Tables 3 and 4) provide a variety of

ignition sources (a range of such ignition sources is described in ISO 10093). These include gas burners

with different flame heights up to 250 mm, glowing wires and fuels used for testing and classifying

products. Fire statistics indicate that a much higher proportion of fires are caused by ignition sources

such as burning paper, which is often used in malicious fires.
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
300
250
200
150
100
12 34 56
Key
1 DIN 4102-7 (B1)
2 DIN VDE 0472 (T804c)
3 ASTM E84
4 FAR 25.853
5 ISO 9705 (first 10 min)
6 ISO 9705 (next 10 min)
Y heat output rate (kW)
Figure 3 — Power of standardized gas burners
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
ISO 15791-1:2014(E)
200
150
100
12 34 56 78 9101112
Key
1 DIN 4102-1 (B2) 9 BS 5852 (Source 2)
2 UL 94V 10 BS 5852 (Source 3)
3 CSE RF 4 (3,IM) 11 DIN 54837
4 FAR 25.853a 12 ÖN 3800 (B1)
5 BS 5852 (Source 1) Y energy (kJ)
6 CSE RF 4 (2,IM)
7 FAR 25.853b
8 CSE RF 4 (1,IM)
Figure 4 — Energy of standardized ignition sources
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 9
1512 kJ
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2014
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Table 3 — Example of wood and paper ignition source
Mass Power Duration Energy
Standard Description
g kW s kJ
BS 5852 Wood crib 4 8,5 1 200 200
BS 5852 Wood crib 5 17 1,4 200 280
BS 5852 Wood crib 6 60 3 340 1 020
BS 5852 Wood crib 7 126 6 370 2 220
EN 1021 Paper cushion 20 2 120 240
DIN 54341 Paper cushion 100 8 180 1 440
DIN 4102–7 Wood-wool basket 600 23 450 10 350
NT 007 Wood crib 40 3 190 570
Table 4
...

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