Electronic fee collection - Personalisation and mounting of first mount OBE

1.1   Background and expected benefits of first-mount OBE
It could be foreseen that in future the DSRC OBE will be delivered by car manufacturer as a feature of the vehicle as they do today with car radio which are parts of the most sold vehicles. For the vehicle owner, the OBE supplier is the car manufacturer acting as an OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer).
The integration of first mount OBE by car manufacturer is the only way to create a future mass market for EFC application based upon DSRC as well as GNSS/CN, as at present the integration of this type of OBEs cannot be achieved except for heavy goods vehicles. Regarding DSRC, this is also an opportunity to extend the capability of today’s EFC technologies by providing increased quality of service, and possibly a greater range of services using in-vehicle electronics and resources.
1.2   Personalisation concept
The personalisation procedure is the procedure where the EFC Service Provider initialize, customise, and finally activate the EFC interoperable service to OBE, for a customer with or without existing account. Two different kinds of personalisation methods can be defined:
a)   the personalisation procedure can be done “over the air”. In such case, personalisation data can be encoded in the OBE by the Service Provider over a secure air-link, or
b)   personalisation data can be loaded directly by the driver into the OBE or Service Provider via a personal storage media.
Theses are two fundamentally different approaches. The second method is perfectly fitted for critical initialisation data, such as encryption keys, to enable the driver to use the same EFC contract in different vehicles, and also to send personalisation data via post to a large number of customers.
In any case, the personalisation procedure shall be implemented in a practical way. It was reminded that the very large majority of Service Provider distribution networks (and related point of sales) are not suited to (...)

Elektronische Gebührenerhebung - Personalisierung und Einbau von Fahrzeuggeräten der Erstausstattung

Perception de télépéage - Personnalisation et installation des équipements embarqués en première monte

Elektronsko pobiranje pristojbin - Personalizacija in montaža OBE za prvo vgradnjo

1.1 Ozadje in pričakovane prednosti OBE za prvo vgradnjo
Predvideva se lahko, da bo v prihodnosti DSRC OBE dostavljal proizvajalec avtomobila kot značilnost vozila tako kot danes avtoradie, ki so del najbolj prodajanih vozil. Za lastnika vozila je dobavitelj OBE proizvajalec avtomobila, ki nastopa kot OEM (originalni proizvajalec opreme).
Integracija OBE za prvo vgradnjo, ki jo izvede proizvajalec avtomobilov, je edini način za izdelavo masovnega trga v prihodnosti za uporabo EFC, temelječo na DSRC, in GNSS/CN, ker trenutno integracije tega tipa OBE ni mogoče doseči, razen za vozila za težke tovore. Glede DSRC je to tudi priložnost, da se razširi zmogljivost današnjih tehnologij EFC z zagotavljanjem povečane kakovosti storitev in po možnosti večjega razpona storitev, ki uporabljajo elektroniko in vire v vozilih.
1.2 Koncept personalizacije
Postopek personalizacije je postopek, kjer ponudnik storitve EFC vpelje, prilagodi in nazadnje aktivira medsebojno združljivo storitev EFC z OBE za stranko z obstoječim računom ali brez njega. Lahko določimo dva različna načina metod personlizacije:
a) postopek personalizacije je lahko izveden »po zraku«. V tem primeru personalizirane podatke lahko kodira v OBE ponudnik storitve prek zavarovane zračne povezave ali
b)personalizirane podatke lahko v OBE neposredno naloži voznik ali ponudnik storitve prek osebnega medija za shranjevanje.
To sta dva popolnoma različna pristopa. Druga metoda se popolnoma prilega kritičnim instalacijskim podatkom, kot so kodirni ključi, da se vozniku omogoči uporaba iste pogodbe EFC v različnih vozilih ter da se pošljejo personalizirani podatki s pošto velikemu številu strank.
Vedno bo postopek personalizacije izveden praktično.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Mar-2011
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
02-May-2011

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16152:2011
01-maj-2011
Elektronsko pobiranje pristojbin - Personalizacija in montaža OBE za prvo
vgradnjo
Electronic fee collection - Personalisation and mounting of first mount OBE
Elektronische Gebührenerfassung - Personalisierung und Montage der ersten
bordeigenen Ausrüstung

Perception de télépéage - Personnalisation et installation des équipements embarqués

en première monte
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16152:2011
ICS:
03.220.20 Cestni transport Road transport
35.240.60 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in transport
transportu in trgovini and trade
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16152:2011 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16152:2011
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16152:2011
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 16152
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
March 2011
ICS
English Version
Electronic fee collection - Personalisation and mounting of first
mount OBE

Perception de télépéage - Personnalisation et installation Elektronische Gebührenerhebung - Personalisierung und

des équipements embarqués en première monte Einbau von Fahrzeuggeräten der Erstausstattung

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 17 January 2011. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 278.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16152:2011: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

1.1 Background and expected benefits of first-mount OBE ...................................................................5

1.2 Personalisation concept .......................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................6

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6

4 Symbols and abbreviations ..................................................................................................................6

5 Context Description ...............................................................................................................................7

5.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................7

5.2 Actors and Roles ...................................................................................................................................8

5.3 Overview of Assets ............................................................................................................................. 10

5.4 Use cases ............................................................................................................................................ 12

5.4.1 Initialisation: Mounting of OBE ......................................................................................................... 12

5.4.2 Initialisation: Assignment of individual data ................................................................................... 12

5.4.3 Initialisation: Assignment of vehicle data ........................................................................................ 13

5.4.4 Contracting of the OBE with the Service Provider .......................................................................... 14

5.4.5 Enabling long range mobile communication ................................................................................... 15

5.4.6 Change of the vehicle for the same contract ................................................................................... 16

5.4.7 Cancellation of an existing contract ................................................................................................. 17

5.4.8 Change of the contract for the same vehicle ................................................................................... 17

5.4.9 Normal EFC use cases: charging and enforcement ....................................................................... 18

5.4.10 Repair and upgrade of the OBE ........................................................................................................ 19

5.4.11 Change of vehicle properties ............................................................................................................ 20

5.4.12 Decommissioning and replacement of the OBE ............................................................................. 21

6 Personalisation concept .................................................................................................................... 22

6.1 Overall requirements .......................................................................................................................... 22

6.1.1 Functional requirements .................................................................................................................... 22

6.1.2 Security Requirements ....................................................................................................................... 26

6.2 Vehicle interface requirements and constraints ............................................................................. 34

6.2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 34

6.2.2 Installation principles ......................................................................................................................... 35

7 Personalisation data ........................................................................................................................... 35

7.1 EFC Attibutes ...................................................................................................................................... 35

7.2 OBE related data ................................................................................................................................. 37

7.3 Access protection information .......................................................................................................... 37

7.4 Vehicle registration data .................................................................................................................... 37

8 Recommendations .............................................................................................................................. 38

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 40

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16152:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 278 “Road

transport and traffic telematics”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

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Introduction

With the increased use of OBE for EFC, the need for effective distribution is growing. The OBE could

potentially be integrated into the vehicle by the vehicle manufacturer as part of manufacturing process. The

EETS provider (according to EC's European Electronic Toll Service business model) would in such a scenario

be faced with the issue on how to personalize the data in the OBE, including the data related to the contract

between him and the user. This issue is relevant for both DSRC and satellite based OBEs.

The issues addressed by the document include:
1) vehicle interfacing requirements and constraints
a) vehicle data buses

b) requirements and constraints from the automotive industry (e.g. in terms of electronic,

mechanics…)
c) safety
d) security
2) personalization requirements and constraints
a) Access to the protected data inside the OBE e.g. ContractNumber

b) Where are the EETS and contract data located? (inside the OBE or in a smart card).

c) Activation and deactivation of the OBE

This Technical Report is not a substitute for regulations and standards and these should always be respected

and used by manufacturers.
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1 Scope
1.1 Background and expected benefits of first-mount OBE

It could be foreseen that in future the DSRC OBE will be delivered by car manufacturer as a feature of the

vehicle as they do today with car radio which are parts of the most sold vehicles. For the vehicle owner, the

OBE supplier is the car manufacturer acting as an OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer).

The integration of first mount OBE by car manufacturer is the only way to create a future mass market for EFC

application based upon DSRC as well as GNSS/CN, as at present the integration of this type of OBEs cannot

be achieved except for heavy goods vehicles. Regarding DSRC, this is also an opportunity to extend the

capability of today’s EFC technologies by providing increased quality of service, and possibly a greater range

of services using in-vehicle electronics and resources.
1.2 Personalisation concept

The personalisation procedure is the procedure where the EFC Service Provider initialize, customise, and

finally activate the EFC interoperable service to OBE, for a customer with or without existing account. Two

different kinds of personalisation methods can be defined:

a) the personalisation procedure can be done “over the air”. In such case, personalisation data can be

encoded in the OBE by the Service Provider over a secure air-link, or

b) personalisation data can be loaded directly by the driver into the OBE or Service Provider via a personal

storage media.

Theses are two fundamentally different approaches. The second method is perfectly fitted for critical

initialisation data, such as encryption keys, to enable the driver to use the same EFC contract in different

vehicles, and also to send personalisation data via post to a large number of customers.

In any case, the personalisation procedure shall be implemented in a practical way. It was reminded that the

very large majority of Service Provider distribution networks (and related point of sales) are not suited to allow

point-to-point communication with vehicles. They are suited mainly for front-desk operations such as

initialisation of an account, data collection of user information, and so on.

For both methods, all access protection information, OBE contract information, shall be stored in a secure

storage area within the OBE. During the personalisation procedure, any OBE and Service Provider service

point will only communicate, but only further to a successful check of access rights.

The use of an air-link for personalisation purposes includes some risks with respect to the security of the EFC

system. The present document addresses appropriate measures to counteract these risks. Security services

such as integrity protection and authentication protocols shall be defined to prevent unauthorised access to

the content of the OBE memory area retaining personalisation data. This statement of principles summarises

essential aspects to be taken into account for the personalisation of OBE. These principles are valid:

a) whether the EFC system is based upon DSRC, GNSS-CN, or a combination of both technologies;

b) for permanently installed OBE;

c) for both original equipment manufacturers (first mount) and after sales permanently attached to the

vehicle by OBE manufacturers.
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2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN ISO 14906, Road transport and traffic telematics — Electronic fee collection — Application interfaces

definition for dedicated short-range communication (ISO 14906:2004)

CEN ISO/TS 17575–1, Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for autonomous systems —

Part 1: Charging (ISO/TS 17575-1:2010)

ISO 11568-2, Banking — Key management (retail) Part 2: Symmetric ciphers, their key management and life

cycle

prEN ISO 17573, Electronic fee collection — System architecture for vehicle related tolling (ISO 17573:2010)

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
on-Board Equipment (OBE)

equipment fitted within or on the outside of a vehicle and used for toll purposes

3.2
electronic fee collection (EFC)
toll charging by electronic means via a wireless interface
3.3
roadside equipment

equipment located along the road transport network, for the purpose of communication and data exchanges

with on-board equipments
3.4
Toll Charger
legal entity charging toll for vehicles in a toll domain
3.5
Toll Service Provider

legal entity providing to his customers toll services on one or more toll domains for one or more classes of

vehicles

NOTE The Toll Service Provider may provide the OBE or may provide only a magnetic card or a smart card to be

used with OBE provided by a third party (like a mobile telephone and a SIM card can be obtained from different parties).

The Toll Service Provider is responsible for the operation (functioning) of the OBE.

4 Symbols and abbreviations
CC Common Criteria
AID Application Interface Definition
BST Beacon Service Table
CESARE Common EFC System for ASECAP Road tolling European system
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DSRC Dedicated Short-Range Communication
DTCO Digital TaCOgraph
EAcK Element Access Key
EAuK Element Authentication Key
EC European Commission
ECU Electronic Control Unit
EID Element Identifier
EFC Electronic Fee Collection
HGV Heavy Goods Vehicle
KVC Key Verification Code
L1 Layer 1 of DSRC (Physical Layer)
L2 Layer 2 of DSRC (Data Link Layer)
L7 Layer 7 of DSRC (Application Layer)
LLC Logical Link Control
MAC Message Authentication Code
MEAcK Master Element Access Key
MEAuK Master Element Authentication Key
MMI Man-Machine Interface
OBE On-Board Equipment
OBU On-Board Unit
PAN Personal Account Number
RSE Road-Side Equipment
T-APDU Transfer-Application Protocol Data Unit
VST Vehicle Service Table
5 Context Description
5.1 General

In many existing systems OBEs are delivered by the Service Provider. The process to add vehicle and service

user data is normally a part of the contract between the Service Provider and the OBE manufacturer. In this

situation there is one Security Domain within which full trust must exist. As it is foreseen that the OBE will be

integrated with the vehicle the personalization process of the OBE must support that the OBE is mounted to

the Vehicle when the personalisation takes place.
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Furthermore, it is possible that different contracts issued by different Service Providers will be in place and

related sets of personalisation assets implemented in the same OBE throughout its lifetime.

5.2 Actors and Roles

The following actors have been identified as actors who are related to assets related to the OBE.

a) Toll Charger. He is responsible for the collection of road usage charges on a specific part of the road

infrastructure. He is interested in personalisation data as far as he needs them for the determination or

checking of the charges. His special interest is in the correctness of the vehicle data and of the Service

Provider identification (assuming that the Service Provider guarantees him for the payment of the fees if

he can proof the usage of the road infrastructure).

b) Service Provider. He offers the EFC service to users of the road infrastructure. A user subscribing to the

service will pay the fees to the Service Provider who will forward them to the appropriate toll charger

according to the usage. To contribute to the determination of the road usage and the charges due, the

Service Provider will operate the OBE mounted to the vehicle of the service user, after having added his

personalization data to it. Anyway, the personalization data responsibility is kept by the Service Provider

towards the User and the Toll Charger. His interest is that only road usages of customers having

subscribed his service are charged to him and that he can assign the charges to the appropriate service

user.

c) OBE Manufacturer. He produces the OBE and delivers it to the vehicle manufacturer to be mounted to a

vehicle.

d) Vehicle Manufacturer. He is responsible for the integration of the OBE into the vehicle.

e) Vehicle registration authority. The involvement of this actor in the personalization of first mount OBE is to

be defined. In any case it may serve as a trusted source of at least part of the vehicle data.

f) EFC service user. He subscribes to the EFC service of a Service Provider for a specific vehicle with an

OBE. His interest is that he is charged only for his road usage.

g) Mobile communication provider (in case of GNSS system). He offers a wide range communication service

that may be used not only during EFC, but also for personalization of the OBE. The OBE has to be

initialized for the specific service before it can use the communication channel.

These actors are present in the EFC environment independent from the issue of personalisation of first mount

OBE. Not all of them must have an active role in personalisation - some of them may just have a specific

interest (like for instance the toll charger).

For retrofitted OBE it is usually assumed that the overall responsibility for this OBE is at the Service Provider.

This also covers the responsibility for the personalisation. The Service Provider may get the OBE from the

OBE Manufacturer at a stage where part of the personalisation took place already. But as soon as the Service

Provider takes over the OBE, the OBE Manufacturer is not involved any more and in case there is some

information needed on the personalisation or something is found to be wrong with it, the Service Provider is

the actor to be addressed.

For first mount OBE the responsibilities are not that obvious. For instance the OBE may be mounted to the

vehicle at a stage where there is no Service Provider. There may be several Service Providers over the OBE

lifetime. The way to deal with this situation, as proposed for this technical report, is to introduce roles related

to the personalisation of first mount OBE. Each role has to be assigned to an actor, but for some of the roles

there are several candidates. Assigning the roles to specific actors leads to an implementation of the

personalisation on the organisational level.
The following roles with no clear assignment to an actor are introduced:
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Mob. comm. provider
EFC service user
Vehicle registration
authority
Vehicle manufacturer
OBE manufacturer
Service Provider
Toll Charger
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16152:2011
CEN/TR 16152:2011 (E)

h) OBE issuer. He has the overall control on the OBE lifecycle. For retrofitted OBE it is clear that the Service

Provider takes this role. For first mount OBE there is no need for a Service Provider to be assigned to the

OBE during the whole OBE lifetime. Therefore it has to be determined which actor takes the role of the

OBE issuer. As soon as there is a valid contract for the OBE, the Service Provider is responsible towards

the Toll Charger for the correct functioning of the OBE. In case he does not take himself the role of the

OBE issuer from the beginning of the OBE lifetime, he has to rely on the OBE issuer to fulfil his

obligations towards the Toll Charger. Therefore it is assumed that there is some contractual relation

between OBE issuer and Service Provider.

i) Vehicle data issuer. He collects the relevant vehicle data of the vehicle, to which the OBE is mounted,

and transfers them to the OBE. As soon as there is a valid contract for the OBE, the Service Provider is

responsible towards the Toll Charger for the correctness of the vehicle data. In case he does not take

himself the role of the vehicle data issuer, he has to rely on the vehicle data issuer to fulfil his obligations

towards the Toll Charger. Therefore it is assumed that there is some contractual relation between vehicle

data issuer and Service Provider.

j) OBE owner. This is expected to be the same as the vehicle owner, as the OBE is mounted to the vehicle

at the time it is sold.

k) OBE repairer. He is contacted to repair or replace the OBE in case it does not work correctly. As soon as

there is a valid contract for the OBE, the Service Provider is responsible towards the Toll Charger for the

correct functioning of the OBE. In case he does not assume himself the role of the OBE repairer, he has

to rely on the OBE repairer to fulfil his obligations towards the Toll Charger. Therefore it is assumed that

there is some contractual relation between OBE repairer and Service Provider.

l) Mobile communication customer. He is the holder of the mobile telecommunication agreement with the

Mobile Communication Provider.

Possible assignments of actors to roles shows possible assignments of roles to actors. Note that some roles

can be assigned to different actors during the OBE lifetime. At any time it should be assigned only to one

actor.
Table 1 — Possible assignments of actors to roles
OBE issuer X X X
Vehicle data issuer X X X X
OBE owner X X X X
OBE repairer X X X
Mob. comm.
X X X X
customer
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Currently there are too many open issues to go for a specific role assignment. Developing a concept for first

mount OBE based on the roles without assigning actors to them, leaves the flexibility not to be in conflict with

future decisions and local specialities.
5.3 Overview of Assets

Figure 1 below identifies different set of assets in the OBE. An asset is something that has a value to the

system and needs protection measures to be taken. Examples of protection measures which might apply are

authorisation before access, detection of manipulation, verification of authenticity and provision of

confidentiality. In Figure 1 the different assets that are used in an EFC system are identified.

Figure 1 — Overview of Assets
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The following assets exist:
a) Transaction Data Assets
b) Personalisation assets
c) OBE Manufacturer Specific Assets

The Transaction Data Assets consists of assets that are updated during a transaction e.g. when the OBE

passes a DSRC station or GPS positions are received from satellites. These assets have to be taken care of

during decommissioning and replacement of the OBE.

The Personalisation Assets consists of assets that are used by the Service Provider and are under his

responsbility. The issue is how to enter, remove and update them in the OBE in a controlled way when the

OBE has already been integrated to the vehicle. Each Service Provider might have its own set of

personalisation assets that he is responsible for. The most common case up to now is that only one set of

personalisation assets exists.

The Personalisation Assets consists of Application keys, Application Data and Vehicle data.

The Application keys consists of Access keys are used in service to grant access to application data

Authentication keys which are used to secure the authenticity of the OBE and the data integrity of the

application data assets. At personalisation of an application defined by the DSRC standard a number

generation of Authentication keys may be loaded.

The Application Data consist of data that is used by the Service Provider to support a service. Example of

Application data is Contract Data in CEN ISO/TS 17575-1, Payment Means and EFC Context Mark in

EN ISO 14906.

Vehicle data is also part of the personalisation assets but it is reasonable that this asset is common to all

applications.

The OBE Manufacturer Specific Assets are assets that are put into the OBE before integration to the vehicle.

The way of adding these assets will be manufacturer specific and is outside the scope of this document.

Typical examples of these assets are Data structure, Application software, physical individual calibration

values and Individual IDs.

A number of roles have been identified and their responsibilities are indicated. Responsibility in this context

means ensuring the correctness of the assets it is responsible for. It is foreseen that more than one Service

Provider may exist.

The role of the Service Provider is defined in prEN ISO 17573. According to prEN ISO 17573 he is

responsible for the operation (functioning) of the OBE. This implies that he is responsible for the correctness

of the personalisation assets towards the Service user and the Toll Charger. As has been pointed out already,

for first mount OBE there might exist no Service Provider at the time of personalisation. In this case entities

different from the Service Provider take over the OBE personalization role. The responsibility of these entities

towards the Service Provider and their contractual relation with the Service Provider is an issue to be dealt

with.

It is the Service Provider who sets the access conditions and decides who shall have the possibility to read or

write the assets.

The OBE issuer should have a contract with the OBE Manufacturer which allows him to put in the initial

elements in the OBE which are necessary in order to personalise the OBE.

The OBE Manufacturer is responsible for adding hardware specific data to make the OBE work.

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5.4 Use cases
5.4.1 Initialisation: Mounting of OBE

It is the basic assumption in this technical report that the mounting of the OBE is part of the manufacturing

process of the vehicle, which means that it is done before the vehicle is delivered to the customer. The OBE

may be a standard component of the vehicles of a given make, or may be an option for the customer. In any

case it must be possible to mount whole series of OBE with the same hardware and software to series of

vehicles.

On a technical level the mounting of the OBE includes the fixing of the OBE housings to the vehicle, if

required the connection to the power supply of the vehicle, possibly the establishment of a communication link

between the OBE and the vehicle electronics, the installation of a human machine interface (HMI) and the

fitting of antennas for the mobile communication of the OBE (at least DSRC and long range communication). It

is possible that some components of the OBE are shared with other applications, like for instance the mobile

communication devices, road map data and the HMI.
OBE
OBE manufacturer
Mounting of OBE
Vehicle
Vehicle manufacturer

Figure 2 — Use case “Mounting of OBE” involving the OBE, the OBE manufacturer, the vehicle and

the vehicle manufacturer
5.4.2 Initialisation: Assignment of individual data

Initially all OBE of a given OBE make look the same. At the final stage of the OBE mounting it must be

possible to address individual OBE, which means that each OBE must have some property allowing to

distinguish it from all others. Thus some individual properties have to be assigned to each OBE, like a serial

number (which for instance could include the VIN of the vehicle, to which the OBE is mounted). At least some

of these properties must be available when exchanging data with the OBE and therefore corresponding data

have to be stored in the OBE. But in general there is also a need to centrally store data corresponding to th

...

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