Cranes - Bridge and gantry cranes

This document applies to bridge and gantry cranes able to travel by wheels on rails, runways or roadway surfaces, and to gantry cranes without wheels mounted in a stationary position.
NOTE Light crane systems (assembly of lifting devices, crane bridges, trolleys and tracks; wall-mounted, pillar and workshop jib cranes) are covered by EN 16851.
This document specifies requirements for all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to bridge and gantry cranes when used as intended and under conditions foreseen by the manufacturer (see Clause 4).
This document does not include requirements for the lifting of persons.
The specific hazards due to potentially explosive atmospheres, ionising radiation and operation in electromagnetic environment beyond the scope of EN 61000-6-2 are not covered by this document.
This document is applicable to bridge and gantry cranes manufactured after the date of its publication as a European standard.

Krane - Brücken- und Portalkrane

Dieses Dokument gilt für Brücken- und Portalkrane, die durch Laufräder auf Schienen, Fahrbahnen oder Fahrwegen bewegt werden können, sowie für Portalkrane ohne Laufräder, die in einer feststehenden Position montiert sind.
ANMERKUNG   Leichtkransysteme (Baugruppe aus Hebevorrichtungen, Kranbrücken, Laufkatzen und Schienen; wandmontierte Auslegerkrane, Säulen-Auslegerkrane und Werkstatt-Auslegerkrane) werden in EN 16851 behandelt.
Dieses Dokument legt Anforderungen für alle signifikanten Gefährdungen, Gefährdungssituationen und Gefährdungsereignisse fest, die für Brücken- und Portalkrane maßgebend sind, wenn sie bestimmungsgemäß und unter den vom Hersteller vorgesehenen Bedingungen verwendet werden (siehe Abschnitt 4).
Dieses Dokument enthält keine Anforderungen an das Heben von Personen.
Die spezifischen Gefährdungen aufgrund von explosionsgefährdeten Bereichen, ionisierender Strahlung und Arbeiten in elektromagnetischen Umgebungen über den Anwendungsbereich der EN 61000 6 2 hinaus werden in diesem Dokument nicht behandelt.
Dieses Dokument gilt für Brücken- und Portalkrane, die nach dem Datum seiner Veröffentlichung als Europäische Norm hergestellt wurden.

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Ponts roulants et portiques

Le présent document s'applique aux portiques et ponts roulants pouvant se déplacer par l'intermédiaire de roues (galets) sur des rails, chemins de roulement ou routes et aux ponts roulants sans roues (galets) montés en position fixe.
NOTE Les systèmes de grue légère (ensemble de dispositifs de levage, ponts, chariots et de roulement ; grues à flèche murale, à colonne et d'atelier) sont couverts par l'EN 16851.
Le présent document traite de l'ensemble des phénomènes dangereux significatifs, des situations et des événements dangereux liés aux ponts roulants et aux portiques lorsque ceux-ci sont utilisés conformément à l'usage prévu et dans les conditions prévues par le fabricant (voir Article 4).
Le présent document ne traite pas des prescriptions applicables au levage des personnes.
Les phénomènes dangereux spécifiques dus à des atmosphères potentiellement explosives, au rayonnement ionisant et à l'utilisation dans un environnement électromagnétique, qui sortent du domaine d'application de l'EN 61000-6-2, ne sont pas couverts par le présent document.
Le présent document est applicable aux ponts roulants et aux portiques qui sont fabriqués après sa date de publication comme Norme Européenne.

Žerjavi - Mostni in portalni (kozičasti) žerjavi

General Information

Status
Published
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
09-Dec-2020
Completion Date
09-Dec-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 15011:2021
01-april-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 15011:2011+A1:2014
Žerjavi - Mostni in portalni (kozičasti) žerjavi
Cranes - Bridge and gantry cranes
Krane - Brücken- und Portalkrane
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Ponts roulants et portiques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 15011:2020
ICS:
53.020.20 Dvigala Cranes
SIST EN 15011:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 15011:2021
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SIST EN 15011:2021
EN 15011
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.020.20 Supersedes EN 15011:2011+A1:2014
English Version
Cranes - Bridge and gantry cranes
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Ponts Krane - Brücken- und Portalkrane
roulants et portiques
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 November 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 15011:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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EN 15011:2020

Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................. 5

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 9

4 List of significant hazards ................................................................................................................11

5 Safety requirements and/or protective measures .................................................................15

5.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................15

5.2 Requirements for strength and stability ....................................................................................16

5.2.1 Load actions ..........................................................................................................................................16

5.2.2 Limit states and proof of competence ..........................................................................................25

5.2.3 Stability ...................................................................................................................................................26

5.3 Electrotechnical equipment ............................................................................................................27

5.3.1 Physical environment and operating conditions ....................................................................27

5.3.2 Electrical supply ..................................................................................................................................27

5.3.3 Protection against electric shock by direct contact ................................................................27

5.3.4 Control circuits and control functions .........................................................................................27

5.3.5 Operator interface and mounted control devices ...................................................................28

5.3.6 Power driven motions .......................................................................................................................29

5.3.7 Batteries .................................................................................................................................................29

5.4 Non-electrotechnical equipment ...................................................................................................29

5.4.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................29

5.4.2 Braking systems ..................................................................................................................................29

5.4.3 Hoisting equipment ............................................................................................................................30

5.4.4 Travelling and traversing.................................................................................................................31

5.4.5 Slewing equipment .............................................................................................................................32

5.4.6 Tolerances .............................................................................................................................................33

5.4.7 Gear drives.............................................................................................................................................33

5.4.8 Protection against special hazards ...............................................................................................34

5.5 Limiting and indicating devices .....................................................................................................34

5.5.1 Rated capacity limiters .....................................................................................................................34

5.5.2 Indicators ...............................................................................................................................................36

5.5.3 Motion limiters ....................................................................................................................................36

5.5.4 Performance limiters .........................................................................................................................37

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5.6 Man-machine interface ..................................................................................................................... 38

5.6.1 Controls and control stations ......................................................................................................... 38

5.6.2 Guarding and access .......................................................................................................................... 38

5.6.3 Lighting ................................................................................................................................................... 39

5.6.4 Reduction of noise by design .......................................................................................................... 40

5.7 Equipment for warning .................................................................................................................... 41

5.7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 41

5.7.2 Warning markings .............................................................................................................................. 41

5.7.3 Warning lights ..................................................................................................................................... 41

5.7.4 Cableless control ................................................................................................................................. 41

5.7.5 Acoustic warning means .................................................................................................................. 42

5.7.6 Location of the visual display unit ................................................................................................ 42

6 Verification of safety requirements and/or protective measures .................................... 42

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 42

6.2 Types of verification .......................................................................................................................... 42

6.3 Fitness for purpose testing.............................................................................................................. 45

6.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 45

6.3.2 Tests ........................................................................................................................................................ 45

7 Information for use ............................................................................................................................ 47

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 47

7.2 Operator’s manual .............................................................................................................................. 48

7.3 User’s manual ....................................................................................................................................... 48

7.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 48

7.3.2 Instructions for installation ............................................................................................................ 49

7.3.3 Instructions for maintenance ......................................................................................................... 49

7.4 Marking of rated capacities ............................................................................................................ 50

Annex A (informative) Guidance for specifying the operating duty in accordance with

EN 13001-1:2015 ................................................................................................................................ 52

Annex B (informative) Guidance for specifying the classes P of average number of

accelerations in accordance with EN 13001-1:2015 ............................................................. 60

Annex C (informative) Calculation of dynamic coefficient ϕ ......................................................... 61

Annex D (informative) Loads caused by skewing ................................................................................ 64

Annex E (informative) Local stresses in wheel supporting flanges ............................................... 71

Annex F (normative) Noise test code ........................................................................................................ 76

Annex G (informative) Actions on crane supporting structures induced by cranes ............... 85

Annex H (informative) Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given

application ............................................................................................................................................ 88

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC aimed to be covered ............................................ 90

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Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................................93

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SIST EN 15011:2021
EN 15011:2020
European foreword

This document (EN 15011:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147

“Cranes - Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 15011:2011+A1:2014.

The major technical changes in this edition compared to EN 15011:2011+A1:2014 are in 5.1, 5.2.1.3.2,

5.2.1.5, 5.2.2.2 and 6.3.2. Moreover, the status of Annex D has been changed from normative to

informative.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.
For the relationship with other European Standards for cranes, see Annex H.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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EN 15011:2020
Introduction

This document has been prepared to be a harmonized standard to provide one means for bridge and

gantry cranes to conform with the essential health and safety requirements of the Machinery Directive,

as mentioned in Annex ZA.

As many of the hazards related to bridge and gantry cranes relate to their operating environment and

use, it is assumed in the preparation of this document that all the relevant information relating to the use

and operating environment of the crane has been exchanged between the manufacturer and the user (as

recommended in ISO 9374, Parts 1 and 5), covering such issues as, for example:
— clearances;
— requirements concerning protection against hazardous environments;

— processed materials, such as potentially flammable or explosive material (e.g. coal, powder type

materials).
This document is a type C standard as stated in EN ISO 12100.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and hazardous events

are covered, are indicated in the scope of this document.

When provisions of this type C standard are different from those which are stated in type A or B

standards, the provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other

standards, for machines that have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type C

standard.
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SIST EN 15011:2021
EN 15011:2020
1 Scope

This document applies to bridge and gantry cranes able to travel by wheels on rails, runways or roadway

surfaces, and to gantry cranes without wheels mounted in a stationary position.

NOTE Light crane systems (assembly of lifting devices, crane bridges, trolleys and tracks; wall-mounted, pillar

and workshop jib cranes) are covered by EN 16851.

This document specifies requirements for all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events

relevant to bridge and gantry cranes when used as intended and under conditions foreseen by the

manufacturer (see Clause 4).
This document does not include requirements for the lifting of persons.

The specific hazards due to potentially explosive atmospheres, ionising radiation and operation in

electromagnetic environment beyond the scope of EN 61000-6-2 are not covered by this document.

This document is applicable to bridge and gantry cranes manufactured after the date of its publication as

a European standard.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 81-43:2009, Safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts - Special lifts for the transport of

persons and goods - Part 43: Lifts for cranes

EN 363:2018, Personal fall protection equipment - Personal fall protection systems

EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008, Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and

control actuators - Part 1: General principles for human interactions with displays and control actuators

EN 894-2:1997+A1:2008, Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and

control actuators - Part 2: Displays

EN 12077-2:1998+A1:2008, Cranes safety - Requirements for health and safety - Part 2: Limiting and

indicating devices

EN 12644-1:2001+A1:2008, Cranes - Information for use and testing - Part 1: Instructions

EN 12644-2:2000+A1:2008, Cranes - Information for use and testing - Part 2: Marking

EN 13001-1:2015, Cranes - General design - Part 1: General principles and requirements

EN 13001-2:2014, Crane safety - General design - Part 2: Load actions

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018, Cranes - General Design - Part 3-1: Limit States and proof competence of

steel structure

EN 13001-3-2:2014, Cranes - General design - Part 3-2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire ropes

in reeving systems

EN 13001-3-3:2014, Cranes - General design - Part 3-3: Limit states and proof of competence of wheel/rail

contacts
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SIST EN 15011:2021
EN 15011:2020

EN 13001-3-4:2018, Cranes - General design - Part 3-4: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery

- Bearings

EN 13001-3-5:2016, Cranes - General design - Part 3-5: Limit states and proof of competence of forged

hooks

EN 13001-3-6:2018, Cranes - General design - Part 3-6: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery

- Hydraulic cylinders
EN 13135:2013+A1:2018, Cranes - Safety - Design - Requirements for equipment
EN 13157:2004+A1:2009, Cranes - Safety - Hand powered cranes
EN 13557:2003+A2:2008, Cranes - Controls and control stations
EN 13586:2004+A1:2008, Cranes - Access

EN 14492-2:2019, Cranes - Power driven winches and hoists - Part 2: Power driven hoists

EN IEC 60204-11:2019, Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of machines - Part 11: Requirements for

equipment for voltages above 1 000 V AC or 1 500 V DC and not exceeding 36 kV (IEC 60204-11:2018)

EN 60204-32:2008, Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of machines - Part 32: Requirements for

hoisting machines (IEC 60204-32:2008)

HD 60364-4-41:2017, Low-voltage electrical installations - Part 4-41: Protection for safety - Protection

against electric shock (IEC 60364-4-41:2005/A1:2017, modified)

EN 60825-1:2014, Safety of laser products - Part 1: Equipment classification and requirements

(IEC 60825-1:2014)

EN 60947-5-5:1997, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 5-5: Control circuit devices and

switching elements - Electrical emergency stop device with mechanical latching function

(IEC 60947-5-5:1997)

EN 62745:2017, Safety of machinery - Requirements for cableless control systems of machinery

(IEC 62745:2017)

EN ISO 3744:2010, Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise sources

using sound pressure - Engineering methods for an essentially free field over a reflecting plane (ISO

3744:2010)

EN ISO 4871:2009, Acoustics - Declaration and verification of noise emission values of machinery and

equipment (ISO 4871:1996)

EN ISO 11201:2010, Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Determination of emission

sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions in an essentially free field over a

reflecting plane with negligible environmental corrections (ISO 11201:2010)

EN ISO 11688-1:2009, Acoustics - Recommended practice for the design of low-noise machinery and

equipment - Part 1: Planning (ISO/TR 11688-1:1995)

EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery - General principles for design - Risk assessment and risk reduction

(ISO 12100:2010)
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EN 15011:2020

EN ISO 13732-1:2008, Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Methods for the assessment of human

responses to contact with surfaces - Part 1: Hot surfaces (ISO 13732-1:2006)

EN ISO 13849-1:2015, Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems - Part 1: General

principles for design (ISO 13849-1:2015)

EN ISO 13854:2019, Safety of machinery - Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body (ISO

13854:2017)

EN ISO 13857:2019, Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper

and lower limbs (ISO 13857:2019)

EN ISO 14120:2015, Safety of machinery - Guards - General requirements for the design and construction

of fixed and movable guards (ISO 14120:2015)

ISO 2631-1:1997, Mechanical vibration and shock - Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration

- Part 1: General requirements

ISO 3864-1:2011, Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs - Part 1: Design principles for safety

signs and safety markings

ISO 3864-2:2016, Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs - Part 2: Design principles for product

safety labels

ISO 3864-3:2012, Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs - Part 3: Design principles for

graphical symbols for use in safety signs

ISO 3864-4:2011, Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs - Part 4: Colorimetric and photometric

properties of safety sign materials
ISO 4306-1:2007, Cranes - Vocabulary - Part 1: General

ISO 6336-1:2019, Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears - Part 1: Basic principles,

introduction and general influence factors

ISO 7752-5:1985, Lifting appliances - Controls - Layout and characteristics - Part 5: Overhead travelling

cranes and portal bridge cranes

ISO 12488-1:2012, Cranes - Tolerances for wheels and travel and traversing tracks - Part 1: General

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 12100:2010,

EN ISO 3744:2010, EN ISO 11201:2010, ISO 4306-1:2007 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
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EN 15011:2020
3.1
bridge crane

crane able to move along rails or runways having at least one primarily horizontal girder and equipped

with at least one hoisting mechanism
Note 1 to entry: Light crane systems are defined in EN 16851.

Note 2 to entry: Building structures, where hoists are mounted, are not regarded as bridge cranes.

3.2
gantry crane

crane able to travel by wheels on rails, runways or roadway surfaces, or crane without wheels mounted

in a stationary position, having at least one primarily horizontal girder supported by at least one leg and

equipped with at least one hoisting mechanism

Note 1 to entry: Building structures, where hoists are mounted, are not regarded as gantry cranes.

3.3
rated capacity
mRC

maximum net load (the sum of the payload and non-fixed load-lifting attachment) that the crane is

designed to lift for a given crane configuration and load location during normal operation

Note 1 to entry: The term Safe Working Load (SWL) can differ from rated capacity.

[SOURCE: ISO 4306-1:2007, 6.1.8, modified]
3.4
hoist load

sum of the masses of the load equal to the rated capacity, the fixed lifting attachment and the hoist

medium
Note 1 to entry: This is equivalent to gross load defined ISO 4306-1:2007.
3.5
hoist medium

part of the hoisting mechanism, either rope, belt or chain, by which the fixed load lifting attachment is

suspended
[SOURCE: ISO 4306-1:2007, 6.1.6, modified]
3.6
underhung crane
bridge crane suspended from the lower flange of the crane track
3.7
directly acting lifting force limiter

limiter acting directly in the chain of drive elements and limiting the transmitted force

Note 1 to entry: Those limiters can be, for example, friction torque limiters, pressure limiting valves. Directing

acting rated capacity limiters generally have no response delay.
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EN 15011:2020
3.8
indirectly acting lifting force limiter

limiter determining the transmitted force by measured signals and switching off the energy supply for

the operation and, if required, triggering application of the brake torque
4 List of significant hazards

Table 1 of this clause contains all the significant hazards as listed in CEN Guide 414, hazardous situations

and events, as far as they are dealt with in this document, identified by risk assessment as significant for

this type of machinery and which require action to eliminate or reduce the risk.
Table 1 — List of significant hazards and associated requirements
No. Hazard Relevant clause(s) in this
document
1 Mechanical hazards

1.1 Inadequacy of mechanical strength of the crane and its 5.1, 5.2.1, 5.2.2, 5.4.2, 5.4.3,

parts 5.4.4, 5.4.5, 5.4.6, 5.4.7
1.2 Due to kinetic energy of machine parts or work pieces 5.1, 5.4.4.7, 5.5.3
1.3 Due to potential energy of machine parts or work pieces 5.1
1.4 Due to stored energy, fluids under pressure 5.1
1.5 Crushing hazard 5.1, 5.6.2.4, 5.6.2.5, 5.6.2.6
1.6 Shearing hazard 5.1, 5.6.2.4, 5.6.2.5, 5.6.2.6
1.7 Cutting or severing hazard 5.1, 5.6.2.4, 5.6.2.5, 5.6.2.6
1.8 Entanglement hazard 5.1, 5.6.2.4, 5.6.2.5, 5.6.2.6
1.9 Drawing-in or trapping hazard 5.1, 5.6.2.4, 5.6.2.5, 5.6.2.6
1.10 Impact hazard 5.5.3.1, 5.5.3.3
1.11 Stabbing or puncture hazard 5.1, 5.6.2.4, 5.6.2.5, 5.6.2.6
1.12 Friction or abrasion hazard 5.1, 5.6.2.4, 5.6.2.5, 5.6.2.6
1.13 Slipping, tripping and falling 5.6.2
1.14 Ejection of parts or objects 5.1
1.15 Loss of stability 5.1, 5.2.3
2 Electrical hazards
2.1 Contact of persons with live parts (direct contact) 5.1, 5.3.2, 5.3.3
2.2 Contact of persons with parts which have become live 5.1
under faulty conditions (indirect contact)
2.3 Approach to live parts under high voltage 5.1, 5.3
2.4 Electrostatic phenomena 5.1, 5.3
2.5 Thermal radiation or other phenomena such as the 5.1, 5.3
projection of molten particles and chemical effects from
short-circuits, overloads, etc.
2.6 Short-circuit 5.1, 5.3
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EN 15011:2020
No. Hazard Relevant clause(s) in this
document
2.7 Batteries 5.3.7
3 Thermal hazards
3.1 Burns, scalds and other injuries by possible contact of 5.1, 5.4.8.1, 7.3.3
persons with objects or materials with an extreme high
or low temperature, by flames or explosions and also by
radiation of heat sources
3.2 Damage to health by hot or cold working environment 5.6.1
4 Noise hazards 5.6.4
5 Vibration hazards
5.1 Vibrations transmitted to the operator when sitting 5.2.2.6, 5.6.1, 7.3.1
during operation
6 Radiation hazards
6.1 Low frequency electromagnetic radiation
6.2 Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation
6.3 Optical radiation (infrared, visible and ultraviolet)
6.4 Lasers 5.4.8.2
7 Material/substance hazards
7.1 Hazards from contact with harmful fluids, gases, mists, 5.4.8.4
fumes and dusts
7.2 Fire or explosion hazard 5.4.8.3
8 Ergonomic hazards
8.1 Unhealthy postures or excessive efforts 5.4.4.2
8.2 Inadequate consideration of hand-arm or foot-leg 5.6.1
anatomy
8.3 Insufficient means for evacuation/emerg
...

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