Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 8: Determination of the polished stone value

This document describes the reference method used for type testing and in case of dispute for determining the polished stone value (PSV) of a coarse aggregate used in road surfacings. For other purposes, in particular factory production control, other methods are possible provided that an appropriate working relationship with the reference method has been established. Examples of advanced test methods can be found in the Bibliography.
Annex A describes an optional method for the determination of the aggregate abrasion value (AAV).
NOTE 1   The AAV method is suitable to use when particular types of skid resistant aggregates, (typically those with a PSV of 60 or greater) which can be susceptible to abrasion under traffic, are required.
The sample is taken from normal run of production from the plant.
NOTE 2   Chippings that have been freshly crushed in the laboratory or recovered from bituminous materials may give misleading results.

Prüfverfahren für mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften von Gesteinskörnungen - Teil 8: Bestimmung des Polierwertes

Dieses Dokument legt das für die Erstprüfung und im Streitfall anzuwendende Referenzverfahren für die Bestimmung des Polierwerts (en: polished stone value, PSV) einer groben Gesteinskörnung für Straßenoberflächen fest. Für andere Zwecke, speziell im Rahmen der werkseigenen Produktionskontrolle, sind auch andere Verfahren möglich, sofern ein ausreichender Zusammenhang zum Referenzverfahren nachgewiesen wurde. Beispiele für fortschrittliche Prüfverfahren können den Literaturhinweisen entnommen werden.
Im Anhang A ist ein optionales Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Abriebwertes einer Gesteinskörnung (en: aggregate abrasion value, AAV) beschrieben.
ANMERKUNG 1   Das AAV-Verfahren ist geeignet, wenn bestimmte Arten von griffigen Gesteinskörnungen (üblicherweise Gesteine mit einem PSV von 60 oder darüber), die anfällig gegen Abrieb unter Verkehrsbelastung sein können, benötigt werden.
Die Probe wird aus der normalen Produktion im Werk entnommen.
ANMERKUNG 2   Frisch im Laboratorium gebrochenes oder aus Asphalt rückgewonnenes Material kann zu verfälschenden Ergebnissen führen.

Essais pour déterminer les caractéristiques mécaniques et physiques des granulats - Partie 8 : Détermination du coefficient de polissage accéléré

Ce document décrit la méthode de référence utilisée pour les essais de type initiaux et en cas de litige pour déterminer le coefficient de polissage accéléré (PSV) des gravillons utilisés dans les revêtements des routes. À d’autres fins, en particulier pour le contrôle de la production en usine, d’autres méthodes sont envisageables sous réserve qu’une corrélation appropriée avec la méthode de référence ait été établie. Des exemples de méthodes d'essai avancées sont disponibles dans la bibliographie.
L'Annexe A décrit une méthode facultative pour la détermination de la valeur d’abrasion des granulats (AAV).
NOTE 1 La méthode AAV peut être utilisée lorsque des types particuliers de granulats antidérapants (ceux, généralement, dont le PSV est égal ou supérieur à 60) sensibles à l’abrasion occasionnée par la circulation, sont exigés.

Preskusi mehanskih in fizikalnih lastnosti agregatov - 8. del: Določevanje vrednosti količnika zaglajevanja kamenih zrn

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Apr-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
15-Apr-2020
Completion Date
15-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1097-8:2020
01-julij-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 1097-8:2009
Preskusi mehanskih in fizikalnih lastnosti agregatov - 8. del: Določevanje
vrednosti količnika zaglajevanja kamenih zrn

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 8: Determination of the

polished stone value

Prüfverfahren für mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften von Gesteinskörnungen

- Teil 8: Bestimmung des Polierwertes

Essais pour déterminer les caractéristiques mécaniques et physiques des granulats -

Partie 8: Détermination du coefficient de polissage accéléré
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1097-8:2020
ICS:
91.100.15 Mineralni materiali in izdelki Mineral materials and
products
SIST EN 1097-8:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 1097-8:2020
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SIST EN 1097-8:2020
EN 1097-8
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 91.100.15 Supersedes EN 1097-8:2009
English Version
Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates
- Part 8: Determination of the polished stone value

Essais pour déterminer les caractéristiques Prüfverfahren für mechanische und physikalische

mécaniques et physiques des granulats - Partie 8 : Eigenschaften von Gesteinskörnungen - Teil 8:

Détermination du coefficient de polissage accéléré Bestimmung des Polierwertes
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 February 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1097-8:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 1097-8:2020
EN 1097-8:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ........................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................... 6

4 Principle ............................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Materials .............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2 Materials .............................................................................................................................................. 7

6 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2 Accelerated polishing machine ................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Friction tester ................................................................................................................................. 11

6.4 Test sieves ........................................................................................................................................ 14

6.5 Grid sieve .......................................................................................................................................... 14

6.6 Length gauge or callipers ............................................................................................................ 14

6.7 Equipment for preparing test specimens ............................................................................. 14

7 Preparation of test specimens .................................................................................................. 15

8 Conditioning of the rubber-tyred wheel ................................................................................ 16

9 Accelerated polishing of specimens ........................................................................................ 16

10 Friction test procedure ................................................................................................................ 18

11 Calculation and expression of results .................................................................................... 21

12 Test report ........................................................................................................................................ 22

12.1 Required data .................................................................................................................................. 22

12.2 Optional data ................................................................................................................................... 22

Annex A (normative) Determination of aggregate abrasion value (AAV) .............................. 23

A.1 General .............................................................................................................................................. 23

A.2 Principle ............................................................................................................................................ 23

A.3 Materials ........................................................................................................................................... 23

A.4 Apparatus ......................................................................................................................................... 24

A.4.1 General .............................................................................................................................................. 24

A.4.2 Abrasion machine .......................................................................................................................... 24

A.4.3 Test sieves ........................................................................................................................................ 24

A.4.4 Grid sieve .......................................................................................................................................... 24

A.4.5 Balance .............................................................................................................................................. 25

A.4.6 Small fine-haired brushes .......................................................................................................... 25

A.4.7 Brush .................................................................................................................................................. 25

A.4.8 Clamp ................................................................................................................................................. 25

A.5 Preparation of test specimens .................................................................................................. 25

A.5.1 Test portion ..................................................................................................................................... 25

A.5.2 Specimens ......................................................................................................................................... 25

A.6 Procedure ......................................................................................................................................... 25

A.7 Calculation and expression of results .................................................................................... 26

A.8 Test report ....................................................................................................................................... 26

Annex B (normative) Control of materials – Corn emery and emery flour ............................ 27

Annex C (normative) Calibration of the accelerated polishing machine ................................ 28

C.1 Control of rubber-tyred wheels ................................................................................................ 28

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EN 1097-8:2020 (E)

C.2 Accelerated polishing machine ................................................................................................ 28

C.3 Rate of flow of corn emery and emery flour ........................................................................ 30

Annex D (normative) Calibration of the friction tester and sliders ......................................... 31

D.1 Friction tester ................................................................................................................................. 31

D.1.1 General .............................................................................................................................................. 31

D.1.2 Mass of pendulum arm and pointer ........................................................................................ 31

D.1.3 Balancing of the pendulum arm assembly ........................................................................... 31

D.1.4 Setting the effective spring tension ......................................................................................... 31

D.1.5 Setting the pointer stop ............................................................................................................... 31

D.2 Control of sliders and slider rubber ....................................................................................... 32

Annex E (normative) Friction tester reference stone specimen preparation and friction

slider conditioning ........................................................................................................................ 33

E.1 General .............................................................................................................................................. 33

E.2 Preparation and initial testing of friction tester reference stone specimens ......... 33

E.3 Slider conditioning ........................................................................................................................ 33

Annex F (informative) Precision for the aggregate abrasion value (AAV) ............................. 34

F.1 General .............................................................................................................................................. 34

F.2 Precision values for repeatability and reproducibility ................................................... 34

Bibliography .................................................................................................................................................. 35

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SIST EN 1097-8:2020
EN 1097-8:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 1097-8:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 154

“Aggregates”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1097-8:2009.
The main technical changes compared to the previous version are the following:

— Clauses 5 and A.3 about sampling have been deleted as sufficient information is given in the Scope

and in 8.1. Consequently, all clauses have been renumbered.
— New Clause 5 Materials has been restructured.
— Grading requirements for corn emery have been completed (Table 1).
— Requirements for emery flour have been added (5.2.2).

— The sources of PSV control stone and friction tester reference stone have been changed (5.2.3 and

5.2.4).

— The feed mechanisms for corn emery and emery flour have been clarified (6.2.5 and 6.2.6).

— The friction tester design has been clarified (6.3).
— The range of test sieves has been extended (6.4).
— The precision of grid sieve bar spacing has been changed (6.5).

— Notes with normative text have been transformed into main text or deleted (6.2.7, 7.4 and A.5.2).

— An illustration of correct and incorrect prepared test specimens has been added (7.5).

— Instructions for clamping specimens around the road wheel have been given (9.3).

— The precision of corn emery feed rate has been changed (9.4).

— The time between water storage and accelerated polishing of specimens has been limited (9.8).

— The friction test procedure has been rewritten and supplemented with illustrations showing the

positioning of test specimens (Clause 10).
— The PSV control stone has been changed and the specified range adapted (11.2).
— Formula (1) has been adapted to the new control stone (11.3.3).
— The test report content has been adapted to the current rules (Clause 12).
— The temperature for conditioning rubber-tyred wheels has been changed (C.1.3).
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EN 1097-8:2020 (E)

— The verification of the alignment of the road wheel relative to each rubber-tyred wheel has been

extensively revised (Annex C).
— The control of sliders and slider rubber in D.2 has been specified.

— Annex E about precision has been removed as the test method has been changed and the former

precision results were not acceptable any more.

— A new normative Annex E has been added: “Friction tester reference stone specimen preparation

and friction slider conditioning”.
— Precision for the aggregate abrasion value has been moved to a new Annex F.
— The Bibliography has been supplemented.

This document forms part of a series of tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates. Test

methods for other properties of aggregates are covered by Parts of the following European Standards:

EN 932, Tests for general properties of aggregates
EN 933, Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates
EN 1367, Tests for thermal and weathering properties of aggregates
EN 1744, Tests for chemical properties of aggregates
EN 13179, Tests for filler aggregate used in bituminous mixtures
The other parts of EN 1097 are:
— Part 1: Determination of the resistance to wear (micro-Deval)
— Part 2: Methods for the determination of resistance to fragmentation
— Part 3: Determination of loose bulk density and voids
— Part 4: Determination of the voids of dry compacted filler
— Part 5: Determination of water content by drying in a ventilated oven
— Part 6: Determination of particle density and water absorption
— Part 7: Determination of the particle density of filler – Pyknometer method

— Part 9: Determination of the resistance to wear by abrasion from studded tyres: Nordic test

— Part 10: Water suction height

In this document, the Annexes A, B, C, D and E are normative and the Annex F is informative.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey

and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 1097-8:2020
EN 1097-8:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document describes the reference method used for type testing and in case of dispute for

determining the polished stone value (PSV) of a coarse aggregate used in road surfacings. For other

purposes, in particular factory production control, other methods are possible provided that an

appropriate working relationship with the reference method has been established. Examples of

advanced test methods can be found in the Bibliography.

Annex A describes an optional method for the determination of the aggregate abrasion value (AAV).

NOTE 1 The AAV method is suitable to use when particular types of skid resistant aggregates, (typically those

with a PSV of 60 or greater) which can be susceptible to abrasion under traffic, are required.

The sample is taken from normal run of production from the plant.

NOTE 2 Chippings that have been freshly crushed in the laboratory or recovered from bituminous materials

may give misleading results.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

EN 932-2, Tests for general properties of aggregates — Part 2: Methods for reducing laboratory samples

EN 932-5, Tests for general properties of aggregates — Part 5: Common equipment and calibration

EN 933-3, Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates — Part 3: Determination of particle shape –

Flakiness index

EN 1097-6, Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates — Part 6: Determination of

particle density and water absorption
ISO 48, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Determination of hardness

ISO 4662, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Determination of rebound resilience

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp/ui
3.1
batch

production quantity, a delivery quantity, a partial delivery quantity (railway wagon-load, lorry-load,

ship's cargo) or a stockpile produced at one time under conditions that are presumed uniform

Note 1 to entry: With a continuous process, the quantity produced during an agreed period is treated as a batch.

3.2
laboratory sample
reduced sample derived from a bulk sample for laboratory testing
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SIST EN 1097-8:2020
EN 1097-8:2020 (E)
3.3
subsample
sample obtained by means of a sample reduction procedure
3.4
test portion
sample used as a whole in a single test
3.5
test specimen

sample used in a single determination when a test method requires more than one determination of a

property
4 Principle

PSV is a measure of the resistance of coarse aggregate to the polishing action of vehicle tyres under

conditions which simulate those occurring on the surface of a road.

The test is carried out on aggregate passing a 10 mm sieve and retained on a 7,2 mm grid sieve, and is

in two parts:

a) test specimens are subjected to a polishing action in an accelerated polishing machine;

b) the state of polish reached by each specimen is measured by means of a friction test. The PSV is

then calculated from the friction determinations.
5 Materials
5.1 General
Detailed requirements for the control of materials are specified in Annex B.
5.2 Materials

5.2.1 Natural corn emery, complying with the grading specified in Table 1. This shall be used only

once.
Table 1 — Grading requirements for corn emery
Nominal width of Total passing
sieve aperture
1,0 100
0,600 98 to 100
0,500 70 to 100
0,425 30 to 90
0,355 0 to 30
0,300 0 to 5

5.2.2 Air-floated or water-washed natural emery flour, complying with the characteristics

specified below. This shall be used only once.
O content;
a) at least 50 % Al
2 3
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SIST EN 1097-8:2020
EN 1097-8:2020 (E)
b) particle density of at least 3,5 Mg/m ;
c) particle size distribution (by air jet sieving) as given in Table 2.
Table 2 — Grading requirements for emery flour
Sieve size Passing
mm %
0,063 100
0,050 99 to 100
0,032 75 to 98
0,020 60 to 80

5.2.3 PSV control stone, from a recognized source, with a mean PSV in the range 50 to 60.

NOTE 1 At present the only recognized source of PSV control stone is a stock of granite aggregate controlled

by Technische Universität München (TUM), MPA Bau – Abteilung Baustoffe, Baumbachstrasse 7, 81245

München, Germany.

NOTE 2 An alternative source of PSV control stone with a mean PSV in the range 50 to 60 can be used provided

the PSV has been established in a controlled experiment carried out in at least ten laboratories, by cross testing

against the Herrnholzer control stone.
In case of dispute, the Herrnholzer control stone should be used.

5.2.4 Friction tester reference stone, from a recognized source, for conditioning new sliders

(Annex E) and checking the friction tester (10.3), with a mean PSV in the range 60 to 65.

NOTE 1 At present the only recognized source of friction tester reference stone is a stock of olivine basalt

aggregate controlled by Wessex Precision Instruments, info@wessextestequipment.co.uk.

NOTE 2 An alternative source of friction tester reference stone with a mean PSV in the range 60 to 65 can be

used provided the PSV has been established in a controlled experiment carried out in at least ten laboratories,

by cross testing against the WESSEX type friction tester reference stone.

In case of dispute, the WESSEX type friction tester reference stone should be used.

6 Apparatus
6.1 General

All apparatus, unless otherwise stated, shall conform to the general requirements of EN 932-5.

Additional requirements for calibration and control of the accelerated polishing machine and the

rubber-tyred wheels are given in Annex C.
6.2 Accelerated polishing machine

The polishing machine (Figure 1) shall be mounted on four adjustable levelling feet, placed at the

corners and secured on a firm, level base of stone or concrete. It shall include the parts specified in

6.2.1 to 6.2.7.
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SIST EN 1097-8:2020
EN 1097-8:2020 (E)
Key
1 road wheel 4 feed mechanisms
2 solid rubber-tyred wheel 5 water feed
3 weight 6 flow gauge
Figure 1 — Typical accelerated polishing machine

6.2.1 A wheel, referred to as the “road wheel”, having a flat periphery and clamping arrangements

to hold the aggregate specimens shown in Figure 2. It shall be of such a size and shape as to permit 14

of the specimens described in Clause 7 to be clamped onto the periphery so as to form a surface of

aggregate particles (406 ± 3) mm in diameter and bounded by clamping rings (44,5 ± 0,5) mm apart.

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SIST EN 1097-8:2020
EN 1097-8:2020 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 2 — Test specimen dimensions

6.2.2 A means of rotating the road wheel about its own axis at a speed of (320 ± 5) min under

test conditions.

6.2.3 Two solid rubber-tyred wheels of (200 ± 3) mm diameter and with a width of (38 ± 2) mm.

One of these wheels shall be used exclusively with the corn emery and clearly marked as such, whereas

the other wheel shall be used exclusively with the emery flour and clearly marked as such. The surface

of the rubber tyres shall initially have a hardness of (69 ± 3) IRHD as specified in ISO 48.

6.2.4 A lever arm and weight to bring the surface of the appropriate solid rubber-tyred wheel to

bear on the road wheel with a total free force of (725 ± 10) N. The solid rubber-tyred wheel shall be

free to rotate about its own axis, which shall be parallel with the axis of the road wheel, and the plane

of rotation of the tyre shall be in line with that of the road wheel.

The machine shall be accurately aligned so that the road wheel and either of the rubber-tyred wheels

shall be free to rotate without play in the bearings (C.2.4):

a) the planes of rotation of the two wheels in use shall be not more than 0,33° of arc out of parallel

(1 mm in 200 mm);

b) the planes of rotation through the centres of the two wheels in use shall be not more than 0,8 mm

apart.

6.2.5 Feed mechanism for the corn emery, identified as being for use with the rubber-tyred wheel

marked for use with the corn emery (6.2.3), to feed the corn emery (5.2.1) and water at the specified

rates. The emery and water shall be fed directly onto the road wheel near the point of contact with the

rubber-tyred wheel.

NOTE Feeding the corn emery and water near the point of contact with the rubber-tyred wheel is usually

achieved using a nozzle into which water and emery mix. In such a case, instead of having a continuous emery

flow, emery clusters may form under capillary forces and discharge discontinuously near the point of contact

with the rubber-tyred wheel. To avoid this phenomenon, a possible solution would be to connect the water

supply to the lowest point of the nozzle (close to the road wheel).
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EN 1097-8:2020 (E)

6.2.6 Feed mechanism for the emery flour, identified as being for use with rubber-tyred wheel

marked for the emery flour (6.2.3), to feed the emery flour (5.2.2) and water continuously at the

specified rates between the rubber tyred-wheel and the road wheel.

Most feed mechanisms inject emery flour at the top of the rubber-tyred wheel and not at the contact

point with the road wheel. In this case, it is important to ensure that most emery is driven to the contact

point between the road wheel and the rubber-tyred wheel. For this purpose, some feed mechanisms

incorporate a disposable felt pad in contact with the rubber-tyred wheel to homogeneously spread and

stick the emery flour onto its tread. Change this disposable felt pad at least once every three tests.

6.2.7 A means of ensuring that the rubber-tyred wheels are not left under load when not

running, to prevent the risk of the tyre becoming deformed. When not in use, the rubber-tyred wheels

should be removed from the machine and stored as described in Annex C.
6.3 Friction tester
6.3.1 Calibration

Additional requirements for calibration and control of the friction tester, sliders and slider rubber are

given in Annex D.
6.3.2 Design

The friction test shall be carried out using an equipment, of which an example is shown in Figure 3. All

bearings and working parts shall be enclosed as far as possible, and all materials used shall be treated

to prevent corrosion under wet conditions.

The friction test equipment shall have the features specified in 6.3.2.1 to 6.3.2.11.

6.3.2.1 A spring-loaded rubber slider of the mass, size and shape as specified in 6.3.2.9. It shall be

mounted on the end of a pendulum arm so that the sliding edge is approximately 510 mm from the

axis of suspension.
6.3.2.2 Means for setting the support column of the equipment vertical.

6.3.2.3 Means for rigidly locating one of the curved specimens from the accelerated polishing

machine, referred to as the “specimen holder”. The design shall allow sufficient movement between

the pendulum and this specimen holder to adjust their alignment so that the longer dimension of the

specimen lies in the track of the pendulum and it is central with respect to the rubber slider and to the

axis of suspension of the pendulum (10.4).

6.3.2.4 Means of raising and lowering the axis of suspension of the pendulum arm so that the slider

can:
a) swing clear of the surface of the specimen; and
b) be set to traverse a curved specimen over a length of (76 ± 1) mm.

6.3.2.5 Means of locking and releasing the pendulum arm so that it falls freely from a horizontal

position.

6.3.2.6 A pointer balanced about the axis of suspension, indicating the position of the pendulum

arm throughout its forward swing and moving over the circular scale. The mass of the pointer shall be

not more than 85 g. The friction in the pointer mechanism shall be adjustable so that, wi

...

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