Plastics - Barrier films for agricultural and horticultural soil disinfection by fumigation - Part 1: Specifications for barrier films

This document specifies the requirements relating to the dimensional, mechanical and physical-chemical characteristics of thermoplastic barrier films designed for agricultural and horticultural soil disinfection by means of fumigation.
This document specifies also the test methods for verifying these requirements, except the method for determining film permeability using a static technique, which is specified in EN 17098 2.
This document defines also guidance for installation, use and disposal of barrier films.
This document is applicable to films used during soil disinfection by fumigation (class 1), and to films used during soil disinfection subsequently kept in situ as mulch films (class 2).
On the date of publication of this document, the barrier films are multi-layer films.

Kunststoffe - Sperrschichtfolien für die Desinfektion durch Begasung von Landwirtschafts- und Gartenbauböden - Teil 1: Spezifikationen für Sperrschichtfolien

Dieses Dokument legt die Anforderungen an die Maß , mechanischen und physikalisch chemi¬schen Eigenschaften von thermoplastischen Sperrschichtfolien für die Desinfektion von Landwirtschafts  und Gartenbauböden durch Begasung fest.
Darüber hinaus legt dieses Dokument die Prüfverfahren zur Überprüfung dieser Anforderungen fest mit Ausnahme des Verfahrens zur Bestimmung der Foliendurchlässigkeit unter Verwendung einer statischen Technik, die in EN 17098 2 definiert wird.
Dieses Dokument legt auch Empfehlungen für die Verlegung, Nutzung und Entsorgung von Sperrschichtfolien fest.
Dieses Dokument gilt für Folien, die im Rahmen der Bodendesinfektion durch Begasung (Klasse 1), und Folien, die während der Bodendesinfektion verwendet und anschließend vor Ort als Mulchfolie belassen werden (Klasse 2).
Die Sperrschichtfolien sind zum Datum der Veröffentlichung dieses Dokuments mehrlagige Folien.

Plastiques - Films barrière pour la désinfection par fumigation des sols agricoles et horticoles - Partie 1: Spécifications des films barrière

Le présent document spécifie les exigences relatives aux caractéristiques dimensionnelles, mécaniques et physico-chimiques des films barrière en thermoplastiques destinés à la désinfection des sols agricoles et horticoles par la technique de fumigation.
Ce document spécifie également les méthodes d’essai permettant de vérifier ces exigences, excepté la méthode de détermination de la perméabilité d’un film utilisant une technique statique, qui est spécifiée dans l’EN 17098 2.
Ce document donne également les pratiques concernant la pose, l’utilisation et l’élimination des films barrière.
Ce document est applicable aux films utilisés pendant la désinfection par fumigation des sols (classe 1) et aux films utilisés pendant la désinfection des sols et qui restent ensuite in situ pour servir de films de paillage (classe 2).
À la date de publication du présent document, les films barrière sont des films multicouches.

Polimerni materiali - Zaporne folije za razkuževanje kmetijske in vrtnarske zemlje z zaplinjevanjem - 1. del: Specifikacije za zaporne folije

Ta evropski standard določa zahteve za dimenzijske, mehanske in fizikalno-kemične lastnosti plastomernih zapornih folij za razkuževanje kmetijske in vrtnarske zemlje z zaplinjevanjem.
Določa tudi preskusne metode za preverjanje teh zahtev, razen metode za določevanje prepustnosti folije z uporabo statične tehnike, ki je določena v standardu prEN 17098-2.
Uporablja se za folije, ki se uporabljajo pri razkuževanju zemlje z zaplinjevanjem (razred 1), in folije, ki se uporabljajo pri razkuževanju zemlje in se po končanem razkuževanju uporabijo kot folije za mulčenje na mestu uporabe (razred 2).
Na datum objave tega evropskega standarda so zaporne folije večplastne.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jan-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
10-Jan-2018
Completion Date
10-Jan-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Polimerni materiali - Zaporne folije za razkuževanje kmetijske in vrtnarske zemlje z zaplinjevanjem - 1. del: Specifikacije za zaporne folijeKunststoffe - Sperrschichtfolien zur Desinfektion durch Begasung von Landwirtschafts- und Gartenbauböden - Teil 1: Spezifikationen für SperrschichtfolienPlastiques - Films barrière pour la désinfection par fumigation des sols agricoles et horticoles - Partie 1 : Spécifications des films barrièrePlastics - Barrier films for agricultural and horticultural soil disinfection by fumigation - Part 1: Specifications for barrier films83.140.10Filmi in folijeFilms and sheets65.060.99Drugi kmetijski stroji in opremaOther agricultural machines and equipmentICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 17098-1:2018SIST EN 17098-1:2018en,fr,de01-marec-2018SIST EN 17098-1:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 17098-1:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 17098-1
January
t r s z ICS
z uä s v rä s r English Version

Plastics æ Barrier films for agricultural and horticultural soil disinfection by fumigation æ Part

sã Specifications for barrier films Plastiques æ Films barrière pour la désinfection par fumigation des sols agricoles et horticoles æ Partie

sã Spécifications des films barrière

Kunststoffe æ Sperrschichtfolien für die Desinfektion durch Begasung von Landwirtschaftsæ und Gartenbauböden æ Teil

sã Spezifikationen für Sperrschichtfolien This European Standard was approved by CEN on

t r November
t r s yä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s y r { zæ sã t r s z ESIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions, and abbreviated terms .................................................................................... 6 3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6 3.2 Abbreviated terms .......................................................................................................................................... 8 4 Classification of films by service life ........................................................................................................ 8 5 Permeability to fumigants ........................................................................................................................... 8 5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8 5.2 Determination of the film permeability .................................................................................................. 9 6 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................... 9 6.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................................... 9 6.2 Requirement for appearance ................................................................................................................... 11 6.3 Optional characteristics............................................................................................................................. 11 7 Test methods ................................................................................................................................................. 11 7.1 Determination of the thickness............................................................................................................... 11 7.2 Determination of the width ...................................................................................................................... 11 7.3 Determination of the roll length ............................................................................................................. 11 7.4 Determining tensile properties .............................................................................................................. 12 7.5 Determination of the weathering resistance (for class 2 films only) ........................................ 12 7.6 Determination of the peel strength ....................................................................................................... 13 7.7 Determining impact resistance ............................................................................................................... 16 7.8 Determining relative light transmission ............................................................................................. 17 8 Roll acceptance, storage and handling ................................................................................................. 18 8.1 Delivery checking ......................................................................................................................................... 18 8.2 Storage and handling of rolls ................................................................................................................... 18 9 Installation instructions and conditions for use ............................................................................... 19 10 Disposal instructions and end of life of films ..................................................................................... 19 11 Designation of barrier films ..................................................................................................................... 19 12 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 20 12.1 Marking of the film ...................................................................................................................................... 20 12.2 Marking on the packaging or label ........................................................................................................ 20 Annex A (informative)

Exposure to other light sources .............................................................................. 22 A.1 Medium pressure mercury vapour lamps ........................................................................................... 22 A.1.1 Exposure method ......................................................................................................................................... 22 A.1.2 Irradiance ....................................................................................................................................................... 22 A.1.3 Temperature .................................................................................................................................................. 22 SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 3 A.1.4 Apparatus calibration ................................................................................................................................. 23 A.1.5 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................................ 23 A.1.6 Calculation and expression of results ................................................................................................... 23 A.2 Fluorescent UV lamps .................................................................................................................................. 24 A.2.1 Exposure method .......................................................................................................................................... 24 A.2.2 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................................ 24 A.2.3 Calculation and expression of results ................................................................................................... 24 Annex B (informative)

Determination of the puncture resistance .......................................................... 25 B.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................... 25 B.2 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................................ 25 B.3 Specimen preparation ................................................................................................................................ 26 B.4 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................................ 26 B.5 Expression of results ................................................................................................................................... 27 B.6 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 27 Annex C (informative)

Guidance for conditions for installation, use and removal of barrier films ................................................................................................................................................................... 28 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 29

SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 17098-1:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics”, the secretariat of which is held by NBN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2018. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. EN 17098, Plastics — Barrier films for agricultural and horticultural soil disinfection by fumigation, consists of the following parts: — Part 1: Specifications for barrier films — Part 2: Method for determining film permeability using a static technique According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 5 Introduction Use of barrier films designed for agricultural and horticultural soil disinfection by means of fumigation has the main objectives of protecting operators and personnel during and after the fumigation operation, limiting the consumption of harmful substances and safeguarding the environment. SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 6 1 Scope This document specifies the requirements relating to the dimensional, mechanical and physical-chemical characteristics of thermoplastic barrier films designed for agricultural and horticultural soil disinfection by means of fumigation. This document specifies also the test methods for verifying these requirements, except the method for determining film permeability using a static technique, which is specified in EN 17098-2. This document defines also guidance for installation, use and disposal of barrier films. This document is applicable to films used during soil disinfection by fumigation (class 1), and to films used during soil disinfection subsequently kept in situ as mulch films (class 2). On the date of publication of this document, the barrier films are multi-layer films. 2 Normative references The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 16472, Plastics - Method for artificial accelerated photoageing using medium pressure mercury vapour lamps EN 17098-2, Plastics — Barrier films for agricultural and horticultural soil disinfection by fumigation — Part 2: Method for determining film permeability using a static technique EN ISO 291, Plastics - Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing (ISO 291) EN ISO 527-1, Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 1: General principles (ISO 527-1) EN ISO 527-3, Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 3: Test conditions for films and sheets (ISO 527-3) EN ISO 4892-1, Plastics - Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources - Part 1: General guidance (ISO 4892-1) EN ISO 4892-2:2013, Plastics - Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources - Part 2: Xenon-arc lamps (ISO 4892-2:2013) EN ISO 4892-3:2016, Plastics - Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources - Part 3: Fluorescent UV lamps (ISO 4892-3:2016) EN ISO 7765-1:2004, Plastics film and sheeting - Determination of impact resistance by the free-falling dart method - Part 1: Staircase methods (ISO 7765-1:1988) ISO 4592, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of length and width ISO 4593, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of thickness by mechanical scanning 3 Terms and definitions, and abbreviated terms 3.1 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 7 ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses: — IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/ — ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp 3.1.1 barrier film plastic film designed to have low permeability to gas, intended for soil disinfection by fumigation 3.1.2 permeability ability of a material to transmit gases and liquids by passage through one surface and out at another surface by diffusion and sorption processes [SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013 [1], definition 2.690] 3.1.3 width total film width once laid flat Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm). 3.1.4 nominal width film width, as declared by the manufacturer/supplier Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm). 3.1.5 nominal thickness film thickness, as declared by the manufacturer/supplier

3.1.6 roll length longest dimension of the film, corresponding to the length of the un-winded roll Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in metres (m). 3.1.7 nominal roll length roll length, as declared by the manufacturer/supplier Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in metres (m). 3.1.8 longitudinal direction MD direction parallel to the roll length corresponding to the extrusion direction 3.1.9 transverse direction TD direction parallel to the film width (at right angle to the length) SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 8 3.2 Abbreviated terms For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms apply. EVOH ethylene-(vinyl alcohol) plastic PA polyamide PE polyethylene TIF totally impermeable film VIF virtually impermeable film 4 Classification of films by service life Barrier films are classified under two classes, depending on their service life: a) Class 1: films providing a protective function only. They are held in place during the fumigation operation and then withdrawn before planting. b) Class 2: films providing protection and mulch functions. They are held in place during the fumigation operation, and then kept in place as mulch films. 5 Permeability to fumigants 5.1 General CEN/TC 249/WG 7 conducted a synthesis of the published studies about film permeability to the fumigants. These studies were all carried out in the USA with major films on the market, described as: — PE films made from polyethylene (PE) materials, exclusively; NOTE In these studies, PE films were used as blank films and they are not in the scope of this document. — virtually impermeable films (VIFs) containing polyamide (PA) materials as barrier layer; — totally impermeable films (TIFs) containing ethylene-(vinyl alcohol) plastic (EVOH) materials as barrier layer. The key criteria in these studies were the following: a) the influence of the temperature; b) the influence of the relative humidity; c) the influence of the fumigant. Taking into account the results of these studies, the conclusions of the CEN/TC 249/WG 7 were the following: d) the film permeability increases with

the temperature (from 20 °C to 35 °C) for every film and every tested fumigant but without a highly significant difference. The most common temperature, 25 °C, is therefore considered to be acceptable and has been selected as the standard test temperature (see Conditions 1 and 2 in 5.2); e) the film permeability increases with the relative humidity (from 35 % to 100 %) for every film and every tested fumigants with highly significant differences particularly for VIFs. The relative SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 9 humidity in the range of 90 % RH to 100 % RH is the worst case. This range of relative humidity, similar to that measured in situ in drip applications, has been selected as the standard relative humidity (see Condition 1 in 5.2). Considering that fumigant could be applied also by shank application without water a second standard relative humidity of (50 ± 10) % RH has been considered as acceptable for films to be used exclusively in shank application without water (see Condition 2 in 5.2); f) the film permeability varies significantly depending on the fumigants. In these conditions the choice of a fumigant for the test is under the responsibility of the applicant and the film permeability threshold remains under the responsibility of the holder of the authorization for placing the fumigant on the market. Information related to the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the film permeability to soil fumigants is given in the bibliography [14] to [18]. 5.2 Determination of the film permeability The permeability of the film to fumigant(s) shall be determined according to EN 17098-2. Unless otherwise specified, the permeability of the film to fumigant(s) shall be determined in at least one of the following test conditions in the transmission cell: — Condition 1: Test temperature: (25 ± 2) °C and (95 ± 5) % RH; NOTE 1 Condition 1 is corresponding to environment conditions with the addition of water (e.g. in drip application). — Condition 2: Test temperature: (25 ± 2) °C and (50 ± 10) % RH. NOTE 2 Condition 2 is corresponding to environment conditions without the addition of water (e.g. in shank application). Condition 2 shall be used only for shank application. NOTE 3 Even by injection of the fumigant by means of coulters without the addition of water, quickly the humidity of soil condensates under the film which causes formation of droplets. When the performance of a film to fumigant permeation is declared, the test conditions (Condition 1 or condition 2 or both) and the type(s) of fumigant(s) shall be declared as well. Studies are in progress to define the maximum threshold(s) depending on the type and approval threshold(s) of the fumigant(s) set by the regulation. 6 Requirements 6.1 General requirements When tested in accordance with the test methods specified in Table 1, the barrier film shall have the characteristics conforming to the requirements stated in Table 1. SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 10 Table 1 — Requirements for barrier films Characteristics Unit Requirements Test method Class 1 Class 2 Appearance

Shall conform to 6.2 6.2 Dimensional characteristics

Tolerance of average thickness/nominal thickness % ±5 ±5 7.1 Tolerance of single point thickness/nominal thickness % - 15, + 25 - 15, + 25 7.1 Width tolerance/nominal width % ±2 ±2 7.2 Tolerance roll length/nominal length %

«1 7.3 Mechanical characteristics on unexposed film
Tensile stress at yield point (MD and TD) MPa No requirement
· 9,5 7.4 Tensile stress at break (MD, TD) MPa
· 25
· 25 7.4 Tensile strain at break (MD, TD) %
· 350
· 350 7.4 Weathering resistance
Exposure time (xenon arc lamps) a h No requirement
· 1 510 b 7.5 Peel strength c (per 15 mm specimen width) N
· 6
· 6 7.6 Impact resistance
7.7
On flatwise film g 100 100
On folds (if any) g 50 d
Optical characteristic on unexposed film
Relative light transmission IR
(only for opaque black films) — No requirement

¶ 10 «2 7.8 a Other light sources may be used provided that a correlation between the test results obtained with these light sources and these obtained after a natural exposure can be demonstrated. Details of these methods are given in Annex A (informative). In case of dispute, the exposure to xenon-arc lamps according to 7.5 shall be used. b For black coloured films, weather resistance corresponds to an exposure of one year after being installed in a climatic zone corresponding to a global solar radiant exposure of 4,2 GJ/m2/year to 5,4 GJ/m2/year (100 kLy/year to 130 kLy/year) (data from EN 13655 [2]). For films intended to be exposed during longer durations and/or in more severe conditions, the minimum duration of exposure to artificial weathering shall be defined by agreement between the manufacturer/supplier and the customer. c The peel strength may also be determined by a peel test according to EN ISO 2411 [3], subject to an agreement between the parties. The corresponding requirement shall also be defined by agreement between the parties. d Class 2 barrier films are generally supplied without folds. For barrier films to be joined together by gluing in situ, the method to assess bondability and the corresponding requirement shall be defined by agreement between the parties. SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 11 The glue/adhesive shall not cause any alteration of the barrier performance of the film. A special attention should be given when using glue/adhesive with solvent. A hot-melt adhesive and thermowelding can be also used for jointing barrier films. 6.2 Requirement for appearance The free edges of the roll shall be sealed with adhesive tape or by some other similar means, in order to prevent its unwinding. The edges shall be properly in line and there shall be sufficient tension to prevent the layers of the roll from transverse slipping when it is handled. The film shall be homogeneous and free from visible defects which may affect the fitness for purpose of the film; check by unrolling at least 2 m of the film and examining it against the light holding it tight at arm's length. 6.3 Optional characteristics Optional characteristics and the corresponding test methods are given in Table 2. Table 2 — Optional characteristics Characteristics Test method Tear resistance (MD, TD) EN ISO 6383-2 [4] (Elmendorf tear test) Puncture resistance Annex B (penetration test) or ASTM D3420-14 [5] (Spencer impact test) Where required, the corresponding requirement(s) is(are) defined by agreement between the manufacturer/supplier and the customer. 7 Test methods 7.1 Determination of the thickness The thickness of single points of the film shall be determined in accordance with ISO 4593. The average thickness of the film shall be determined in accordance with ISO 4591 or ISO 4593. Testing shall be performed using one strip of film cut in transverse direction of the roll (TD). 7.2 Determination of the width The width of the film shall be determined in accordance with ISO 4592. 7.3 Determination of the roll length The roll length shall be determined by unwinding the roll by means of a calibrated reel in contact continuously with its outside surface (see Figure 1). The calibrated reel is connected to a revolution counter. The diameter of the calibrated reel shall be measured with a accuracy of ± 0,2 %. The roll shall be totally unwound at a speed of 100 m/min ± 10 m/min. SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 12 The value of the roll length is calculated by using Formula (1): π=⋅⋅lnd (1) where l is the value of the roll length, expressed in metres (m); n is the number of revolutions of the calibrated reel during the total unwinding of the roll; d is the diameter of the calibrated reel, expressed in metres (m).

Key 1 film roll 2 calibrated reel with a revolution counter 3 collection reel 4 deflection reel d diameter of the calibrated reel Figure 1 — Apparatus for the determination of the roll length 7.4 Determining tensile properties Determine the tensile characteristics in accordance with EN ISO 527-1 and EN ISO 527-3, on five type 2 specimens, 10 mm wide, cut in each direction of the film, longitudinal direction (MD) and transverse direction (TD), at a test speed of 500 mm/min. Calculate the arithmetic mean value of the five measurements for each film direction. 7.5 Determination of the weathering resistance (for class 2 films only) 7.5.1 Principle The variation of the tensile strain at break of specimens is determined before and after an exposure to xenon-arc lamps. 7.5.2 Exposure method Carry out artificial ageing in accordance with EN ISO 4892-2:2013, Method A, for the minimum exposure time specified in Table 1, using the test conditions specified in Table 3. SIST EN 17098-1:2018

EN 17098-1:2018 (E) 13 Table 3 — Exposure cycle and test conditions Cycle Exposure period Irradiance Black standard temperature °C Chamber temperature °C Relative humidity % Broadband (300 nm to 400 nm) W/m2 Narrowband (340 nm) W/(m2.nm) 102 min dry 60 ± 2 0,51 ± 0,02 65 ± 3 38 ± 3 50 ± 5 18 min water spray 60 ± 2 0,51 ± 0,02 — — — 7.5.3 Procedure Expose the specimens according to 7.5.2 during the minimum duration of exposure specified in Table 1. After the exposure, determine the tensile strain at break according to EN ISO 527-1 and EN ISO 527-3, using five type 2 test pieces, 10 mm wide, 150 mm long, taken longitudinally in the film (MD), at a test speed of 500 mm/min. 7.5.4 Calculation and expression of results Calculate the arithmetic mean value of the five measurements performed on the test pieces cut from the exposed specimens and the arithmetic mean value of the five measurements performed on the test pieces cut from the unexposed specimens in longitudinal direction (MD) (see 7.4). Compare these two values. The test is considered successful when the value calculated for specimens exposed to artificial weathering is equal or greater than 50 % of the value calculated for unexposed specimens. 7.6 Determination of the peel strength 7.6.1 General The peel strength reflects the energy required to delaminate a multi-layer film under given conditions. Measuring does not involve only interfacial mechanisms, but also some plasticity mechanisms occurring in the various layers of the film, and possibly speed-sensitive. That is why peel strength is to be considered as a property of the film as a whole, rather than a mere interfacial property. The present method is based on the T-peeling test described in EN ISO 11339 [6]. 7.6.2 Principle First, a delamination is initiated on the interface to be characterized. Then tensile force is applied to the delaminated parts at a constant rate, so that separation occurs progressively. The force per unit width required to obtain separation represents the peel strength of the film. 7.6.3 Apparatus 7.6.3.1 Tensile-testing machine, capable of maintaining a predetermined constant crosshead rate. It shall be provided with a suitable self-aligning grip to hold the specimen. Each set of jaws of the grip shall firmly engage the outer 25 mm of the un-bonded ends of the flexible adherends. The grip and attachments shall be constructed in such a way that they will move into

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