Ergonomics - Ergonomics of PPE ensembles

This document can be used to compare the performance of different ensembles as part of any PPE selection process.
This document does not replace the product standards for the certification of individual items of PPE. It specifies the testing of individual items of PPE as an ensemble, so that the interaction between the individual items of PPE can be evaluated and any adverse interactions between the individual items of PPE can be identified.
It specifies requirements for testing by either assessing the performance of a PPE ensemble against a benchmark condition (i.e. benchmark testing) or assessing the performance of two or more PPE ensembles against each other (i.e. comparative testing).
The standard incorporates laboratory as well as field based testing. It can also be used to assess the performance regarding the ergonomics of an ensemble that incorporates an item of PPE that has never before been incorporated into an ensemble.

Ergonomie - Ergonomie von PSA-Ensembles

Dieses Dokument kann verwendet werden, um die Leistung verschiedener Ensembles als Teil eines PSA-Auswahlverfahrens zu vergleichen.
Dieses Dokument ersetzt nicht die Produktnormen für die Zertifizierung einzelner PSA-Produkte. Sie legt die Prüfung einzelner PSA als Ensemble fest, damit die Wechselwirkung zwischen den einzelnen PSA bewertet und nachteilige Wechselwirkungen zwischen den einzelnen PSA erkannt werden können.
Sie legt die Anforderungen an die Prüfung entweder durch die Bewertung der Leistung eines PSA-Ensembles im Vergleich zu einer Referenzbedingung (d. h. Benchmark-Prüfung) oder durch die Bewertung der Leistung von zwei oder mehr PSA-Ensembles im Vergleich zueinander (d. h. Vergleichsprüfung) fest.
Die Norm umfasst sowohl labor- als auch feldbasierte Prüfungen. Sie kann außerdem zur Bewertung der Leistung in Bezug auf die Ergonomie des Ensembles verwendet werden, die ein PPE-Produkt umfasst, das zuvor noch nie in ein Ensemble integriert wurde.

Ergonomie - Ergonomie des ensembles d’EPI

Le présent document peut être utilisé pour comparer les performances de différents ensembles dans le cadre de tout processus de sélection d’EPI.
Le présent document ne remplace pas les normes de produits pour la certification des éléments d’EPI individuels. Il spécifie l’essai des éléments d’EPI individuels en tant qu’ensemble, afin de pouvoir évaluer l’interaction entre les éléments d’EPI individuels et d’identifier toute interaction négative entre les différents éléments d’EPI.
Il spécifie les exigences en matière d’essais, soit en évaluant les performances d’un ensemble d’EPI par rapport à une condition de référence (c’est-à-dire un essai de référence), soit en évaluant les performances de deux ensembles d’EPI ou plus les uns par rapport aux autres (c’est-à-dire un essai comparatif).
La norme prévoit des essais en laboratoire et sur le terrain. Elle peut également être utilisée pour évaluer les performances en matière d’ergonomie d’un ensemble qui comprend un élément d’EPI n’ayant jamais été intégré auparavant dans un ensemble.

Ergonomija - Ergonomija kompletov osebne varovalne opreme (OVO)

General Information

Status
Not Published
Current Stage
5060 - Closure of Vote - Formal Approval
Due Date
12-Feb-2022
Completion Date
12-Feb-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 17558:2020
01-december-2020
Ergonomija - Ergonomija kompletov osebne varovalne opreme (OVO)
Ergonomics - Ergonomics of PPE ensembles
Ergonomie - Ergonomie von PSA-Ensembles
Ergonomie - Ergonomie des ensembles d’EPI
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17558
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
13.340.01 Varovalna oprema na Protective equipment in
splošno general
oSIST prEN 17558:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 17558:2020
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 17558
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2020
ICS 13.180; 13.340.01
English Version
Ergonomics - Ergonomics of PPE ensembles

Ergonomie - Ergonomie des ensembles d'EPI Ergonomie - Ergonomie von PSA-Ensembles

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 122.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17558:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Ergonomics testing ......................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Test ensemble ................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2 Comparative testing ....................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Benchmark testing ....................................................................................................................................... 11

6 Test persons ................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.1 Selection of test persons ............................................................................................................................ 13

6.2 Test person withdrawal ............................................................................................................................. 13

7 Statistical testing .......................................................................................................................................... 13

8 Performance tests and requirements ................................................................................................... 14

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

8.2 Mobility ............................................................................................................................................................ 14

8.3 Normal and total field of vision ............................................................................................................... 14

8.4 Manual dexterity .......................................................................................................................................... 14

8.5 Hearing (sound attenuation) ................................................................................................................... 14

8.6 Thermal impact............................................................................................................................................. 15

8.7 Overall preference (comparative testing) .......................................................................................... 15

9 Practical performance test ....................................................................................................................... 15

10 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 16

Annex A (informative) Experimental design and statistical testing ....................................................... 17

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

A.2 Use of test persons as controls (repeat testing) ................................................................................ 17

A.3 Balanced experimental design ................................................................................................................ 17

A.4 Statistical testing — Number of test persons ..................................................................................... 18

A.5 Selection of test persons ............................................................................................................................ 22

A.6 Other factors .................................................................................................................................................. 23

Annex B (normative) Test preparations ........................................................................................................... 24

B.1 Pre-treatment ................................................................................................................................................ 24

B.2 Storage of ensemble .................................................................................................................................... 24

B.3 Pre-test inspection of ensemble ............................................................................................................. 24

B.4 Fitting the ensemble.................................................................................................................................... 24

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B.5 Verifying test person approval to proceed with testing ................................................................. 24

B.6 Test environment ......................................................................................................................................... 25

Annex C (normative) Restriction of movement .............................................................................................. 26

C.1 General approach ......................................................................................................................................... 26

C.2 Neck/head mobility ..................................................................................................................................... 27

C.3 Shoulder mobility ......................................................................................................................................... 27

C.4 Elbow mobility ............................................................................................................................................... 28

C.5 Wrist mobility ................................................................................................................................................ 28

C.6 Trunk flexion .................................................................................................................................................. 29

C.7 Hip/knee flexion (squatting) .................................................................................................................... 29

Annex D (normative) Vision ................................................................................................................................... 30

D.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 30

D.2 Field of vision ................................................................................................................................................. 30

D.3 Total range of vision .................................................................................................................................... 30

Annex E (normative) Manual dexterity ............................................................................................................. 31

E.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 31

E.2 Modified EN 420 test .................................................................................................................................... 31

E.3 Minnesota block test .................................................................................................................................... 31

E.4 Purdue pegboard test .................................................................................................................................. 32

E.5 Nine-hole peg test ......................................................................................................................................... 32

Annex F (normative) Hearing (sound attenuation) ...................................................................................... 34

F.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 34

Annex G (normative) Thermal strain ................................................................................................................. 35

G.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 35

G.2 Physiological monitoring ........................................................................................................................... 35

G.3 Climate controlled chamber ..................................................................................................................... 38

Annex H (normative) Practical performance test elements under use conditions ........................... 39

H.1 Practical performance test elements .................................................................................................... 39

H.2 Evaluation ........................................................................................................................................................ 40

H.3 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 41

Annex I (normative) Subjective rating scales for mobility tests ............................................................... 42

Annex J (informative) Selection of type of testing for thermal impact ................................................... 43

Annex K (informative) Testing with manikins and/or (virtual) models ............................................... 44

Annex L (informative) Examples of testing ...................................................................................................... 48

L.1 Instructions for the Purdue Pegboard Test ......................................................................................... 48

L.2 Methods for evaluation of manual dexterity in with cold protective gloves........................... 51

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L.3 The method to evaluate effects of protective clothing on energy consumption during

different activities ........................................................................................................................................ 53

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 56

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European foreword

This document (prEN 17558:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122

“Ergonomics”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
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Introduction

It has long been recognized that PPE can have unwanted side-effects on the wearer in terms of imposing

additional physical workload, hindering movement, impairing sensory perception or in some cases

causing considerable discomfort. Such side-effects can reduce the efficiency of task performance and/or

encourage the user not to wear the PPE or use the PPE incorrectly thereby impairing the level of

protection afforded. This problem has been recognized in legislation. The Regulation (EU) 2016/425 of

the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2016 on personal protective equipment [23]

places duties on PPE manufacturers to take account of ergonomic requirements and assists employers

in demonstration compliance with national legislation, whilst the associated EC Directive on the use by

workers of personal protective equipment at the workplace (89/656/EEC) [24] places similar duties on

employers providing PPE for use. These latter requirements have been transposed into national

legislation in all Member States.

This document can be used to compare the performance of different ensembles as part of any PPE

selection process, thereby again assisting employers in demonstrating compliance with national

legislation and to evaluate PPE ensembles in standardized conditions embodying the provisions of EC

Directive on the use of personal protective equipment (89/656/EEC).

To facilitate compliance with such legislation, European technical product standards for individual

items of PPE are gradually introducing tests for ergonomic characteristics. However, such standards are

mainly for testing individual products and seldom include the assessment of interactions with other

items of PPE except in isolated cases (e.g. helmet-mounted ear-muffs conforming to EN 352-3) where

they are an essential element of their use. An exception as an example is ISO/TS 11999-2, which details

a series of tests aimed at evaluating the compatibility of the different components of the PPE ensembles

used by firefighters.

Some PPE items or ensembles incorporate Electronic Safety Equipment forming a smart system

designed to enhance the protection provided. Such systems are included where they form a discreet

wearable item or their integration is considered to possibly have an influence on the ergonomic impact

of the ensemble on the wearer. For example, interconnections or integrated elements might have an

adverse effect on the mobility of a wearer.

When such systems are separated from the PPE and intended to provide feedback to a monitoring

system with no personal protective function then they would not be regarded as an item of PPE,

although if they are integrated into PPE then they would require consideration.

This present European Standard has therefore been prepared to enable PPE ensembles, such as those

worn by police, firefighters and other emergency services, as well as some industrial users; to be

evaluated and objectively assessed for ergonomic performance as complete ensembles, rather than in

their component parts. As such it will provide a valuable tool to aid PPE manufacturers and purchasers

to make informed objective decisions in designing and selecting PPE as ensembles and creating

awareness of interaction issues between PPE items. Test and evaluation of PPE ensembles and systems

(efficiency and ergonomics) should be carried out by those who create the ensemble.

Some of the tests may also be suitable for adoption as part of product standards for individual items of

PPE, although that is not their main purpose.

The principles relating to the ergonomics of PPE are presented in EN 13921. This present European

standard builds on those principles and provides appropriate tests to verify that an ensemble meets

those principles.
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1 Scope

This document can be used to compare the performance of different ensembles as part of any PPE

selection process.

This document does not replace the product standards for the certification of individual items of PPE. It

specifies the testing of individual items of PPE as an ensemble, so that the interaction between the

individual items of PPE can be evaluated and any adverse interactions between the individual items of

PPE can be identified.

It specifies requirements for testing by either assessing the performance of a PPE ensemble against a

benchmark condition (i.e. benchmark testing) or assessing the performance of two or more PPE

ensembles against each other (i.e. comparative testing).

The standard incorporates laboratory as well as field based testing. It can also be used to assess the

performance regarding the ergonomics of an ensemble that incorporates an item of PPE that has never

before been incorporated into an ensemble.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 61260-1:2014, Electroacoustics - Octave-band and fractional-octave-band filters - Part 1:

Specifications
EN 61672-1:2013, Electroacoustics - Sound level meters - Part 1: Specifications

EN ISO 9886, Ergonomics - Evaluation of thermal strain by physiological measurements (ISO 9886)

EN ISO 11904-1:2002, Acoustics - Determination of sound immission from sound sources placed close to

the ear - Part 1: Technique using a microphone in a real ear (MIRE technique) (ISO 11904-1:2002)

EN ISO 12894, Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Medical supervision of individuals exposed to

extreme hot or cold environments (ISO 12894)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
benchmark condition

condition at which test person(s) is/are wearing non-restrictive, minimal, light clothing such as shorts

and a cotton t-shirt and light, flexible footwear such as trainers or plimsolls

Note 1 to entry: Benchmark testing for thermal impact in accordance with Annex G might require the use of an

alternative benchmark condition.
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3.2
benchmark testing

testing for assessing the performance of an ensemble against the benchmark condition

3.3
comparative testing

testing for assessing the performance of two or more ensembles against each other

3.4
electronic safety equipment (ESE)

products that contain electronics embedded in or associated with the product for use by wearers that

provides enhanced safety functions for wearers during operations in a use environment

3.5
performance test

test procedure with wearers of PPE ensembles under specified conditions with simulated postures and

motion sequences
3.6
PPE ensemble
collection of items of personal protective equipment worn by an individual
3.7
practical performance test

test procedure with wearers of PPE ensembles under simulated or real work tasks and if relevant then

also under expected conditions of use
3.8
use conditions
conditions under which different items of PPE normally are used by the wearer
3.9
smart PPE

PPE that uses ESE or material solutions that interact actively, by responding or adapting to

environmental changes or react according to external signal input
4 Ergonomics testing

Ergonomics of PPE can be tested by use of either test persons, use of manikins and/or use of (virtual)

models. This document is dealing only with testing of the ergonomics of PPE with test persons.

Information about alternative testing, e.g. with a manikin and/or (virtual) models, can be found in

Annex K.

For relevant ergonomics evaluation, it is necessary to have a representative sample of target users (see

Annex A for details). A balanced repeated measurement design shall be used for both the benchmark

and comparative testing of ensembles to ensure that the order of experimentation does not influence

the test results (Annex A).

Depending on the required level of complexity the tasks may consist of individual postures, e.g. static

reach and joint angles, or motion sequences, e.g. jump height and dynamic reach; or simulated motion

sequences incorporating several individual postures and motion sequences (performance tests) or

simulated or real work tasks (practical performance tests) either in controlled laboratory or field

settings resembling or not resembling expected use conditions, e.g. environmental parameters, such as

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heat, cold, poor lighting, noise, etc. Ergonomic analysis of tasks under use conditions is recommended

before selecting specific tests in order to guarantee that all major potential constraints are covered.

It is strongly recommended that a person who has been trained in the discipline, e.g. health and safety

expert, ergonomist, work hygienist, should interpret the test results. It is often a person who has been

certified for that qualification, but can also be a person who has a long (documented) experience in the

field of ergonomics, e.g. publications, documented earlier evaluations, etc.
5 Test ensemble
5.1 General

All the items of a test ensemble shall be worn by the test person during testing in accordance with the

instructions of the manufacturer. A complete description of a test ensemble shall be recorded in a test

report conforming to Clause 10.

Although items of clothing being worn with the ensemble might not be classified as PPE, they can

influence ensemble performance. For example, clothing worn beneath protective clothing can influence

heat exchange and consequently thermal comfort or safety. Similarly, close fitting or bulky garments

can influence mobility. Any description of a test ensemble should therefore include all clothing layers,

footwear, hand wear and headwear (including helmets, hearing protection, communications systems

and respiratory protection).
All testing shall either be conducted:

a) to compare two or more PPE ensembles (with comparable protective functions), i.e. comparative

testing in accordance with 5.2; or

b) in an absolute comparison against an unrestricted benchmark condition, i.e. benchmark testing in

accordance with 5.3.
5.2 Comparative testing

Where some items of an ensemble are being replaced, and undergoing assessment by comparative

testing, other components of the existing ensemble need not be new. The status (new or used) of all

items forming the ensemble shall be documented in the test report conforming to Clause 10.

Where all the items of an ensemble are undergoing assessment by comparative testing, each ensemble

shall be subjected to all the tests specified in Clause 8.

Where only a selection of items of an ensemble is being tested, each ensemble shall be subjected to

testing specified in Clause 8, however, if it can be reasonably assumed that the items of PPE undergoing

testing have no influence on a particular test parameter specified in Clause 8, then it is not necessary to

conduct the test for that parameter. Table 1 shows which tests from Clause 8 shall be conducted for a

particular item undergoing assessment.
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Table 1 — Parameters from Clause 8 required to be assessed for a particular item of PPE undergoing assessment

Item of PPE being Parameters from Clause 8 required to be assessed
assessed (part of
Shoulder/ Manual Hearing Thermal
Trunk Hip/knee Clarity Normal Total
body protected)

arm mobility flexion flexion 8.2 within field field of range of dexterity 8.4 8.5 impact 8.6

8.2 8.2 of vision 8.3 vision 8.3 vision 8.3
Head protection × × × × × ×
Eye protection × × × × ×
Respiratory protection × × × × × × ×
Hearing protection × × × ×
Clothing × × × × × × × × ×
Gloves × × × ×
Footwear × ×
Fall arrest × × × ×
Auxiliary heating or × × × × × ×
cooling device
Smart PPE* × × × × × × × × ×

*Smart PPE, for example ESE, may be very different and cover various body areas including intra- and intersystem communication means, thus, the assessment

parameters depend on the specific application and need to be chosen individually (see CEN/TR 16298:2011 for reference).

× indicates which parameters from Clause 8 shall be assessed for a particular item undergoing assessment.

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5.3 Benchmark testing

Where all the items of an ensemble are undergoing assessment by benchmark testing, all the items of

the ensemble shall be new and each ensemble shall be subjected to all the tests specified in Clause 8,

unless a product standard requires pre-treatment. In the latter case, individual items shall be treated

according to procedures described in specific product standards.

Where only a selection of the items of an ensemble are undergoing assessment by benchmark testing,

those items being tested and all of those items which potentially impact upon the items being tested

shall be new. Table 2 shows which items shall be new for a particular item undergoing assessment by

benchmark testing.

Where only a selection of items of an ensemble is being tested, each ensemble shall be subjected to

testing specified in Clause 8, however, if it can be reasonably assumed that the items of PPE undergoing

benchmark testing have no influence on a particular test parameter specified in Clause 8, then it is not

necessary to conduct the test for that parameter. Table 1 shows which tests from Clause 8 shall be

conducted for a particular item undergoing assessment by benchmark testing.
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Table 2 — Items of PPE required to be new for a particular item undergoing assessment

Item of Items of PPE required to be new during assessment
PPE being assessed
Head Eye Respiratory Hearing Clothing Gloves Footwear Fall Auxiliary Smart
protection protection protection protection arrest heating or PPE*
cooling
Head protection × × × × × × ×
Eye protection × × × × ×
...

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