Railway applications - Braking - Functional and performance criteria of Magnetic Track Brake systems for use in railway rolling stock

This European Standard specifies the functionality, position, constraints and control of a magnetic track brake system (MTB system) installed in bogies for use in emergency braking and in low adhesion conditions on Mainline Trains up to speeds of 280 km/h. It covers high suspension types of MTB only and not high/low and low suspension type of MTB.
This document also contains test methods and acceptance criteria for an MTB system. It identifies interfaces with electrical equipment, bogie, track and other brake systems.
On the basis of the existing international and national standards, additional requirements are defined for:
-   conditions of application for the MTB system;
-   retardation and brake forces;
-   functional and design features;
-   strength requirements;
-   type, series and vehicle implementation tests.
For design and calculation a "reference surface" is established.

Bahnanwendungen - Bremse - Anforderungen an Funktion und Leistungsfähigkeit von Magnetschienenbremssystemen für Schienenfahrzeuge

Diese Europäische Norm legt Funktionsweise, Position, Einschränkungen und Steuerung für Magnetschienenbremssysteme (Mg Bremssysteme) fest, die in die Drehgestelle von Vollbahnzügen eingebaut sind und bei Geschwindigkeiten bis zu 280 km/h für Schnellbremsungen sowie unter Bedingungen mit niedrigem Kraftschluss genutzt werden. Diese Norm beschäftigt sich daher nur mit Mg Bremsen in Hochaufhängung und nicht mit hoch/tief  bzw. tief aufgehängten Mg Bremsen.
Dieses Dokument beinhaltet auch Prüfverfahren und Zulassungsbedingungen für Mg Bremssysteme. Außerdem werden die Schnittstellen zur elektrischen Ausrüstung, zum Drehgestell, zum Oberbau und zu anderen Bremssystemen festgelegt.
Auf der Basis bestehender Internationaler und nationaler Normen werden zusätzliche Anforderungen festgelegt an:
- Einsatzbedingungen der Mg Bremse;
- Verzögerungs  und Bremskräfte;
- Funktions  und Konstruktionsmerkmale;
- Festigkeitsanforderungen;
- Typ , Serien  und Fahrzeugintegrationsprüfungen.
Zur Konstruktion und Berechnung wird eine „Referenzfläche“ (das Normalquadrat) eingeführt.

Applications ferroviaires - Freinage - Critères pour la fonction et la performance des systèmes de freinage magnétiques pour véhicules ferroviaires

La présente Norme européenne spécifie la fonctionnalité, la position, les contraintes et la commande d'un système de frein électromagnétique (système FEM) installé sur des bogies et utilisé en cas de freinage d'urgence et dans des conditions de faible adhérence sur des trains de grandes lignes à des vitesses inférieures ou égales à 280 km/h. Elle couvre uniquement les types de FEM à suspension haute, à l’exclusion des types de FEM à suspensions haute/basse et à suspensions basses.
Le présent document contient également des méthodes d'essais et des critères d'acceptation pour un système FEM. Il identifie les interfaces entre l'équipement électrique, le bogie, la voie et d'autres systèmes de frein.
Sur la base des Normes nationales et internationales existantes, des exigences supplémentaires sont définies pour les :
-   conditions d’application du système FEM ;
-   forces de décélération et de freinage ;
-   caractéristiques fonctionnelles et de conception ;
-   exigences de résistance ;
-   essais de type, de série et d'implémentation sur véhicules.
Pour la conception et les calculs, une « surface de référence » est établie.

Železniške naprave - Zavore - Funkcionalna merila in merila za zmogljivost elektromagnetnih zavornih sistemov za železniška vozila

Ta evropski standard določa funkcionalnost, lego, omejitve in nadzor elektromagnetnega tirnega zavornega sistema (sistema MTB), vgrajenega v vozičke za uporabo med izrednim zaviranjem ter pri pogojih nizke oprijemljivosti pri glavnih vlakih, ki dosegajo hitrosti do 280 km/h. Zajema le vrste magnetnih tirnih zavor z visokim vzmetenjem in ne vrst magnetnih tirnih zavor z visokim/nizkim in nizkim vzmetenjem. Ta dokument vsebuje tudi preskusne metode in merila sprejemljivosti za magnetni tirni zavorni sistem. Določa vmesnike, ki imajo električno opremo, vozičke, tire in druge zavorne sisteme. Na podlagi obstoječih mednarodnih in nacionalnih standardov so določene dodatne zahteve za:
– pogoje za uporabo elektromagnetnega tirnega zavornega sistema;
– zakasnitvene in zavorne sile;
– funkcionalne in konstrukcijske lastnosti;
– zahteve glede moči;
– izvedbene preskuse tipa, serije in vozila.
Za konstruiranje in izračun se določi »referenčna površina«.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Nov-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
13-Nov-2019
Completion Date
13-Nov-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
01-januar-2020
Železniške naprave - Zavore - Funkcionalna merila in merila za zmogljivost
elektromagnetnih zavornih sistemov za železniška vozila

Railway applications - Braking - Functional and performance criteria of Magnetic Track

Brake systems for use in railway rolling stock
Bahnanwendungen - Bremse - Anforderungen an Funktion und Leistungsfähigkeit von
Magnetschienenbremssystemen für Schienenfahrzeuge

Applications ferroviaires - Freinage - Critères pour la fonction et la performance des

systèmes de freinage magnétiques pour véhicules ferroviaires
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16207:2014+A1:2019
ICS:
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
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SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
EN 16207:2014+A1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 45.060.01 Supersedes EN 16207:2014
English Version
Railway applications - Braking - Functional and
performance criteria of Magnetic Track Brake systems for
use in railway rolling stock

Applications ferroviaires - Freinage - Critères pour la Bahnanwendungen - Bremse - Anforderungen an

fonction et la performance des systèmes de freinage Funktion und Leistungsfähigkeit von

magnétiques pour véhicules ferroviaires Magnetschienenbremssystemen für Schienenfahrzeuge

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 June 2014 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 9 September

2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ..................................................................................................... 6

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Task and purpose of the MTB ..................................................................................................................... 8

5 Design requirements .................................................................................................................................. 10

5.1 Space envelope to be observed by the MTB ........................................................................................ 10

5.2 Retardation force ......................................................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Guidance of the activated magnet when applied to the rails ....................................................... 11

5.4 Rest position of the magnet above the rail surface .......................................................................... 11

5.5 Magnet elements .......................................................................................................................................... 11

5.5.1 End pieces ....................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.5.2 Pole shoes ....................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.6 Clearance for wheel lathe machines and wheel skates .................................................................. 12

5.7 Strength requirements ............................................................................................................................... 13

5.8 Mechanical fastening of the MTB parts to the bogie ........................................................................ 14

5.9 Additional requirements for permanent magnets ........................................................................... 15

5.10 Control of the MTB ....................................................................................................................................... 15

6 Load combinations for component tests ............................................................................................. 16

6.1 MTB performance considered in the emergency brake performance ...................................... 16

6.2 MTB performance not considered in the emergency brake performance .............................. 17

7 MTB diagnostics ............................................................................................................................................ 17

8 EMC and interfaces ...................................................................................................................................... 17

8.1 Compatibility with train detection systems ....................................................................................... 17

8.2 Bogie components in the area of MTB .................................................................................................. 17

8.3 EMC-proof in accordance with EN 50121-3-2 .................................................................................... 18

9 Type and series production tests ........................................................................................................... 18

9.1 Type test .......................................................................................................................................................... 18

9.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

9.1.2 Magnetic test .................................................................................................................................................. 18

9.1.3 Electric test ..................................................................................................................................................... 18

9.1.4 Thermal test ................................................................................................................................................... 19

9.1.5 Mechanical test ............................................................................................................................................. 19

9.1.6 Other tests and proofs ................................................................................................................................ 19

9.2 Series production testing .......................................................................................................................... 19

10 Vehicle implementation tests .................................................................................................................. 20

Annex A (normative) Design loads (load assumptions) of the MTB ......................................................... 21

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

A.2 Rest position .................................................................................................................................................. 21

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EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 (E)

A.3 Working position (brake application position)................................................................................. 23

A.4 Rail brakes ...................................................................................................................................................... 26

A.5 FME(C)A ............................................................................................................................................................ 27

A.6 Load collective for operational safety proof ....................................................................................... 27

A.7 Load collective for component tests on the example of 10 000 brake applications ............ 29

A.8 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 29

A.9 Test result ........................................................................................................................................................ 30

Annex B (normative) Measurement of the magnetic attractive force — Functional test of

brake magnets ............................................................................................................................................... 31

B.1 Measurement of the magnetic attractive force of MTB magnets ................................................. 31

B.2 Formation of the mean magnetic attractive force for rigid magnets ......................................... 32

B.3 Formation of the mean magnetic attractive force for articulated magnets ............................ 32

Annex C (normative) End pieces of MTB ............................................................................................................. 34

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC aimed to be covered ............................................... 39

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 41

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SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16207:2014+A1:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2020 and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 9 September 2019.
This document supersedes EN 16207:2014.

The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !".

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC.

For relationship with EU Directive 2008/57/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of

this document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies the functionality, position, constraints and control of a magnetic track

brake system (MTB system) installed in bogies for use in emergency braking and in low adhesion

conditions on Mainline Trains with speeds up to 280 km/h. It covers high suspension types of MTB only

and not high/low and low suspension type of MTB.

This document also contains test methods and acceptance criteria for an MTB system. It identifies

interfaces with electrical equipment, bogie, track and other brake systems.

On the basis of the existing international and national standards, additional requirements are defined

for:
— conditions of application for the MTB system;
— retardation and brake forces;
— functional and design features;
— strength requirements;
— type, series and vehicle implementation tests.
For design and calculation a “reference surface” is established.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 10025-2, Hot rolled products of structural steels — Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for non-alloy

structural steels

EN 13674-1, Railway applications — Track — Rail — Part 1: Vignole railway rails 46 kg/m and above

EN 14198, Railway applications — Braking — Requirements for the brake system of trains hauled by a

locomotive
EN 14478, Railway applications — Braking — Generic vocabulary

!EN 14531-2", Railway applications — Methods for calculation of stopping and slowing distances

and immobilisation braking — Part 2: Step by step calculations for train sets or single vehicles

EN 15085 (all parts), Railway applications — Welding of railway vehicles and components

EN 15179, Railway applications — Braking — Requirements for the brake system of coaches

EN 15273-1:2013, Railway applications — Gauges — Part 1: General — Common rules for infrastructure

and rolling stock
EN 15273-2, Railway applications — Gauges — Part 2: Rolling stock gauge

EN 15734-1, Railway applications — Braking systems of high speed trains — Part 1: Requirements and

definitions
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SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 (E)

EN 15734-2, Railway applications — Braking systems of high speed trains — Part 2: Test methods

prEN 16185-1, Railway applications — Braking systems of multiple unit trains — Part 1: Requirements

and definitions

prEN 16185-2, Railway applications — Braking systems of multiple unit trains — Part 2: Test methods

EN 45545-2, Railway applications — Fire protection on railway vehicles — Part 2: Requirements for fire

behavior of materials and components

EN 50121-3-2, Railway applications — Electromagnetic compatibility — Part 3-2: Rolling stock —

Apparatus

EN 50124-1, Railway applications — Insulation coordination — Part 1: Basic requirements — Clearances

and creepage distances for all electrical and electronic equipment

EN 50126, Railway applications — The specification and demonstration of Reliability, Availability,

Maintainability and Safety (RAMS)

EN 50128, Railway applications — Communications, signalling and processing systems — Software for

railway control and protection systems

EN 50129, Railway applications — Communication, signalling and processing systems — Safety related

electronic systems for signalling

EN 60077-1:2002, Railway applications — Electric equipment for rolling stock — Part 1: General service

conditions and general rules (IEC 60077-1:1999, modified)
EN 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) (IEC 60529)

EN 61373, Railway applications — Rolling stock equipment — Shock and vibration tests (IEC 61373)

EN ISO 2409, Paints and varnishes — Cross-cut test (ISO 2409)

EN ISO 4628-3, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity

and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 3: Assessment of degree of

rusting (ISO 4628-3)

EN ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests (ISO 9227)

!EN 16834:2019, Railway applications — Braking — Brake performance"
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 14478 and the following apply.

3.1.1
actuator

device to lower the MTB to the rail head, commonly a pneumatic cylinder with a return spring

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SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 (E)
3.1.2
end pieces
guide the magnets on the rails
Note 1 to entry: They also contribute to the braking force
Note 2 to entry: They are subject to wear.
3.1.3
high suspension

variation of the MTB in which the magnets are connected with each other by means of tie bars and, in

their rest position, are fastened to centring elements situated at a rest position in the running gear

where they are held by spring action, and in which, so as to apply the magnets, an energy source is used

for lowering them onto the rails
3.1.4
high/low suspension

variation of the MTB in which the magnets are likewise connected with each other by means of tie bars

and, in their rest position, are fastened to centring elements situated at a rest position in the running

gear where they are displaced to their low position by using an external energy source, whereas, in

their low position, however they are situated at a height which, when the magnets are energized, causes

the magnets to get self-attracted by the rails, against a spring force
3.1.5
low suspension

variation of the MTB in which the magnets are suspended above the rail surface, by the action of a

spring, at a level that allows the magnets, when they are energized, to become self-attracted by the rail

3.1.6
pole shoes
friction elements of the magnet that produce the braking force
Note 1 to entry: They are subject to wear and are therefore replaceable.
3.1.7
rest position

position of the MTB in which the magnets suspended at a significant distance from the rail surface,

unless a brake application command has been issued and in which position the magnet is guided and

positioned by the bogie

Note 1 to entry: This position corresponds to the geometrical defined rest position in case of high suspension

and high/low suspension.
3.1.8
weld-ons

accumulation of metallic wear debris that attaches to the underside of the MTB pole pieces

Note 1 to entry: The presence of this material reduces the braking performance of the MTB and thus needs to be

removed during maintenance activities.
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SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 (E)
3.1.9
working position

position of the MTB in which the magnets are in contact with the rail where it centres itself, due to the

action of the magnetic field and in which, when the magnet is energized, the brake force is produced by

friction
3.2 Abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply.
BP Brake Pipe
CCS Control Command and Signalling
DC Direct Current
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
FME(C)A Failure Mode Effect (criticality) Analysis
g acceleration by gravitation (9,81 m/s )

IP67 IP-Code: a coding system to indicate the degrees of protection by an enclosure against access

to hazardous parts, ingress of solid foreign objects, ingress of water and to give additional

information in connection with such protection, according to EN 60529
MTB Magnetic Track Brake, equipment for one bogie/running gear

PD2 degrees of pollution for the purpose of evaluating creepage distances and clearances,

according to EN 50124–1

q clearance in mm between wheel set and lower part of the bogie frame in accordance with

EN 15273–2
R+Mg brake mode with the MTB function active in accordance with EN 14198
TSI Technical Specification for Interoperability
U nominal battery voltage
WSP Wheel Slide Protection
4 Task and purpose of the MTB

The MTB is an additional braking device that directly acts on the rails and is therefore independent of

wheel/rail adhesion. Its action is obtained by friction due to the magnetic attractive force. The magnetic

attractive force can be generated electrically or by permanent magnets. The MTB is installed into the

bogie or running gear, if required, to complement the brake depending on the wheel/rail adhesion. In

the bogie the magnets are installed between the wheels.

Figure 1 shows an example of an MTB with high suspension fitted to a bogie, which is represented in a

simplified version.
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SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 (E)
Key
1 magnet with segmented or rigid pole shoes
2 actuator
3 tie bar
4 brake reaction bracket, non-magnetic
5 centring device to restrict lateral movement in the rest position
6 special end pieces for negotiating point work
7 electrical interface
8 pneumatical interface
Figure 1 — Installation of an MTB into a bogie (example)
The MTB is generally used in the following cases:
a) Emergency brake applications:

The MTB is activated automatically in case of an emergency brake application. If the MTB is part of

the emergency braking performance then it is subject to specific safety and reliability requirements

with respect to its availability to be applied. In this situation the retardation rate can be included in

the braked weight value/overall retardation of the vehicle.
b) Brake application under low adhesion conditions or steep slopes:

The MTB may be actuated at the driver’s discretion independently of the wheel/rail adhesion

dependent brake.
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SIST EN 16207:2014+A1:2020
EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 (E)

If MTB is on vehicles that are to be run through shunting areas, the system shall allow the inhibition of

MTB and the clearance restrictions in accordance with EN 15273-1:2013, Figure C.4 shall be observed.

NOTE 1 There is a risk that roll down humps, rail brakes and other shunting and retarding devices may contact

MTBs particularly on track curves having a radius of R < 150 m.

NOTE 2 Vehicles which by reason of their design are liable to sustain damage when crossing shunting humps

will be marked with EN 15877-2:2013, Figure 76. Vehicles which are not designed for passing rail brakes will be

marked with EN 15877-2:2013, Figure 58.
5 Design requirements
5.1 Space envelope to be observed by the MTB

The position of the brake magnets above rail shall ensure a clearance which is sufficient under all

operating configurations/conditions to prevent the magnets making contact with the rail if not

activated (due to vibrations or suspension movements, independent of speed, even under extreme

conditions with wheel wear and new brake magnets.

The clearances shall take into account the lateral excursion and the vertical height position of the MTB

when the vehicle is in the operating condition. The clearances of the vehicles to be observed are

generally guided by the following provisions:

a) The permissible clearances in accordance with EN 15273-1:2013, Figure C.4, including space "e",

for the lower limitation of the vehicles shall not be exceeded by any parts of the MTB, neither in its

rest nor in its working position. When the brake is in its working position, the magnets are centred

on the rail, due to their magnetic force, as a consequence of which their gauge clearance only needs

to be provided for the rest position of the brake.

b) For the short time during the transition from its rest to its working position and vice versa gauge

clearance shall be equated with its working position.

c) In case space "e" should be used in working position and the magnets should contact with the track,

e.g. when passing over switches, track or road crossings, their safe return to space "d" shall be

ensured, without any functional impediment.

d) When performing the clearance check, the following criteria shall be taken into account:

1) the wear condition of the wheels;
2) the condition of the pole shoes;
3) the suspension movements of the bogie.
5.2 Retardation force

The retardation of the MTB depends on its magnetic attractive force on the rail, the magnet length

applied, the material of its magnets and their condition during the braking process. The braking force

produced by friction between the magnets and the rail results from the combined effect of the magnetic

force applied and the coefficient of friction element/rail.

For dimension and design purposes calculations shall be carried out in accordance with

!EN 14531-2". The performance shall be verified by testing.
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EN 16207:2014+A1:2019 (E)

The MTB shall, whenever possible, reach its specified retardation rate under all environmental

conditions that are typical for railway operation. It is permitted during winter control to use heating

elements to reduce the build-up of ice on the pole shoes.

The magnetic attractive force of the MTB on to the rail head shall be defined in the technical documents

of the manufacturer and is expressed and measured in accordance with the methods described in 9.1.2.

5.3 Guidance of the activated magnet when applied to the rails

As a rule, each magnet or both magnets jointly, arranged opposite each other, shall have an optimum

contact with the rail head when activated. For this purpose, the MTB shall be provided with sufficient

lateral freedom in the bogie in the working position. The MTB shall have an adequate lateral clearance.

In EN 15273-1 the clearance between axle and bogie underframe is defined by q:
x = lateral clearance + q

The distance between the centre lines of the magnets shall be 1 510 mm for standard gauge

(1 435 mm), see Annex C. When intended for use on different gauges the distance between the centre

lines shall be adjusted accordingly.

A bogie shall always comprise two magnets with pole shoes of identical construction. Appropriate

devices (e. g. tie bars) shall be provided to maintain the pole shoes in a parallel position to each other.

When the rail head is interrupted (switches, crossings), guidance of the magnet along the longitudinal

axis of the rail head and its geometrical position, in relation to the vertical axis, shall be ensured in an

optimum way to achieve a retardation rate that is as uniform as possible and to make sure that the MTB

guiding elements in the running gear be subjected to the least possible mechanical load. The working

MTB shall be capable of passing over switches and crossings (incorporating fixed crossings). A

reference switch where the tangent of the crossing angle is tg α ≥ 0,034 is able to verify the capable

function.
5.4 Rest position of the magnet above the rail surface

The MTB when in its rest position with the vehicle in working order, with fully worn wheels and taking

into account static deflection of the running gear shall:
— remain within the space "b", as defined in EN 15273-1:2013, Figure C.4;
— be 40 mm to 100 mm above the rail surface.

It may be assumed that the stationary parts in the switch and crossing environment do not exceed a

height of 80 mm above the rail surface.
5.5 Magnet elements
5.5.1 End pieces
The end pieces of a magnet have several tasks:

— they protect the magnet pole shoes transmitting the braking force from mechanical damage;

— they assist the passage of the magnet over switches and crossings when the magnets are in working

position, to reduce the risk of derailment;
— they contribute to the overall retardation generated by the magnet.

To ensure these characteristics, the end pieces are fixed on the support frame of the magnets and shall

have a suitable geometry. The present state of the art is documented in Annex C.
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...

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