Foodstuffs - Detection of irradiated food containing fat - Gas chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbons

This European Standard specifies a method for the identification of irradiation treatment of food which contains fat. It is based on the gas chromatographic detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons (HC). The method has been tested in interlaboratory tests on raw chicken, pork and beef (1) to (4) as well as on camembert, avocado, papays and mango 5, 6.

Lebensmittel - Nachweis von bestrahlten fetthaltigen Lebensmitteln - Gaschromatographische Untersuchung auf Kohlenwasserstoffe

Diese Europäische Norm legt ein Verfahren für die Identifizierung einer Strahlenbehandlung von fetthaltigen Lebensmitteln fest. Das Verfahren basiert auf dem gaschromatographischen (GC) Nachweis strahleninduzierter Kohlenwasserstoffe (KW). Es wurde in Ringversuchen erfolgreich an rohem Hähnchen-, Schweine- und Rindfleisch geprüft [1] bis [4] wie auch an Camembert, Avocado, Papaya und Mango [5], [6].
Andere Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass das Verfahren für viele andere Lebensmittel anwendbar ist [7] bis [28].

Produits alimentaires - Détection d'aliments ionisés contenant des lipides - Analyse par chromatographie en phase gazeuse des hydrocarbures

La présente Norme Européenne indique une méthode pour l'identification du traitement ionisant des aliments contenant des lipides. Elle repose sur la détection par chromatographie en phase gazeuse (CPG) des hydrocarbures volatils (HC) radio-induits. La méthode a été soumise avec succès à des essais interlaboratoires sur de la viande de poulet, de porc et de b�uf crues, [1] à [4], ainsi que sur le camembert, l'avocat, la papaye et la mangue, [5], [6].
D'autres études montrent que la présente méthode s'applique à une large gamme de produits alimentaires, [7] à [28].

Živila - Prepoznavanje obsevane hrane, ki vsebuje maščobo - Plinska kromatografska analiza ogljikovodikov

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Published
Publication Date
05-Aug-2003
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Due Date
15-Oct-2016
Completion Date
12-Oct-2017

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.NDLebensmittel - Nachweis von bestrahlten fetthaltigen Lebensmitteln - Gaschromatographische Untersuchung auf KohlenwasserstoffeProduits alimentaires - Détection d'aliments ionisés contenant des lipides - Analyse par chromatographie en phase gazeuse des hydrocarburesFoodstuffs - Detection of irradiated food containing fat - Gas chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbons71.040.50Fizikalnokemijske analitske metodePhysicochemical methods of analysis67.050Splošne preskusne in analizne metode za živilske proizvodeGeneral methods of tests and analysis for food productsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1784:2003SIST EN 1784:2003en01-november-2003SIST EN 1784:2003SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1784:19981DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1784:2003

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 1784August 2003ICS 67.050Supersedes EN 1784:1996English versionFoodstuffs - Detection of irradiated food containing fat - Gaschromatographic analysis of hydrocarbonsProduits alimentaires - Détection d'aliments ioniséscontenant des lipides - Analyse par chromatographie enphase gazeuse des hydrocarburesLebensmittel - Nachweis von bestrahlten fetthaltigenLebensmitteln - Gaschromatographische Untersuchung aufKohlenwasserstoffeThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 20 June 2003.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UnitedKingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2003 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 1784:2003 ESIST EN 1784:2003

EN 1784:2003 (E)2ContentsForeword......................................................................................................................................................................31Scope..............................................................................................................................................................32Normative references....................................................................................................................................33Principle..........................................................................................................................................................34Reagents.........................................................................................................................................................45Apparatus.......................................................................................................................................................56Sampling technique.......................................................................................................................................77Procedure.......................................................................................................................................................78Evaluation.....................................................................................................................................................109Limitations....................................................................................................................................................1010Validation......................................................................................................................................................1011Test report....................................................................................................................................................12Annex A (normative)

Tables.....................................................................................................................................13Annex B (informative)

Figures.................................................................................................................................14Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................20SIST EN 1784:2003

EN 1784:2003 (E)3ForewordThis document (EN 1784:2003) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 275, "Food analysis -Horizontal methods", the Secretariat of which is held by DIN.This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text orby endorsement, at the latest by February 2004, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latestby February 2004.This document supersedes EN 1784:1996.This European Standard was elaborated on the basis of a protocol developed during a concerted action of theEuropean Commission (DG XII C.5). Experts and laboratories from EU and EFTA countries contributed jointly tothe development of this protocol.The predecessor of the present standard (EN 1784:1996) has been elaborated following a mandate of theEuropean Commission.Annex A is normative. Annex B is informative.According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the followingcountries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.1 ScopeThis European Standard specifies a method for the identification of irradiation treatment of food which contains fat.It is based on the gas chromatographic (GC) detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons (HC). The method hasbeen successfully tested in interlaboratory trials on raw chicken, pork and beef [1] to [4] as well as on Camembert,avocado, papaya and mango [5], [6].Other studies demonstrate that the method is applicable to a wide range of foodstuffs [7] to [28].2 Normative referencesThis European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. Thesenormative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. Fordated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this draft EuropeanStandard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of thepublication referred to applies (including amendments).EN ISO 3696:1995, Water for analytical laboratory use - Specification and test methods (ISO 3696:1987).3 PrincipleDuring irradiation chemical bonds are broken in primary and secondary reactions. In the fatty acid moieties oftriglycerides breaks occur mainly in the

and ß positions with respect to the carbonyl groups resulting in therespective Cn-11) and the Cn-2:12) HC. To predict these chief radiolytic products, the fatty acid composition ofsamples has to be known (see tables A.1 and A.2).

1)Cn-1: HC which has one carbon atom less than the parent fatty acid.SIST EN 1784:2003

EN 1784:2003 (E)4For detection of HC the fat is isolated from the sample by melting it out or by solvent extraction. The HC fraction isobtained by adsorption chromatography prior to separation using gas chromatography and detection with a flameionization detector (FID) or a mass spectrometer (MS).NOTEAs alternative procedures for extraction and/or purification of hydrocarbons, miniaturized solid phase extraction(SPE) [18], [22], supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) [27] and argentation chromatography [22] have been successfully employed.Argentation chromatography [22] has been used effectively for identification of radiation treatment of avocados with 0,025 kGy,and for processed samples containing low amounts of irradiated ingredients. The method was also beneficial in reducing matrixeffects e. g. with irradiated paprika powder. Liquid chromatography (LC)-GC-MS coupling has been used successfully as analternative procedure for purification and detection [8], [17], [20]. It should, however, be noted that these alternative procedureshave not been validated by interlaboratory trials.4 Reagents4.1 GeneralAll reagents and materials used shall be of recognized analytical grade the purity of which has to be testedregularly by the analysis of blank samples. Water shall be of at least grade 3 according to EN ISO 3696:1995.4.2 Sodium sulfate, anhydrous, calcined at 650 °C.4.3 Florisil®3), 150 µm to 250 µm (60 mesh to 100 mesh), deactivated by addition of water.Heat at 550 °C for at least 5 h or overnight (5.10) and store it in a tightly stoppered container (5.22). If it is not usedwithin the next 3 days, heat the Florisil® at 130 °C for at least 5 h (5.21) and allow to cool in a desiccator (5.11).Add 3 parts of water to 100 parts of the adsorbent (m/m) for deactivation. Shake this mixture for at least 20 min,and then store it in a stoppered container for at least 10 h to 12 h for equilibration. Use the deactivated adsorbentwhich is further stored in a stoppered container in the course of the next 3 days; after that reheat to 130 °C andfollow the same procedure as described above.

2)Cn-2:1: HC which has two carbon atoms less than the parent fatty acid and an additional double bond in position 1.3)Florisil® is an example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the convenience of users ofthis standard and does not constitute an endorsement by CEN of this product.SIST EN 1784:2003

EN 1784:2003 (E)54.4 n-Pentane4.5 n-Hexane 4)4.6 2-Propanol4.7 Isooctane4.8 Nitrogen, for concentrating solutions.4.9 Hydrogen, nitrogen or helium as carrier gas.4.10 HC standard solution with concentrations of about 1 µg/ml to 4 µg/ml to be prepared by dissolving in n-pentane, n-hexane or isooctane:1-dodecene (optional)1-12:1n-tridecane (optional)13:01-tetradecene1-14:1n-pentadecane15:0n-hexadecane (optional)16:01-hexadecene1-16:11,7-hexadecadiene5) 1,7-16:2n-heptadecane17:08-heptadecene5)8-17:1n-octadecane (optional)18:01-octadecene (optional)1-18:1and if available1,7,10-hexadecatriene1,7,10-16:36,9-heptadecadiene6,9-17:24.11 n-Eicosane solution (internal standard) with a concentration of about 1 µg/ml to 4 µg/ml of solvent (n-pentane, n-hexane or isooctane).5 Apparatus5.1 GeneralUsual laboratory equipment and, in particular, the following:5.2 Electric blender and Homogenizer.5.3 Centrifuge with swing out rotor and suitable tubes, e.g. 100 ml, capable of producing a centrifugal force of atleast 900 g at the outer end of the tubes.5.4 Water bath, capable of being maintained at 50 °C ± 5 °C.5.5 Soxhlet apparatus, with round bottomed flask of e.g. 250 ml and an extractor of e.g. 100 ml.

4)n-Hexane was the solvent used to validate the method. However, it is also possible to use n-pentane on health groundsprovided it can be shown to lead to the same results.5)The National Standardization Organizations inform on the availability of 1,7-16:2 and 8-17:1SIST EN 1784:2003

EN 1784:2003 (E)65.6 Extraction thimbles, e. g. of cellulose, solvent washed for decontamination, or of glass fibre, heated to470°C over night for decontamination, 25 mm × 100 mm.5.7 Reflux apparatus, e.g. 250 ml flask with condenser.5.8 Stoppered graduated cylinders, e.g. of 100 ml capacity.5.9 Sealable glass tubes, e.g. of 10 ml capacity.5.10 Muffle furnace, capable of being maintained at 550°C and 650 °C.5.11 Desiccator5.12 Chromatographic tube, made of glass, having a length of 200 mm to 300 mm and an internal diameterof 20 mm, fitted with a frit, a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stopcock and a ground glass joint at the top.5.13 Graduated dropping funnel, e.g. of 100 ml capacity with pressure compensation.5.14 Pear-shaped flask, e.g. of 100 ml capacity.5.15 Graduated conical-bottom test tubes, e.g. of 10 ml capacity.5.16 Volumetric flask or GC flask, e.g. of 1 ml capacity.5.17 Rotary evaporator, with evaporation flask and a water bath capable of being controlled at 45 °C.5.18 Apparatus for concentration of solutions under nitrogen.5.19 Gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with flame ionization detector (FID) or mass spectrometer (MS).5.20 Capillary column, with suitable performance characteristics, see Annex B.5.21 Laboratory oven, capable of being maintained at 100° C to 130° C5.22 Stoppered container5.23 Round bottom flasks, e.g. of 250 ml.5.24 Filter paper, solvent washed for decontamination6 Sampling techniqueWhen taking samples, give preference to those parts which have a high fat content (e. g. chicken skin). Keep thesample in a sealable glass tube

or in fat-free metal foil. Foils having a wax coating or packing materials made ofpolyethylene should not be used.7 Procedure7.1 Reagent blankPrepare a reagent blank for every analysis series.The impurities which are encountered are mainly saturated HC, which have been detected in particular in Florisil®,solvent, filter paper and extraction thimbles (for Soxhlet extraction). To remove impurities, wash filter paper andextraction thimbles of cellulose with solvent until no impurities can be detected. Solvent blank solutions should beconcentrated before analysing them for contamination. Plastics materials should not be used for the analyses. Onlythoroughly clean glassware should be used.SIST EN 1784:2003

EN 1784:2003 (E)77.2 Fat extraction procedures7.2.1 Extraction of fat from meat samples7.2.1.1 GeneralCoarsely chop the sample (chicken meat, pork or beef) and homogenize it in a blender (5.2).Any of the following fat extraction methods may be used since a particular method is not believed to affectclassification.7.2.1.2 Extraction by meltingThis procedure is particulary suitable for samples having a high fat content (chicken, pork). The risks ofcontamination (7.1) are considered to be very low.After homogenizing the sample (7.2.1.1), place a suitable amount (see 7.3) (up to 50 g, depending on the fatcontent) in glass centrifuge tubes (5.3) and heat it in the water bath (5.4) at 50 °C. The phase separation may befacilitated by adding a small amount (e. g. 2 ml to 5 ml) of water at this stage. Stir it occasionally with a glass rod,until the fat phase has completely visibly liquefied.To separate the phases, centrifuge the heated homogenate for 10 min at 900 g (5.3), then remove the upper oilphase using a Pasteur pipette, taking care not to disturb the aqueous phase (otherwise, it will be necessary tocentrifuge the sample again). If the amount of fat extracted is too low, loosen up the solid phase (meat) using aglass rod and repeat the heating and centrifugation as described above.7.2.1.3 n-Pentane/2-propanol extractionHomogenize equal parts of the chopped sample (7.2.1.1) (up to 100 g, depending on the fat content) and an-pentane/2-propanol mixture (3 + 2 parts by volume) (4.4), (4.6) in a blender (5.2), transfer the homogenate toglass centrifuge tubes (5.3) and centrifuge for 10 min at 900 g. Combine the upper clear oily phases and, ifnecessary, extract the residues once more using one third of the amount of solvent previously taken.To remove the solvent, concentrate the combined oily phases to a few millilitres in a vacuum rotary evaporator(5.17) at not more than 45 °C. Then add about 20 ml of n-pentane (4.4) and dry the extract over sodium sulfate(4.2) for at least 1 h with occasional shaking. Filter off the sodium sulfate and completely remove the solvent in arotary evaporator at not more than 45 °C.7.2.1.4 Extraction using a soxhlet apparatusWeigh 10 g of sodium sulfate (4.2) into an extraction thimble (5.6). Mix about 20 g of a well mixed andhomogenized sample (7.2.1.1) with a further 10 g of sodium sulfate and add to the thimble. For samples of highwater content the amount of sodium sulfate should be increased to bind all the water. For foodstuffs having a lowfat content, it may be necessary to increase size of the test sample and quantity of anhydrous sodium sulfateaccordingly.Pour 100 ml of solvent (n-hexane (4.5) or n-pentane (4.4)) into a flask (5.5) and a further 40 ml of solvent into theextractor (5.5). Reflux gently for 6 h. Remove from heat when the extractor is nearly filled with solvent. Discard thethimble and the solvent in the extractor. Transfer the

lipid extract of the flask into a stoppered graduated cylinder(5.8) and dilute to a known volume with more solvent. Add approximately 5 g to 10 g of sodium sulfate (4.2),stopper the cylinder, mix gently and leave until sodium sulfate is sedimented.7.2.1.5 Extraction with n-hexane under refluxMix 20 g of homogenized sample (7.2.1.1) with 20 g of sodium sulfate (4.2). For samples of high water content theamount of sodium sulfate should be increased to bind all the water. For foodstuffs having a low fat content, it maybe necessary to increase the size of the test sample and quantity of anhydrous sodium sulfate accordingly.Transfer the mixture into a flask (5.7) and reflux with 100 ml of n-hexane (4.5) for 60 min. Add 5 g of sodiumsulfate, mix gently and filter the solution after 15 min through decontaminated filter paper. Wash the flask and thesodium sulfate once with 25 ml of additional n-hexane. Combine the filtered solutions and remove n-hexane byrotary evaporation (5.17) to a volume of less than 100 ml. Transfer the solution to a stoppered graduated cylinder(5.8) and dilute to a known volume (e. g. 50 ml up to 100 ml) by adding n-hexane. Add approximately 5 g to 10 g ofsodium sulfate, stopper the cylinder, mix gently and leave at room temperature overnight.SIST EN 1784:2003

EN 1784:2003 (E)87.2.1.6 Further preparation (if using 7.2.1.4 or 7.2.1.5)7.2.1.6.1GeneralFor the determination of the lipid content, use one of the following methods:7.2.1.6.2Determination of lipid content– method IDry duplicate flasks to a constant weight. Pipette a known volume of lipid extract (e. g. 5 ml) into each flask, rotaryevaporate (5.17) to dryness. Dry for at least 4 h or overnight at 100 °C and reweigh. Calculate the volume of extractrequired to provide 1 g of lipid.7.2.1.6.3Determination of lipid content– method IIPipette 1 ml of the lipid extract in a weighing boat after determination of weight. Evaporate the solvent by leaving itfor some minutes under the fume cupboard. Dry the sample under a stream of nitrogen (5.18) to constant weight.Weigh the boat back and calculate the volume of extract required to provide 1 g of lipid.7.2.1.6.4Determination of lipid content – method IIIConcentrate the whole lipid extract to 2 ml to 3 ml by rotary evaporation (5.17) (waterbath, 45 °C, low vacuum[approximately 25 kPa]). Transfer the concentrated lipid extract to a pre-weighed sealable glass tube (5.9). Dry thesample under a stream of nitrogen (5.18) to constant weight.7.2.2 Extraction of fat from cheese and fruit samples7.2.2.1 Homogenization7.2.2.1.1 CamembertHomogenize Camembert and weigh 60 g of the homogenate and 40 g of sodium sulfate (4.2) into a beaker. Mixwell, add 100 ml of n-hexane (4.5) and blend for about 2 min.7.2.2.1.2 AvocadoHomogenize the fruit pulp of an avocado and weigh 40 g of the homogenate and 60 g of sodium sulfate (4.2) into abeaker. Mix well, add 100 ml of n-hexane (4.5) and blend for about 2 min. In the case of unripe avocados, use thewhole fruit pulp and increase the amount of sodium sulfate and n-hexane proportionally.7.2.2.1.3 PapayaHalve two papayas, take the seeds and remove the attached fruit pulp as thoroughly as possible. Homogenize allthe seeds with sodium sulfate (4.2) (1:1, m/m). Blend the homogenate in a beaker with about 150 ml of n-hexane(4.5) for about 2 min.7.2.2.1.4 MangoRemove the fruit pulp of three mangoes, crack the kernels (e. g. along the length with a knife, if not possible with ahammer), take the seeds and remove the seedcase as thoroughly as possible. Homogenize all the seeds withsodium sulfate (4.2) (1:1, m/m). Blend the homogenate in a beaker with about 150 ml of n-hexane (4.5) for about2 min.7.2.2.2 Further preparationTransfer the n-hexane/sample mixtures to centrifuge tubes (5.3). After centrifugation (5 min at 900 g) (5.3), pool theextracts by cautiously decanting into a round-bottom flask (5.23). In the case of papaya and mango, the residuesmay be re-extracted with half of the solvent volume to achieve higher fat yields. Concentrate the extracts to 2 ml to3 ml by rotary evaporation (5.17) (waterbath, 45 °C, low vacuum [approx. 25 kPa]). Transfer the concentrated lipidextract to a preweighted sealable glass tube (5.9). Dry the sample fat under a stream of nitrogen (5.18) to constantweight.SIST EN 1784:2003

EN 1784:2003 (E)97.3 Application of fat to the Florisil® column7.3.1 Addition of internal standard7.3.1.1 Using pure lipidsDissolve 1 g of fat (7.2.1.2, 7.2.1.3, 7.2.1.6.4 or 7.2.2.2) in 1 ml of n-eicosane solution (4.11).7.3.1.2 Using lipid extractsAfter extraction of fat (7.2.1.4 or 7.2.1.5), mix 1 ml of n-eicosane solution (4.11) and the volume of fat extractrequired to provide 1 g of lipid (7.2.1.6). If the total volume is more than 5 ml, concentrate by rotary evaporatio

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