Workplace exposure - General requirements for the performance of procedures for the measurement of chemical agents

This European Standard specifies general performance requirements for procedures for the determination of the concentration of chemical agents in workplace atmospheres as required by the Chemical Agents Directive 98/24/EC (see reference [6]). These requirements apply to all measuring procedures, irrespective of the physical form of the chemical agent (gas, vapour, airborne particles), the sampling method and the analytical method used.
This European Standard is applicable to
   all steps of a measuring procedure,
   measuring procedures with separate sampling and analysis steps, and
   direct-reading devices.

Exposition am Arbeitsplatz - Allgemeine Anforderungen an die Leistungsfähigkeit von Verfahren zur Messung chemischer Arbeitsstoffe

Diese Europäische Norm legt allgemeine Anforderungen an die Leistungsfähigkeit von Messverfahren zur Bestimmung der Konzentration chemischer Arbeitsstoffe in der Arbeitsplatzatmosphäre fest, wie seitens der Richtlinie über chemische Arbeitsstoffe 98/24/EG (siehe Literaturhinweis [7]) gefordert. Diese Anforderungen gelten für alle Messverfahren, unabhängig vom physikalischen Zustand des chemischen Arbeitsstoffes (Gas, Dampf, luftgetragene Partikel), vom Probenahmeverfahren und vom eingesetzten Analyseverfahren. Diese Europäische Norm gilt für
- alle Schritte eines Messverfahrens,
- Messverfahren mit voneinander unabhängigen Probenahme- und Analyseschritten, und
- direkt anzeigende Messgeräte.

Exposition sur les lieux de travail - Exigences générales concernant les performances des procédures de mesure des agents chimiques

La présente Norme européenne stipule les exigences générales de performances pour les procédures
servant à déterminer la concentration des agents chimiques dans les atmosphères des lieux de travail comme
demandé dans la Directive relative aux agents chimiques 98/24/CE (voir référence [7]). Ces exigences sont
applicables à toutes les procédures de mesure, indépendamment de la forme physique de l’agent chimique
(gaz, vapeur, particules en suspension dans l'air), de la méthode de prélèvement ou d’analyse employée.
La présente Norme européenne est applicable :
- à toutes les étapes d’une procédure de mesure ;
- aux procédures de mesure pour lesquelles le prélèvement et l’analyse sont deux étapes distinctes ; et
- aux dispositifs à lecture directe.

Izpostavljenost na delovnem mestu - Splošne zahteve za izvajanje meritev kemičnih agensov

Ta dokument določa splošne funkcionalne zahteve za postopke za določevanje koncentracije kemičnih agensov v atmosferi na delovnem mestu v skladu z zahtevami Direktive Sveta 98/24/ES o kemičnih dejavnikih. Te zahteve se nanašajo na vse merilne postopke, ne glede na fizično obliko kemičnega agensa (plin, para, lebdeča snov) ter uporabljeno metodo vzorčenja in analitično metodo. Ta dokument se uporablja za vse faze merilnega postopka. Ta dokument se uporablja za merilne postopke z ločenimi fazami vzorčenja in analize ter naprave, ki omogočajo neposredno odčitavanje.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
17-Apr-2012
Withdrawal Date
20-Oct-2015
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
21-Oct-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 482:2012
01-junij-2012
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 482:2007
,]SRVWDYOMHQRVWQDGHORYQHPPHVWX6SORãQH]DKWHYH]DL]YDMDQMHPHULWHY
NHPLþQLKDJHQVRY

Workplace exposure - General requirements for the performance of procedures for the

measurement of chemical agents

Exposition am Arbeitsplatz - Allgemeine Anforderungen an die Leistungsfähigkeit von

Verfahren zur Messung chemischer Arbeitsstoffe

Exposition sur les lieux de travail - Exigences générales concernant les performances

des procédures de mesurage des agents chimiques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 482:2012
ICS:
13.040.30 Kakovost zraka na delovnem Workplace atmospheres
mestu
SIST EN 482:2012 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 482:2012
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 482:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 482
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2012
ICS 13.040.30 Supersedes EN 482:2006
English Version
Workplace exposure - General requirements for the
performance of procedures for the measurement of chemical
agents

Exposition sur les lieux de travail - Exigences générales Exposition am Arbeitsplatz - Allgemeine Anforderungen an

concernant les performances des procédures de mesure die Leistungsfähigkeit von Verfahren zur Messung

des agents chimiques chemischer Arbeitsstoffe
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 March 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 482:2012: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6

4 Classification ..........................................................................................................................................6

4.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................6

4.2 Screening measurements of time weighted average concentration ................................................6

4.3 Screening measurements of variation of concentration in time and/or space ...............................6

4.4 Measurements for comparison with (occupational exposure) limit values and periodic

measurements ........................................................................................................................................6

5 Performance requirements ...................................................................................................................6

5.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................6

5.2 Screening measurements of time weighted average concentration ................................................7

5.3 Screening measurements of variation of concentration in time and/or space ...............................7

5.4 Measurements for comparison with limit values and periodic measurements ..............................7

5.4.1 Unambiguity ...........................................................................................................................................7

5.4.2 Selectivity ...............................................................................................................................................7

5.4.3 Averaging time .......................................................................................................................................7

5.4.4 Measuring range ....................................................................................................................................7

5.4.5 Expanded uncertainty ...........................................................................................................................8

5.5 Composite procedures ..........................................................................................................................8

5.6 Transport and storage ...........................................................................................................................8

5.7 Environmental conditions .....................................................................................................................8

5.8 Description of measuring procedure ...................................................................................................9

5.9 Dimension of result ...............................................................................................................................9

5.10 Additional requirements .......................................................................................................................9

6 Test method ............................................................................................................................................9

7 Validation report ................................................................................................................................. 10

Annex A (informative) Structure of a method description ........................................................................... 11

Annex B (informative) Calculation of uncertainty of measurement ............................................................ 12

B.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 12

B.2 Uncertainty associated with sampled air volume or mass uptake ................................................ 13

B.3 Uncertainty associated with sampling efficiency ............................................................................ 15

B.4 Uncertainty associated with sample storage and transportation .................................................. 17

B.5 Uncertainty associated with method recovery for gases and vapours ........................................ 17

B.6 Uncertainty associated with analytical recovery for airborne particles and mixtures of

airborne particles and vapour ........................................................................................................... 17

B.7 Uncertainty associated with method variability for gases and vapours....................................... 18

B.8 Uncertainty associated with analytical variability for airborne particles and mixtures of

airborne particles and vapour ........................................................................................................... 18

B.9 General equation for combination of uncertainty components ..................................................... 18

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 20

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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN 482:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 137 “Assessment of

workplace exposure to chemical and biological agents”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by October 2012.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 482:2006.

The major technical changes between this European Standard and the previous edition are as follows:

a) The terms and definitions given in the previous edition have been replaced by a normative reference to

EN 1540:2011.

b) The maximum expanded uncertainty for mixtures of airborne particles and vapour has been changed from

30 % to 50 %, for concentration measurements between 0,5 times and 2 times the limit value.

c) The former Annex A, regarding measurement categories described in EN 689 and involving a combination

of measurement tasks, has been deleted.

d) The former Annex C (now Annex B) has been revised to remove information already given in EN 838,

EN 1076 and EN 13890.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)
Introduction

National laws and regulations based on European Directives require the assessment of the potential exposure

of a worker to chemical agents in workplace atmospheres. One way of assessing such exposure is to

measure the concentration of a chemical agent in the air in the worker's breathing zone. The procedures used

for such measurements should give reliable and valid results, so that when compared with set occupational

exposure limit values, a correct decision can be made, for instance, as to whether the exposure level is

acceptable or control measures need to be applied.

Because of their importance in the process of exposure assessment, it is required that the measurement

procedures fulfil some general requirements which are given in this document. Specific European Standards

have been prepared for different types of measuring procedures and measuring devices. These include

European Standards for dust samplers (EN 13205), diffusive samplers (EN 838), pumped samplers (EN 1076),

detector tubes (EN 1231), sampling pumps (EN 1232 and EN 12919), metals and metalloids (EN 13890),

mixtures of airborne particles and vapour (ENV 13936 ) and direct reading instruments (EN 45544 (all parts)).

In these specific European Standards, additional requirements have been included for the procedure or device

in question, so that the general requirements of this document are not compromised. Where no specific

European Standard exists, only the general requirements apply.

Performance requirements are given in this document for unambiguity, selectivity, averaging time, measuring

range and expanded uncertainty for minimum specified measuring ranges. These requirements are intended

to apply under environmental conditions present at the workplace. However, because a wide range of

environmental conditions are encountered in practice, this document specifies requirements that have to be

fulfilled by measuring procedures when tested under prescribed laboratory conditions.

It is the user's responsibility to choose the appropriate procedures or devices that meet the requirements of

this document. One way of doing this is to obtain information or confirmation from the provider of a procedure

or the manufacturer of a device. Type-testing or, more generally, assessment of the performance of

procedures or devices, can be undertaken by the manufacturer, user, test house or research and

development laboratory, as is most appropriate. A number of existing procedures for workplace

measurements have either been tested over a part of the required minimum measuring range, but not over the

entire range, or have not been tested for all environmental influences and potential interferences. If these

partially validated procedures meet the performance requirements of this European Standard, they can be

used at present. Nevertheless these procedures should be tested over the full ranges as soon as is

reasonably practicable. If there is no measuring procedure for a chemical agent which meets the requirements

of this document, a procedure should be used whose performance is closest to the specified requirements.

1) A new edition of ENV 13936 is currently being elaborated and is foreseen to be published as EN 13936.

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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies general performance requirements for procedures for the determination of

the concentration of chemical agents in workplace atmospheres as required by the Chemical Agents

Directive 98/24/EC (see reference [7]). These requirements apply to all measuring procedures, irrespective of

the physical form of the chemical agent (gas, vapour, airborne particles), the sampling method and the

analytical method used.
This European Standard is applicable to
 all steps of a measuring procedure,
 measuring procedures with separate sampling and analysis steps, and
 direct-reading devices.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 481, Workplace atmospheres  Size fraction definitions for measurement of airborne particles

EN 838, Workplace exposure  Procedures for measuring gases and vapours using diffusive samplers 

Requirements and test methods

EN 1076, Workplace exposure  Procedures for measuring gases and vapours using pumped samplers 

Requirements and test methods

EN 1231, Workplace atmospheres  Short term detector tube measurement systems  Requirements and

test methods

EN 1232:1997 , Workplace atmospheres  Pumps for personal sampling of chemical agents 

Requirements and test methods
EN 1540, Workplace exposure  Terminology

EN 12919:1999 , Workplace atmospheres  Pumps for the sampling of chemical agents with a volume flow

rate of over 5 l/min  Requirements and test methods

EN 13205, Workplace atmospheres  Assessment of performance of instruments of airborne particle

concentrations

EN 13890, Workplace exposure  Procedures for measuring metals and metalloids in airborne particles 

Requirements and test methods

EN 45544 (all parts), Workplace atmospheres  Electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct

concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours

ISO 78-2, Chemistry  Layouts for standards  Part 2: Methods of chemical analysis

2) A European Standard, EN ISO 13137, is being elaborated and is foreseen to replace this document.

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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1540 apply.

4 Classification
4.1 General

In this document, measurements are classified according to their purpose. These classifications are based

upon the measurement strategy laid down in EN 689.
4.2 Screening measurements of time weighted average concentration

Screening measurements of time weighted average concentration are performed to obtain relatively crude

quantitative information on exposure levels. Such information is used to identify potential health hazards, and

to estimate the risk to health based on the likely severity of harm and the probability of its occurrence. These

measurements can also determine if the exposure is significantly below or significantly above the

(occupational exposure) limit value.
4.3 Screening measurements of variation of concentration in time and/or space

Screening measurements of variation of concentration in time and/or space are used to:

a) provide information on the likely pattern of the concentration of chemical agents in the air,

b) identify locations and periods of elevated exposure,
c) provide information on the location and intensity of emission sources, and
d) estimate the effectiveness of ventilation or other technical measures.

4.4 Measurements for comparison with (occupational exposure) limit values and periodic

measurements

Measurements for comparison with (occupational exposure) limit values are used to obtain results of known

uncertainty for the average concentration of a chemical agent in the air in a worker’s breathing zone.

Periodic measurements are used to determine whether exposure conditions have changed since the

measurements for comparison with limit values were performed, or whether control measures remain effective.

NOTE Since the composition of the workplace atmosphere will have been investigated during the initial occupational

exposure assessment, it might be appropriate for periodic measurements to use procedures with lower selectivity.

5 Performance requirements
5.1 General

Performance requirements for measuring procedures depend on the purpose for which they are used. The

performance requirements for screening measurements are less stringent than for measurements for the

comparison with limit values and periodic measurements. Therefore, the performance requirements for

screening measurements in 5.2 and 5.3 are only given in general terms.
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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)
5.2 Screening measurements of time weighted average concentration
The measurement procedures shall have:
a) adequate selectivity for the chemical agent (see 4.2),
b) averaging time less than or equal to the limit value reference period,
c) measuring range that includes the limit value, and
d) expanded uncertainty that is fit for purpose (see 4.2).
5.3 Screening measurements of variation of concentration in time and/or space
The measuring procedures shall have:
a) adequate selectivity for the chemical agent (see 4.3),

b) short averaging time (for variation of concentration in time ≤ 5 min; for variation of concentration in

space ≤ 15 min),
c) measuring range that is fit for purpose (see 4.3), and
d) expanded uncertainty that is fit for purpose (see 4.3).
5.4 Measurements for comparison with limit values and periodic measurements
5.4.1 Unambiguity

A measuring procedure shall produce an unambiguous result for the concentration of the chemical agent

being measured in the specified measuring range, i.e. an analytically determined value shall correspond to

one concentration only.
5.4.2 Selectivity

The measuring procedure shall contain appropriate information about the nature and magnitude of any

interference.

NOTE Selectivity requirements vary from case to case, depending on what is known in advance about the workplace

air. If the identity of all contaminants present is not known in advance then the measuring procedure will need to have a

high selectivity. If the identity of all contaminants is known prior to measurement and there are no interferents present,

then it might be possible to use a measurement procedure with a low selectivity.

Procedures for measuring chemical agents present as airborne particles shall prescribe a method for

sampling the particle size fraction, as defined in EN 481, for which the limit value for the chemical agent is set.

If different limit values are set for different species of a chemical agent, then the measuring procedure shall

determine the individual species concerned.
5.4.3 Averaging time

The averaging time is equal to the sampling time, which shall be less than or equal to the limit value reference

period.
5.4.4 Measuring range

The measuring range of the procedure or instrument shall cover at least the concentrations from 0,1 times to 2

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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)

times the limit value for long-term measurements, and from 0,5 times to 2 times the limit value for short-term

measurements.
NOTE For limit values see reference [8].
5.4.5 Expanded uncertainty
The requirements for expanded uncertainty are given in Table 1.
Table 1 — Expanded uncertainty requirements for measurements
for comparison with limit values and periodic measurements
reference period measuring range relative expanded relative expanded
uncertainty uncertainty
(mixtures of airborne particles
and vapour)
short-term 0,5 times to 2 times ≤ 50 % ≤ 50 %
(e.g. 15 min) limit value
long-term 0,1 times to < 0,5 times
≤ 50 % ≤ 50 %
limit value
long-term 0,5 times to 2 times
≤ 30 % ≤ 50 %
limit value

NOTE Variation of exposure to chemical agents in the workplace can be significantly greater than indicated by the

uncertainty of a single measurement calculated according to this European Standard. This is due to the temporal and

spatial variability of workplace exposure.
5.5 Composite procedures

The performance requirements detailed in 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4 shall be fulfilled for the whole measuring procedure

even if the measuring procedure consists of several distinct steps, e.g. sampling, transport and storage,

sample preparation and analysis. In the latter case, each step of the measuring procedure may be tested

individually as an alternative to testing the measuring procedure as a whole.
5.6 Transport and storage

Transport and storage of samples, if appropriate, shall be carried out in such a way that the physical and

chemical integrity is maintained between sampling and analysis.
5.7 Environmental conditions

The effect of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, pressure) on the performance of the

method shall be tested in the laboratory. Performance requirements concerning unambiguity, selectivity,

expanded uncertainty, minimum measuring range and averaging time shall be fulfilled under the conditions

likely to be encountered in the workplace.

NOTE It is not practicable to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of environmental influences in the field and

therefore laboratory tests are specified in this document. However, field tests can provide valuable information on the

performance of measurement methods.

The range of environmental conditions under which the performance requirements of 5.2 to 5.5 are fulfilled

shall be specified in the measuring procedure.
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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)
5.8 Description of measuring procedure
The measuring procedure shall be documented in accordance with ISO 78-2.
An example for the structure of a method description is given in Annex A.

The description shall contain all necessary information to perform the measuring procedure, including

information about the attainable expanded uncertainty, measuring range, averaging time, interferences and

environmental or other conditions that can influence the performance of the measuring procedure.

If correction factors are applied, e.g. for a known and explainable bias due to environmental influences, these

shall be justified in the measuring procedure.
5.9 Dimension of result

The final measurement result shall be expressed in the same units as those of the limit value. This can be

achieved directly or by means of a suitable conversion.

This requirement is not obligatory for screening measurements of the variation of concentration in time and/or

space.
5.10 Additional requirements

In addition to the requirements given in 5.2 to 5.9, further requirements specified in EN 838, EN 1076,

EN 1231, EN 1232, EN 12919, EN 13205, EN 13890 and EN 45544 (all parts) shall be met for particular types

of measuring procedures and devices, as appropriate. See also ENV 13936.
6 Test method

6.1 Estimate the expanded uncertainty of results obtained using the measuring procedure by carrying out

the tests prescribed in the relevant European Standard(s) specific to the type of procedure or device

concerned, as listed in Clause 2. Carry out measurements at the lower and upper ends of the measuring

range specified in Table 1, and for at least one intermediate concentration. Prepare at least six replicate

samples for each set of tests and analyse the samples under repeatability conditions.

Calculate the expanded uncertainty, expressed as a percentage, according to the following procedure (see

e.g. references [9], [10], [11] and ENV 13005):
a) specify the measurand;
b) identify all possible sources of uncertainty;

c) quantify the random sampling uncertainty u and non-random sampling uncertainty u ;

s s
r nr

d) quantify the random analytical uncertainty u and non-random analytical uncertainty u ;

a a
r nr

e) calculate the combined random standard uncertainty u according to Formula (1) and the combined

non-random standard uncertainty u according to Formula (2):
2 2
u = u + u
(1)
c s a
r r r
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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)
2 2
u = u + u
(2)
c s a
nr nr nr
f) calculate the combined standard uncertainty u according to Formula (3);
2 2
u = u + u
(3)
c c c
r nr

g) calculate the expanded uncertainty U, using a coverage factor k = 2, according to Formula (4).

U = 2×u (4)

NOTE 1 Alternatively, the random and non-random components of sampling uncertainty and the random and non-

random components of analytical uncertainty can be combined in a different order to calculate the combined standard

uncertainty.

NOTE 2 Annex B gives information about the different components of sampling uncertainty and analytical uncertainty.

NOTE 3 For detailed calculation methods see EN 838, EN 1076, EN 13205 and EN 13890.

6.2 Carry out further tests, as appropriate, to investigate the influence of interferences and environmental

parameters, e.g. wind speed, wind direction or direction of sampling device.

6.3 For a measuring procedure consisting of several independent steps (preparation of equipment,

sampling, transport and storage of sample and analysis), each step of the measuring procedure may be

tested individually as an alternative to testing the procedure as a whole. In this case, calculate the relative

expanded uncertainty of the results obtained using the measuring procedure by an appropriate combination of

the uncertainties of all the independent steps.

NOTE For some chemical agents the performance of one or more of the steps might have to be determined by

means other than direct testing with the chemical agent. For details, see the appropriate specific European Standard.

7 Validation report

A validation report shall be prepared for each measuring procedure tested, containing at least the test

conditions, the results obtained and the extent to which the measuring procedure complies with the

requirements of this document and other relevant European Standards or International Standards.

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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)
Annex A
(informative)
Structure of a method description
The following major clauses should be present, if applicable:
 Introduction;
 Title;
 Warning and safety precautions;
 Scope;
 Normative references;
 Definitions;
 Principle;
 Reactions;
 Reagents and materials;
 Apparatus and equipment;
 Sampling;
 Transport and storage;
 Analytical procedure;
 Calculation;
 Performance characteristics;
 Quality assurance and control;
 Special cases (e. g. interferences);
 Test report;
 Annexes.
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SIST EN 482:2012
EN 482:2012 (E)
Annex B
(informative)
Calculation of uncertainty of measurement
B.1 General

The first step in estimating the uncertainty of measurement according to ENV 13005 is to construct a cause

and eff
...

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