Industrial Gas Installation - Guideline

This Technical Report applies to safety and operational topics for equipment and pipework systems installed within industrial premises which may be used for process and non-process applications such as Heating, Power Generation, Incineration, etc.
It is applicable to a range of combustible gases used within an industrial environment. The gas plant may include normal combustion with air and/or oxygen, catalytic oxidation or cracking (e.g. as in a refinery).
The user of gas equipment and pipework systems has a responsibility to ensure the safety of the design, of plant operation and plant maintenance.
For piped supplies of gas to a site this Technical Report applies to the system downstream of the ‘point of delivery’. The term, ‘point of delivery’ refers to the isolation valve (or combination of regulator and isolation valve) located before or after the metering station, as will be defined by the particular EU member state national legislation.
The guidance in this Technical Report may also apply to gases generated for the sites own use, such as coke oven gas, site bio-gas plant, site LPG/air plant etc.

Industrielle Gasinstallationen - Leitlinien

This Technical Report applies to safety and operational topics for equipment and pipework systems installed within industrial premises which may be used for process and non-process applications such as Heating, Power Generation, Incineration, etc.
It is applicable to a range of combustible gases used within an industrial environment. The gas plant may include normal combustion with air and/or oxygen, catalytic oxidation or cracking (e.g. as in a refinery).
The user of gas equipment and pipework systems has a responsibility to ensure the safety of the design, of plant operation and plant maintenance.
For piped supplies of gas to a site this Report applies to the system downstream of the ‘point of delivery’. The term, ‘point of delivery’ refers to the isolation valve (or combination of regulator and isolation valve) located before or after the metering station, as will be defined by the particular EU member state national legislation.
The guidance in this Report may also apply to gases generated for the sites own use, such as coke oven gas, site bio-gas plant, site LPG/air plant etc.

Installation gaz dans le domaine industriel - Lignes directrices

Le présent Rapport technique s’applique à la sécurité et aux aspects opérationnels des équipements et systèmes de tuyauterie installés sur des sites industriels et qui peuvent être employés pour des applications de procédés ou non, comme le chauffage, la production d’électricité, l’incinération, etc.
Il couvre une grande diversité de gaz combustibles utilisés en environnement industriel. L’usine à gaz peut employer des procédés de combustion normale à l’air et/ou à l’oxygène, d’oxydation catalytique ou de craquage (par exemple, dans le cas d’une raffinerie).
Il incombe à l’utilisateur d’équipements à gaz et de systèmes de tuyauterie de garantir la sécurité de la conception, de l’exploitation de l’usine et de l’entretien de l’usine.
Dans le cadre de l’approvisionnement en gaz d’un site par des canalisations, le présent Rapport technique s’applique au système en aval du « point de livraison ». Le terme « point de livraison » renvoie à la vanne de coupure (ou à l’ensemble régulateur et vanne de coupure) qui se trouve avant ou après la station de comptage, telle que définie par la législation nationale applicable à l’État-membre de l’UE concerné.
Les recommandations formulées dans le présent Rapport technique peuvent également s’appliquer aux gaz générés pour l’usage interne des sites, par exemple le gaz de cokerie, l’installation de biogaz du site, l’installation de mélange GPL/air du site, etc

Industrijska plinska napeljava - Smernica

To tehnično poročilo velja za varnostne vidike in vidike obratovanja za opremo in cevovodne sisteme, nameščene v industrijskih objektih, ki se lahko uporabljajo za namene procesov ali pa ne (kot so gretje, proizvajanje energije, sežiganje itd.).
Velja za vrsto vnetljivih plinov, ki se uporabljajo v industrijskem okolju. Naprava za uplinjanje lahko vključuje normalno zgorevanje z zrakom in/ali kisikom, katalitično oksidacijo ali razbijanje (npr. kot v rafinerijah).
Uporabnik opreme in cevovodnih sistemov za plin je odgovoren za zagotavljanje varnosti projektiranja, delovanja in vzdrževanja naprave.
Za dobavo plina po ceveh to tehnično poročilo velja za smer toka sistema do »točke dostave«. Izraz »točka dostave« se nanaša na ločilni ventil (ali kombinacijo regulatorja in ločilnega ventila) pred merilno postajo ali za njo, kot bo določeno v nacionalni zakonodaji posamezne države članice EU.
Navodila iz tega tehničnega poročila se lahko uporabljajo tudi za pline, proizvedene za lastno uporabo na lokacijah, kot so plin za koksarne, bioplinske naprave, obrat LPG/zrak.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Nov-2014
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
19-Nov-2014
Completion Date
19-Nov-2014

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
01-oktober-2014
Industrijska plinska napeljava - Smernica
Industrial Gas Installation - Guideline
Industrielle Gasinstallationen - Leitlinien
Installation gaz dans le domaine industriel - Lignes directrices
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 16787
ICS:
91.140.40 Sistemi za oskrbo s plinom Gas supply systems
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 16787
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
July 2014
ICS
English Version
Industrial Gas Installation - Guideline

Installation gaz dans le domaine industriel - Lignes Industrielle Gasinstallationen - Leitlinien

directrices

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Technical Committee Approval.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to

provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and

shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N
EUR O P Ä IS CHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................6

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6

3.1 General terms .........................................................................................................................................6

3.2 Definitions relating to jointing methods ..............................................................................................9

3.3 Definitions relating to components .................................................................................................. 10

3.4 Definitions relating to tests ............................................................................................................... 11

3.5 Definitions relating to assembly processes for metallic materials ............................................... 11

3.6 Definitions relating to pressure regulating and metering .............................................................. 12

4 Safety management ............................................................................................................................ 13

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.2 Maintaining records of completed gas work ................................................................................... 13

4.3 The technical file ................................................................................................................................. 14

4.4 The construction file .......................................................................................................................... 15

4.5 The explosion protection document ................................................................................................. 15

4.6 The declaration of conformity file ..................................................................................................... 15

5 Gas composition and characteristics ............................................................................................... 16

5.1 Properties of gases............................................................................................................................. 16

5.1.1 Natural gas .......................................................................................................................................... 16

5.1.2 LPG ....................................................................................................................................................... 16

5.1.3 Non-conventional gases .................................................................................................................... 17

5.1.4 Town gas (not widely available in Europe) ...................................................................................... 19

5.2 The Wobbe index and non combustion parameters ....................................................................... 20

5.2.1 Wobbe index ........................................................................................................................................ 20

5.2.2 Non – combustion parameters .......................................................................................................... 21

5.3 Industrial thermal processing equipment versus variations of gas composition ....................... 22

5.4 Industrial thermal processing equipment – environmental considerations ................................ 23

6 Environment ........................................................................................................................................ 24

7 Installation pipework .......................................................................................................................... 25

8 Industrial thermal equipment installations ...................................................................................... 25

9 Inspections .......................................................................................................................................... 25

10 General safety issues ......................................................................................................................... 25

Annex A (informative) Controlling air and gas flow rates versus energy content to the gas

equipment ............................................................................................................................................ 27

A.1 Principles for the measurement of air and gas flows ..................................................................... 27

A.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 27

A.1.2 Diaphragm meters .............................................................................................................................. 27

A.1.3 Orifice plate systems .......................................................................................................................... 27

A.1.4 Turbine meters .................................................................................................................................... 28

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A.1.5 Rotating piston meters (roots) ........................................................................................................... 28

A.1.6 Vortex flow meters .............................................................................................................................. 29

A.1.7 Ultrasonic flow meter .......................................................................................................................... 29

A.1.8 Mass flow meters ................................................................................................................................. 29

A.2 Flow calculation ................................................................................................................................... 30

A.3 Control energy content ....................................................................................................................... 30

A.4 Flow metering and meter performance ............................................................................................. 31

Annex B (informative) Industrial thermal processing equipment ................................................................ 33

B.1 Sensitivity of gas engines and gas turbines .................................................................................... 33

B.2 Sensitivity of some industrial thermal processes ........................................................................... 33

Annex C (informative) Reverse flow of gases ................................................................................................ 36

Annex D (informative) Industrial thermal processing equipment and Environmental issues .................. 37

Annex E (informative) National implementation ............................................................................................ 38

E.1 General/introduction ........................................................................................................................... 38

E.2 Safety and health of workers at work regulations ........................................................................... 38

E.3 Specifications from utilities and gas suppliers ................................................................................ 38

E.4 Protection of buildings and equipment against fire ........................................................................ 38

Annex F (informative) European Directives ................................................................................................... 40

F.1 EU Safety Directives ............................................................................................................................ 40

F.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 40

F.1.2 Safety European Directives concerning products ........................................................................... 40

F.1.3 Safety European Directives concerning general public and workers ........................................... 42

F.1.4 Introduction to Directives ................................................................................................................... 43

F.1.5 Synthesis of Directives ....................................................................................................................... 44

F.2 Environment EU Directives for industrial end-users ....................................................................... 46

F.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 46

F.2.2 Emissions Trading Scheme ETS ....................................................................................................... 46

F.2.3 Measures to reduce emissions (CO , CO, NO , CH ) ..................................................................... 47

2 x 4

F.2.4 Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) .................................................................................................. 47

Annex G (informative) Natural gas overview .................................................................................................. 48

Annex H (informative) National data ............................................................................................................... 50

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 53

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 (E)
Foreword
This document (FprCEN/TR 16787:2014) has been prepared by CEN Sector Forum Gas.
This document is currently submitted to the Technical Committee Approval.
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 (E)
Introduction

Gas industry leaders acknowledge the strategic role of European and National Standards in their efforts to

ensure the safety of gas installations in industrial premises. This Technical Report has been prepared to

explain to those involved with industrial premises some of the relevance of a range of Directives that affect

their operations. In addition guidance is given on the terms and definitions widely in use throughout the

European Union, together with some important information on how a consumer of gas can ensure safety in

operating their site. Minimizing the adverse effects on the environment is also an important consideration.

European and National legislation and the related framework of standards are complex and changing at an

ever increasing pace. For industrial plant engineers, finding the relevant standards can be a difficult task,

demands specific knowledge, and can consume a considerable amount of time. A number of the principal

standards are highlighted in this Technical Report, but EU Member States may have similar or equivalent

standards covering the application. Additionally, member states may have slightly different legal systems and

requirements that demand compliance.

Both designers and installers play an important role in applying the current standards for design, construction,

testing, commissioning and operation of all industrial gas installations. Safety is therefore improved and the

full energy efficiency potential of industrial thermal processes can be utilized.

It is recognized that the main reference is this Technical Report is to Natural Gas but many standards equally

apply directly to LPG and LPG/Air mixtures. This Technical Report is also applicable to many bio-gases, and

other flammable gases, and the user will need to ensure they are aware of any different requirements needed

to ensure safety. For example some gases may be very hot or corrosive, some may be ‘wet’ and others may

contain significant quantities of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Hydrogen rich gases may also require

special attention to material selection.

Finally, due to the complexities and special needs of some types of process plant, it may be necessary to

adopt higher standards of safety and to use risk assessments to ensure reliable judgements on plant safety.

In applying the recommendations contained within this Report it is important that the relevant requirements of

national guidance standards and legislation are considered.

In some cases where a lack of information is available in a member state, guidance from other member states

or by other recognized national bodies such as ASME or API may be used.

The range of industrial thermal process and heating equipment providing energy solutions to customers for a

diverse range of applications is significant.
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 (E)
1 Scope

This Technical Report applies to safety and operational topics for equipment and pipework systems installed

within industrial premises which may be used for process and non-process applications such as Heating,

Power Generation, Incineration, etc.

It is applicable to a range of combustible gases used within an industrial environment. The gas plant may

include normal combustion with air and/or oxygen, catalytic oxidation or cracking (e.g. as in a refinery).

The user of gas equipment and pipework systems has a responsibility to ensure the safety of the design, of

plant operation and plant maintenance.

For piped supplies of gas to a site this Technical Report applies to the system downstream of the ‘point of

delivery’. The term, ‘point of delivery’ refers to the isolation valve (or combination of regulator and isolation

valve) located before or after the metering station, as will be defined by the particular EU member state

national legislation.

The guidance in this Technical Report may also apply to gases generated for the sites own use, such as coke

oven gas, site bio-gas plant, site LPG/air plant etc.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1775, Gas supply ― Gas pipework for buildings ― Maximum operating pressure less than or equal to 5

bar ― Functional recommendations

EN 15001-1, Gas Infrastructure ― Gas installation pipework with an operating pressure greater than 0,5 bar

for industrial installations and greater than 5 bar for industrial and non-industrial installations ― Part 1:

Detailed functional requirements for design, materials, construction, inspection and testing

EN 15001-2, Gas infrastructure ― Gas installation pipework with an operating pressure greater than 0,5 bar

for industrial installations and greater than 5 bar for industrial and non-industrial installations ― Part 2:

Detailed functional requirements for commissioning, operation and maintenance

EN ISO 6976, Natural gas ― Calculation of calorific values, density, relative density and Wobbe index from

composition (ISO 6976)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE These terms and definitions are given for information as they are widely used in the gas industry.

3.1 General terms
3.1.1
air gas ratio
ratio between the flow of combustion air and the flow of the fuel gas

Note 1 to entry: Sometimes fuel/air ratio is used. It can either be expressed in terms of volume or mass flows.

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3.1.2
air factor

ratio between the actual flow of combustion air and the stoichiometric flow of combustion air

Note 1 to entry: It can be expressed in terms of volume or mass flows.
3.1.3
components
any item from which a gas supply system or installation is constructed

Note 1 to entry: A distinction is drawn between the following groups of components:

— ancillaries (for example; pressure regulators, valves, safety devices, expansion joints, and insulating joints);

— pipes, including bends made from pipe;
— instrumentation pipework;

— fittings (for example; reducers, tees, factory-made elbows, flanges, dome ends, welding stubs, and mechanical

joints).
3.1.4
flexible appliance connector

fitting of flexible pipe to be fitted between the end of fixed pipework and the appliance inlet connection

3.1.5
gas appliances

appliances burning gaseous fuels used for cooking, heating, hot water production, refrigeration, lighting or

washing and having, where applicable, a normal water temperature not exceeding 105 °C, except those

specifically designed for use in industrial processes carried out on industrial premises

3.1.6
HAZOP

hazard and operability study (HAZOP) is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing

process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or

equipment, or prevent efficient operation
3.1.7
industrial appliances

appliances burning gaseous fuels installed in industrial premises and are subject to specific national health

and safety regulations
3.1.8
pressure
gauge pressure of the fluid inside the system, measured in static conditions
3.1.9
design pressure
pressure at which the design calculations are based

Note 1 to entry: This is equivalent to the maximum allowable pressure (PS) as given in the PED.

3.1.10
maximum allowable pressure

maximum pressure for which pipework is designed in accordance with the strength requirements

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 (E)
3.1.11
maximum incidental pressure
MIP

maximum pressure at which a system can experience during a short time, limited by the safety devices

3.1.12
operating pressure
pressure which occurs within a system under normal operating conditions
3.1.13
maximum operating pressure
MOP

maximum pressure at which a system can be operated continuously under normal operating conditions

Note 1 to entry: Normal operating conditions are: no fault in any device or stream.

3.1.14
tightness test pressure
TTP
pressure applied to a system during tightness testing
3.1.15
strength test pressure
STP
pressure applied to a system during strength testing
3.1.16
combined test pressure
CTP
pressure applied to a system during combined testing
3.1.17
risk assessment

identification, evaluation, and estimation of the levels of risks involved in a situation, their comparison against

benchmarks or standards, and determination of an acceptable level of risk

Note 1 to entry: In this sense Risk is, ‘the likelihood and consequence of a hazard being realised’.

3.1.18
point of delivery
point of transfer of ownership of gas from the supplier to the customer

Note 1 to entry: This can be at a means of isolation or at the meter outlet connection.

Note 2 to entry: This can be isolation valve (or combination of regulator and isolation valve) located before or after the

metering station, as defined by the particular EU member state.
3.1.19
user(s)

person (s) responsible for the safety of the gas installation and associated risks on a site

Note 1 to entry: Normally the user will be the site occupier or owner. It should be assumed that every user has a

responsibility for work performed on their site, whether or not the work is performed directly for the user or not. This does

not mean that they cannot take advice from an independent specialist.
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 (E)
3.1.20
pipework
assembly of pipes and fittings
3.1.21
installation pipework

pipework downstream of the point of delivery terminating at the appliance inlet connection

Note 1 to entry: This pipework is normally the property of the customer.
3.1.22
ventilated space
space where the air is continuously changed by natural or mechanical means
3.1.23
safety zone

area around the pipework from which persons who are not involved in the strength test are excluded during

testing
3.1.24
equipotential bond

means of ensuring that metallic gas pipework and other metallic parts of the building are at the same electrical

potential

Note 1 to entry: For safety reasons, this equipotential bonding is connected to earth.

3.1.25
duct
space specifically designed and constructed for the passage of building services

EXAMPLE Building services include gas pipework, water systems, power and telecommunication cables.

3.1.26
ventilation duct

duct forming part of the structure of the building and intended exclusively for ventilation purposes

3.1.27
means of isolation
device which is intended to interrupt the gas flow in pipework
EXAMPLE Manually operable valve.
3.2 Definitions relating to jointing methods
3.2.1
joint
means of connecting elements of a gas installation
3.2.2
flanged joint

joint in which gas tightness is achieved by compression of a gasket between the faces of two flanges

3.2.3
threaded joint

joint in which gas tightness is achieved by metal-to-metal contact within threads with the assistance of a

sealant
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 (E)
3.2.4
mechanical joint

joint in which gas tightness is achieved by compression, with or without a seal and which can be

disassembled and reassembled
Note 1 to entry: This definition includes twin ferrule type joints.
3.2.5
pressed joint

joint in which tightness is achieved by using a specific tool for either compressing a fitting to form the joint or

expanding a pipe to enable forming the joint
3.2.6
brazed joint
joint formed by brazing
3.2.7
welded joint
joint formed by welding
3.2.8
electro fusion joint

joint formed between polyethylene components using fittings which have an integrated electric heating

element
3.2.9
butt fusion joint

joint formed between polyethylene components where the two pipe ends are heated and brought together to

be fused directly without the use of a separate fitting or filler material
3.2.10
compression joint

type of joint in which gas tightness is achieved by compression within a socket with or without a seal

3.3 Definitions relating to components
3.3.1
regulator

device which reduces the gas pressure to a set value and maintains it within prescribed limits

3.3.2
appliance connection

flexible pipe or length of rigid pipework connecting an appliance’s means of isolation with the appliance inlet

connection
3.3.3
insulating joint
fitting installed to insulate electrically one section of pipework from another
3.3.4
sleeve
protective pipe through which a gas pipe passes
3.3.5
vent pipe

pipework connected to a safety or control device to release gas at a safe location

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 (E)
3.3.6
creep relief valve

device designed to release a limited flow of gas in the event of an unacceptable pressure being detected

within the system it protects
3.3.7
safety slam-shut device

device designed to quickly shut off the gas flow in the event of an unacceptable pressure being detected

within the system it protects. This often referred to an over-pressure or under-pressure shut off device

3.3.8
instrumentation pipework

pipework required for the proper functioning of the ancillaries installed within the pressure regulating

installation
EXAMPLE Sensing, measuring, auxiliary and sampling lines.
3.3.9

alphanumeric designation of size for components of a pipework system, which is used for reference purposes

Note 1 to entry: It comprises the letters DN followed by a dimensionless whole number, which is indirectly related to

the physical size, in millimetres, of the bore or outside diameter of the end connections.

Note 2 to entry: The number following the letters DN does not represent a measurable value and should not be used

for calculation purposes except where specified.

Note 3 to entry: Where DN designation is used, any relationship between DN and component dimensions are given,

e.g. DN/OD or DN/ID.
3.4 Definitions relating to tests
3.4.1
strength test

specific procedure intended to verify that the pipework meets the requirements for mechanical strength

3.4.2
leak-tightness test

specific procedure intended to verify that the pipework meets the requirements for leak-tightness

3.4.3
combined test

specific procedure to verify that the pipework and/or installation meets the requirements for mechanical

strength and leak-tightness
3.4.4
leak detection fluid

specially formulated fluid and foaming product that gives a clear indication that a leak exists when applied to

an element of pipework
3.5 Definitions relating to assembly processes for metallic materials
3.5.1
welding

joining (union) of two or more parts by heat or pressure or a combination of both, (fusion, arc or oxy-

acetylene) such that the materials form a continuity

Note 1 to entry: A filler metal having a melting point similar to that of the materials to be welded can be used.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 16787:2014
FprCEN/TR 16787:2014 (E)
3.5.2
brazing

operation in which metal parts are joined by means of capillary action of a filler metal in the liquid state with a

melting temperature, higher than 450 °C, lower than that of the parts to be joined and wetting the parent

metal(s), which does not participate in the making of the joint
Note 1 to entry: This is often referred to as hard soldering.
3.5.3
hot tapping

procedure involving the safe use of heat, e.g. welding or fusion, to affix an attachment to a section of pipework

containing gas at pressure
3.6 Definitions relating to pressure regulating and metering
3.6.1
compressors

complete unit for raising the gas pressure within installation pipework above 0,5 bar to an OP greater than

5 bar
3.6.2
station

gas pressure regulating and/or metering system including (where applicable) the housing, the odourisation

facilities and the fenced site
3.6.3
gas pressure regulating
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16787:2015
01-marec-2015
Industrijska plinska napeljava - Smernica
Industrial Gas Installation - Guideline
Industrielle Gasinstallationen - Leitlinien
Installation gaz dans le domaine industriel - Lignes directrices
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16787:2014
ICS:
91.140.40 Sistemi za oskrbo s plinom Gas supply systems
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16787:2015 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16787:2015
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16787:2015
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 16787
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
November 2014
ICS 23.040.01; 91.140.40
English Version
Industrial Gas Installation - Guideline

Installation gaz dans le domaine industriel - Lignes Industrielle Gasinstallationen - Leitlinien

directrices

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 3 December 2014. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/SS B25.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16787:2014 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................6

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6

3.1 General terms .........................................................................................................................................6

3.2 Definitions relating to jointing methods ..............................................................................................9

3.3 Definitions relating to components .................................................................................................. 10

3.4 Definitions relating to tests ............................................................................................................... 11

3.5 Definitions relating to assembly processes for metallic materials ............................................... 11

3.6 Definitions relating to pressure regulating and metering .............................................................. 12

4 Safety management ............................................................................................................................ 13

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.2 Maintaining records of completed gas work ................................................................................... 13

4.3 The technical file ................................................................................................................................. 14

4.4 The construction file .......................................................................................................................... 15

4.5 The explosion protection document ................................................................................................. 15

4.6 The declaration of conformity file ..................................................................................................... 15

5 Gas composition and characteristics ............................................................................................... 16

5.1 Properties of gases............................................................................................................................. 16

5.1.1 Natural gas .......................................................................................................................................... 16

5.1.2 LPG ....................................................................................................................................................... 16

5.1.3 Non-conventional gases .................................................................................................................... 17

5.1.4 Town gas (not widely available in Europe) ...................................................................................... 19

5.2 The Wobbe index and non combustion parameters ....................................................................... 20

5.2.1 Wobbe index ........................................................................................................................................ 20

5.2.2 Non – combustion parameters .......................................................................................................... 21

5.3 Industrial thermal processing equipment versus variations of gas composition ....................... 22

5.4 Industrial thermal processing equipment – environmental considerations ................................ 23

6 Environment ........................................................................................................................................ 24

7 Installation pipework .......................................................................................................................... 25

8 Industrial thermal equipment installations ...................................................................................... 25

9 Inspections .......................................................................................................................................... 25

10 General safety issues ......................................................................................................................... 25

Annex A (informative) Controlling air and gas flow rates versus energy content to the gas

equipment ............................................................................................................................................ 27

A.1 Principles for the measurement of air and gas flows ..................................................................... 27

A.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 27

A.1.2 Diaphragm meters .............................................................................................................................. 27

A.1.3 Orifice plate systems .......................................................................................................................... 27

A.1.4 Turbine meters .................................................................................................................................... 28

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A.1.5 Rotating piston meters (roots) ........................................................................................................... 28

A.1.6 Vortex flow meters .............................................................................................................................. 29

A.1.7 Ultrasonic flow meter .......................................................................................................................... 29

A.1.8 Mass flow meters ................................................................................................................................. 29

A.2 Flow calculation ................................................................................................................................... 30

A.3 Control energy content ....................................................................................................................... 30

A.4 Flow metering and meter performance ............................................................................................. 31

Annex B (informative) Industrial thermal processing equipment ................................................................ 33

B.1 Sensitivity of gas engines and gas turbines .................................................................................... 33

B.2 Sensitivity of some industrial thermal processes ........................................................................... 33

Annex C (informative) Reverse flow of gases ................................................................................................ 36

Annex D (informative) Industrial thermal processing equipment and Environmental issues .................. 37

Annex E (informative) National implementation ............................................................................................ 38

E.1 General/introduction ........................................................................................................................... 38

E.2 Safety and health of workers at work regulations ........................................................................... 38

E.3 Specifications from utilities and gas suppliers ................................................................................ 38

E.4 Protection of buildings and equipment against fire ........................................................................ 38

Annex F (informative) European Directives ................................................................................................... 40

F.1 EU Safety Directives ............................................................................................................................ 40

F.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 40

F.1.2 Safety European Directives concerning products ........................................................................... 40

F.1.3 Safety European Directives concerning general public and workers ........................................... 42

F.1.4 Introduction to Directives ................................................................................................................... 43

F.1.5 Synthesis of Directives ....................................................................................................................... 44

F.2 Environment EU Directives for industrial end-users ....................................................................... 46

F.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 46

F.2.2 Emissions Trading Scheme ETS ....................................................................................................... 46

F.2.3 Measures to reduce emissions (CO , CO, NO , CH ) ..................................................................... 47

2 x 4

F.2.4 Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) .................................................................................................. 47

Annex G (informative) Natural gas overview .................................................................................................. 48

Annex H (informative) National data ............................................................................................................... 50

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 53

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Foreword
This document (CEN/TR 16787:2014) has been prepared by CEN Sector Forum Gas.
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Introduction

Gas industry leaders acknowledge the strategic role of European and National Standards in their efforts to

ensure the safety of gas installations in industrial premises. This Technical Report has been prepared to

explain to those involved with industrial premises some of the relevance of a range of Directives that affect

their operations. In addition guidance is given on the terms and definitions widely in use throughout the

European Union, together with some important information on how a consumer of gas can ensure safety in

operating their site. Minimizing the adverse effects on the environment is also an important consideration.

European and National legislation and the related framework of standards are complex and changing at an

ever increasing pace. For industrial plant engineers, finding the relevant standards can be a difficult task,

demands specific knowledge, and can consume a considerable amount of time. A number of the principal

standards are highlighted in this Technical Report, but EU Member States may have similar or equivalent

standards covering the application. Additionally, member states may have slightly different legal systems and

requirements that demand compliance.

Both designers and installers play an important role in applying the current standards for design, construction,

testing, commissioning and operation of all industrial gas installations. Safety is therefore improved and the

full energy efficiency potential of industrial thermal processes can be utilized.

It is recognized that the main reference is this Technical Report is to Natural Gas but many standards equally

apply directly to LPG and LPG/Air mixtures. This Technical Report is also applicable to many bio-gases, and

other flammable gases, and the user will need to ensure they are aware of any different requirements needed

to ensure safety. For example some gases may be very hot or corrosive, some may be ‘wet’ and others may

contain significant quantities of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Hydrogen rich gases may also require

special attention to material selection.

Finally, due to the complexities and special needs of some types of process plant, it may be necessary to

adopt higher standards of safety and to use risk assessments to ensure reliable judgements on plant safety.

In applying the recommendations contained within this Technical Report it is important that the relevant

requirements of national guidance standards and legislation are considered.

In some cases where a lack of information is available in a member state, guidance from other member states

or by other recognized national bodies such as ASME or API may be used.

The range of industrial thermal process and heating equipment providing energy solutions to customers for a

diverse range of applications is significant.
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1 Scope

This Technical Report applies to safety and operational topics for equipment and pipework systems installed

within industrial premises which may be used for process and non-process applications such as Heating,

Power Generation, Incineration, etc.

It is applicable to a range of combustible gases used within an industrial environment. The gas plant may

include normal combustion with air and/or oxygen, catalytic oxidation or cracking (e.g. as in a refinery).

The user of gas equipment and pipework systems has a responsibility to ensure the safety of the design, of

plant operation and plant maintenance.

For piped supplies of gas to a site this Technical Report applies to the system downstream of the ‘point of

delivery’. The term, ‘point of delivery’ refers to the isolation valve (or combination of regulator and isolation

valve) located before or after the metering station, as will be defined by the particular EU member state

national legislation.

The guidance in this Technical Report may also apply to gases generated for the sites own use, such as coke

oven gas, site bio-gas plant, site LPG/air plant etc.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1775, Gas supply ― Gas pipework for buildings ― Maximum operating pressure less than or equal to 5

bar - Functional recommendations

EN 15001-1, Gas Infrastructure ― Gas installation pipework with an operating pressure greater than 0,5 bar

for industrial installations and greater than 5 bar for industrial and non-industrial installations ― Part 1:

Detailed functional requirements for design, materials, construction, inspection and testing

EN 15001-2, Gas infrastructure ― Gas installation pipework with an operating pressure greater than 0,5 bar

for industrial installations and greater than 5 bar for industrial and non-industrial installations ― Part 2:

Detailed functional requirements for commissioning, operation and maintenance

EN ISO 6976, Natural gas ― Calculation of calorific values, density, relative density and Wobbe index from

composition (ISO 6976)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE These terms and definitions are given for information as they are widely used in the gas industry.

3.1 General terms
3.1.1
air gas ratio
ratio between the flow of combustion air and the flow of the fuel gas

Note 1 to entry: Sometimes fuel/air ratio is used. It can either be expressed in terms of volume or mass flows.

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3.1.2
air factor

ratio between the actual flow of combustion air and the stoichiometric flow of combustion air

Note 1 to entry: It can be expressed in terms of volume or mass flows.
3.1.3
components
any item from which a gas supply system or installation is constructed

Note 1 to entry: A distinction is drawn between the following groups of components:

— ancillaries (for example; pressure regulators, valves, safety devices, expansion joints, and insulating joints);

— pipes, including bends made from pipe;
— instrumentation pipework;

— fittings (for example; reducers, tees, factory-made elbows, flanges, dome ends, welding stubs, and mechanical

joints).
3.1.4
flexible appliance connector

fitting of flexible pipe to be fitted between the end of fixed pipework and the appliance inlet connection

3.1.5
gas appliances

appliances burning gaseous fuels used for cooking, heating, hot water production, refrigeration, lighting or

washing and having, where applicable, a normal water temperature not exceeding 105 °C, except those

specifically designed for use in industrial processes carried out on industrial premises

3.1.6
HAZOP

hazard and operability study (HAZOP) is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing

process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or

equipment, or prevent efficient operation
3.1.7
industrial appliances

appliances burning gaseous fuels installed in industrial premises and are subject to specific national health

and safety regulations
3.1.8
pressure
gauge pressure of the fluid inside the system, measured in static conditions
3.1.9
design pressure
pressure at which the design calculations are based

Note 1 to entry: This is equivalent to the maximum allowable pressure (PS) as given in the PED.

3.1.10
maximum allowable pressure

maximum pressure for which pipework is designed in accordance with the strength requirements

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3.1.11
maximum incidental pressure
MIP

maximum pressure at which a system can experience during a short time, limited by the safety devices

3.1.12
operating pressure
pressure which occurs within a system under normal operating conditions
3.1.13
maximum operating pressure
MOP

maximum pressure at which a system can be operated continuously under normal operating conditions

Note 1 to entry: Normal operating conditions are: no fault in any device or stream.

3.1.14
tightness test pressure
TTP
pressure applied to a system during tightness testing
3.1.15
strength test pressure
STP
pressure applied to a system during strength testing
3.1.16
combined test pressure
CTP
pressure applied to a system during combined testing
3.1.17
risk assessment

identification, evaluation, and estimation of the levels of risks involved in a situation, their comparison against

benchmarks or standards, and determination of an acceptable level of risk

Note 1 to entry: In this sense Risk is, ‘the likelihood and consequence of a hazard being realized’.

3.1.18
point of delivery
point of transfer of ownership of gas from the supplier to the customer

Note 1 to entry: This can be at a means of isolation or at the meter outlet connection.

Note 2 to entry: This can be isolation valve (or combination of regulator and isolation valve) located before or after the

metering station, as defined by the particular EU member state.
3.1.19
user(s)

person (s) responsible for the safety of the gas installation and associated risks on a site

Note 1 to entry: Normally the user will be the site occupier or owner. It should be assumed that every user has a

responsibility for work performed on their site, whether or not the work is performed directly for the user or not. This does

not mean that they cannot take advice from an independent specialist.
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3.1.20
pipework
assembly of pipes and fittings
3.1.21
installation pipework

pipework downstream of the point of delivery terminating at the appliance inlet connection

Note 1 to entry: This pipework is normally the property of the customer.
3.1.22
ventilated space
space where the air is continuously changed by natural or mechanical means
3.1.23
safety zone

area around the pipework from which persons who are not involved in the strength test are excluded during

testing
3.1.24
equipotential bond

means of ensuring that metallic gas pipework and other metallic parts of the building are at the same electrical

potential

Note 1 to entry: For safety reasons, this equipotential bonding is connected to earth.

3.1.25
duct
space specifically designed and constructed for the passage of building services

EXAMPLE Building services include gas pipework, water systems, power and telecommunication cables.

3.1.26
ventilation duct

duct forming part of the structure of the building and intended exclusively for ventilation purposes

3.1.27
means of isolation
device which is intended to interrupt the gas flow in pipework
EXAMPLE Manually operable valve.
3.2 Definitions relating to jointing methods
3.2.1
joint
means of connecting elements of a gas installation
3.2.2
flanged joint

joint in which gas tightness is achieved by compression of a gasket between the faces of two flanges

3.2.3
threaded joint

joint in which gas tightness is achieved by metal-to-metal contact within threads with the assistance of a

sealant
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3.2.4
mechanical joint

joint in which gas tightness is achieved by compression, with or without a seal and which can be

disassembled and reassembled
Note 1 to entry: This definition includes twin ferrule type joints.
3.2.5
pressed joint

joint in which tightness is achieved by using a specific tool for either compressing a fitting to form the joint or

expanding a pipe to enable forming the joint
3.2.6
brazed joint
joint formed by brazing
3.2.7
welded joint
joint formed by welding
3.2.8
electro fusion joint

joint formed between polyethylene components using fittings which have an integrated electric heating

element
3.2.9
butt fusion joint

joint formed between polyethylene components where the two pipe ends are heated and brought together to

be fused directly without the use of a separate fitting or filler material
3.2.10
compression joint

type of joint in which gas tightness is achieved by compression within a socket with or without a seal

3.3 Definitions relating to components
3.3.1
regulator

device which reduces the gas pressure to a set value and maintains it within prescribed limits

3.3.2
appliance connection

flexible pipe or length of rigid pipework connecting an appliance’s means of isolation with the appliance inlet

connection
3.3.3
insulating joint
fitting installed to insulate electrically one section of pipework from another
3.3.4
sleeve
protective pipe through which a gas pipe passes
3.3.5
vent pipe

pipework connected to a safety or control device to release gas at a safe location

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3.3.6
creep relief valve

device designed to release a limited flow of gas in the event of an unacceptable pressure being detected

within the system it protects
3.3.7
safety slam-shut device

device designed to quickly shut off the gas flow in the event of an unacceptable pressure being detected

within the system it protects. This often referred to an over-pressure or under-pressure shut off device

3.3.8
instrumentation pipework

pipework required for the proper functioning of the ancillaries installed within the pressure regulating

installation
EXAMPLE Sensing, measuring, auxiliary and sampling lines.
3.3.9

alphanumeric designation of size for components of a pipework system, which is used for reference purposes

Note 1 to entry: It comprises the letters DN followed by a dimensionless whole number, which is indirectly related to

the physical size, in millimetres, of the bore or outside diameter of the end connections.

Note 2 to entry: The number following the letters DN does not represent a measurable value and should not be used

for calculation purposes except where specified.

Note 3 to entry: Where DN designation is used, any relationship between DN and component dimensions are given,

e.g. DN/OD or DN/ID.
3.4 Definitions relating to tests
3.4.1
strength test

specific procedure intended to verify that the pipework meets the requirements for mechanical strength

3.4.2
leak-tightness test

specific procedure intended to verify that the pipework meets the requirements for leak-tightness

3.4.3
combined test

specific procedure to verify that the pipework and/or installation meets the requirements for mechanical

strength and leak-tightness
3.4.4
leak detection fluid

specially formulated fluid and foaming product that gives a clear indication that a leak exists when applied to

an element of pipework
3.5 Definitions relating to assembly processes for metallic materials
3.5.1
welding

joining (union) of two or more parts by heat or pressure or a combination of both, (fusion, arc or oxy-

acetylene) such that the materials form a continuity

Note 1 to entry: A filler metal having a melting point similar to that of the materials to be welded can be used.

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3.5.2
brazing

operation in which metal parts are joined by means of capillary action of a filler metal in the liquid state with a

melting temperature, higher than 450 °C, lower than that of the parts to be joined and wetting the parent

metal(s), which does not participate in the making of the joint
Note 1 to entry: This is often referred to as hard soldering.
3.5.3
hot tapping

procedure involving the safe use of heat, e.g. welding or fusion, to affix an attachment to a section of pipework

containing gas at pressure
3.6 Definitions relating to pressure regulating and metering
3.6.1
compressors

complete unit for raising the gas pressure within installation pipework above 0,5 bar to an OP greater than

5 bar
3.6.2
station

gas pressure regulating and/or metering system including (where applicable) the housing, the odourisation

facilities and the fenced site
3.6.3
gas pressure regulating and metering system

system comprising all equipment, together with inlet and outlet pipework up to and including the isolating

valves, which together performs the functions of pressure regulation, pressure safety and/or quantitative gas

measurement, whether or not including pressure boosting and/or gas mixing facilities

3.6.4
monitor

second regulator used as a safety device in series with the active regulator which assumes control of the

pressure at a
...

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