Railway applications - Aerodynamics - Part 4: Requirements and test procedures for aerodynamics on open track

This European Standard deals with requirements, test procedures and conformity assessment for aerodynamics on open track. Addressed within this standard are the topics of aerodynamic loadings and resistance to motion, while the topic of cross wind assessment is addressed by EN 14067-6.
This European Standard refers to rolling stock and infrastructure issues. This standard does not apply to freight wagons. It applies to railway operation on gauges GA, GB and GC according to EN 15273. The methodological approach of the presented test procedures may be adapted to different gauges.

Bahnanwendungen - Aerodynamik - Teil 4: Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren für Aerodynamik auf offener Strecke

Diese Europäische Norm behandelt Anforderungen, Prüfverfahren und Konformitätsbewertungen für Aerody¬namik auf offener Strecke. Im Rahmen dieser Norm werden die Themen aerodynamische Belastungen und Laufwiderstand angesprochen, während das Thema Seitenwind in EN 14067-6 behandelt wird.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für die Belange von Fahrzeugen und Infrastruktur. Sie gilt nicht für Güterwagen. Sie gilt für den Eisenbahnbetrieb mit den Begrenzungslinien GA, GB und GC nach EN 15273. Der metho¬dologische Ansatz der vorgestellten Prüfverfahren darf für andere Begrenzungslinien angepasst werden.

Applications ferroviaires - Aérodynamique - Partie 4: Exigences et procédures d'essai pour l'aérodynamique à l'air libre

La présente Norme européenne concerne les exigences, les procédures d'essai et l'évaluation de la conformité pour l'aérodynamique à l'air libre. Elle traite des chargements aérodynamiques et de la résistance à l'avancement, tandis que l'EN 14067 6 traite de l'évaluation des vents traversiers.
La présente Norme européenne fait référence au matériel roulant et à l'infrastructure. La présente Norme ne s'applique pas aux wagons. Elle s'applique à l'exploitation ferroviaire avec un gabarit GA, GB et GC conformément à l'EN 15273. L'approche méthodologique des procédures d'essai présentées peut être adaptée à un gabarit différent.

Železniške naprave - Aerodinamika - 4. del: Zahteve in preskusni postopki za aerodinamiko na odprti progi

Ta evropski standard obravnava zahteve, preskusne postopke in ugotavljanje skladnosti za aerodinamiko na odprti progi. V tem standardu sta obravnavani temi aerodinamične obremenitve in upora ob gibanju, medtem ko oceno vpliva bočnega vetra obravnava standard EN 14067-6.
Ta evropski standard se nanaša na vozna sredstva in infrastrukturna vprašanja. Ta standard se ne uporablja za tovorne vagone. Uporablja se za železniške naprave na profilih GA, GB in GC v skladu s standardom EN 15273. Metodološki pristop predstavljenih preskusnih postopkov se lahko prilagodi različnim profilom.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Dec-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
12-Dec-2018
Completion Date
12-Dec-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Železniške naprave - Aerodinamika - 4. del: Zahteve in preskusni postopki za aerodinamiko na odprti progiBahnanwendungen - Aerodynamik - Teil 4: Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren für Aerodynamik auf offener StreckeApplications ferroviaires - Aérodynamique - Partie 4: Exigences et procédures d'essai pour l'aérodynamique à l'air libreRailway applications - Aerodynamics - Part 4: Requirements and test procedures for aerodynamics on open track45.060.01Železniška vozila na splošnoRailway rolling stock in generalICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019en,fr,de01-februar-2019SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 14067-4:2013+A1
December
t r s z ICS
v wä r x rä r s Supersedes EN
s v r x yæ vã t r s uEnglish Version
Railway applications æ Aerodynamics æ Part

vã Requirements and test procedures for aerodynamics on open track Applications ferroviaires æ Aérodynamique æ Partie

vã Exigences et procédures d 5essai pour l 5aérodynamique à l 5air libre
Bahnanwendungen æ Aerodynamik æ Teil

vã Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren für Aerodynamik auf offener Strecke This European Standard was approved by CEN on

t s September
t r s u and includes Amendment
s approved by CEN on
t z August
t r s zä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s v r x yæ vã t r s u ªA sã t r s z ESIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms, definitions and symbols ................................................................................................................. 6 3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6 3.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................... 7 4 Requirements on locomotives and passenger rolling stock ......................................................... 10 4.1 Limitation of pressure variations beside the track ......................................................................... 10 4.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10 4.1.2 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 10 4.1.3 Full conformity assessment ...................................................................................................................... 11 4.1.4 Simplified conformity assessment ......................................................................................................... 11 4.2 Limitation of slipstream effects beside the track ............................................................................. 13 4.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13 4.2.2 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 13 4.2.3 Full conformity assessment ...................................................................................................................... 15 4.2.4 Simplified conformity assessment ......................................................................................................... 15 4.3 Aerodynamic loads in the track bed ...................................................................................................... 16 5 Requirements on infrastructure ............................................................................................................ 16 5.1 Train-induced pressure loads acting on flat structures parallel to the track ........................ 16 5.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16 5.1.2 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 17 5.1.3 Conformity assessment .............................................................................................................................. 17 5.2 Train-induced air speeds acting on infrastructure components beside the track ............... 17 5.3 Train-induced aerodynamic loads in the track bed ........................................................................ 17 5.4 Train-induced air speed acting on people beside the track ......................................................... 17 6 Methods and test procedures .................................................................................................................. 17 6.1 Assessment of train-induced pressure variations beside the track .......................................... 17 6.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17 6.1.2 Pressure variations in the undisturbed pressure field (reference case) ................................ 20 6.1.3 Pressure variations on surfaces parallel to the track ..................................................................... 29 6.1.4 Effect of wind on loads caused by the train ........................................................................................ 36 6.2 Assessment of train-induced air flow beside the track .................................................................. 37 6.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 37 6.2.2 Slipstream effects on persons beside the track (reference case) ............................................... 37 SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 3 6.2.3 Slipstream effects on objects beside the track ................................................................................... 40 6.3 Assessment of train-induced aerodynamic loads in the track bed ............................................. 41 6.4 Assessment of resistance to motion ....................................................................................................... 41 6.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 41 6.4.2 Full-scale tests ............................................................................................................................................... 41 Annex A (informative)

Procedure for full-scale tests regarding train-induced air flow in the track bed .......................................................................................................................................................... 45 A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 45 A.2 Track configuration ..................................................................................................................................... 45 A.3 Vehicle configuration and test conditions ........................................................................................... 46 A.4 Instrumentation and data acquisition .................................................................................................. 46 A.5 Data processing ............................................................................................................................................. 46 Annex ZA (informative)

!Relationship between this European Standard and the essential requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC aimed to be covered" ......................................... 48 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 50

SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway Applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2019. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 2018-08-28. This document supersedes !EN 14067-4:2013". The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !". !deleted text" The results of the EU-funded research project "AeroTRAIN" (Grant Agreement No. 233985) have been used. !This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC. For relationship with EU Directive 2008/57/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document." !deleted text" EN 14067, Railway applications — Aerodynamics consists of the following parts: — Part 1: Symbols and units — Part 2: Aerodynamics on open track (!withdrawn") — Part 3: Aerodynamics in tunnels — Part 4: Requirements and test procedures for aerodynamics on open track — Part 5: Requirements and test procedures for aerodynamics in tunnels — Part 6: Requirements and test procedures for cross wind assessment

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 5 Introduction Trains running on open track generate aerodynamic loads on objects and persons they pass. If trains are being passed by other trains, trains are also subject to aerodynamic loading themselves. The aerodynamic loading caused by a train passing an object or a person near the track, or when two trains pass each other, is an important interface parameter between the subsystems of rolling stock, infrastructure and operation and, thus, is subject to regulation when specifying the trans-European railway system. Trains running on open track have to overcome a resistance to motion which has a strong effect on the required engine power, achievable speed, travel time and energy consumption. Thus, resistance to motion is often subject to contractual agreements and requires standardized test and assessment methods. SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard deals with requirements, test procedures and conformity assessment for aerodynamics on open track. Addressed within this standard are the topics of aerodynamic loadings and resistance to motion, while the topic of cross wind assessment is addressed by EN 14067-6. This European Standard refers to rolling stock and infrastructure issues. This standard does not apply to freight wagons. It applies to railway operation on gauges GA, GB and GC according to EN 15273. The methodological approach of the presented test procedures may be adapted to different gauges. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 1991-2, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures — Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges EN 15273 (all parts), Railway applications — Gauges EN 15663, Railway applications — Definition of vehicle reference masses ISO 8756, Air quality — Handling of temperature, pressure and humidity data 3 Terms, definitions and symbols 3.1 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1.1 peak-to-peak pressure change modulus of the difference between the maximum pressure and the minimum pressure for the relevant load case 3.1.2 passage of train head passage of the front end of the leading vehicle which is responsible for the generation of the characteristic pressure rise and drop, over and beside, the train and on the track bed 3.1.3 Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFD numerical methods of approximating and solving the equations of fluid dynamics 3.1.4 streamline shaped vehicle vehicle with a closed and smooth front which does not cause flow separations in the mean flow field greater than 5 cm from the side of the vehicle 3.1.5 bluff shaped vehicle

vehicle that is not streamlined SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 7 3.2 Symbols For the purposes of this document, the following symbols apply. Table 1 — Symbols Symbol Unit Significance Explanation or remark b m reference length train width c m/s speed of sound

« coefficient of aerodynamic force
Cp1
« aerodynamic coefficient depending on the distance from track centre Y
Cp2
« aerodynamic coefficient depending on the height above top of rail h
Cp3
« aerodynamic coefficient depending on the distance from track centre Y
C1 N rolling mechanical resistance

C2 vtr N momentum drag due to air flow for traction and auxiliary equipment and the air conditioning systems

C3 vtr2 N aerodynamic drag in the resistance to motion formula
d t s temporal variation
d vtr m/s train speed variation
d x m spatial variation
F N load on an object, maximum value of the force during the passage
g m/s2 acceleration due to gravity
h m height above top of rail
i ‰ gradient of the track
« factor accounting for the energy stored in rotating masses
· 1,0 k1
« shape coefficient of the train
« shape coefficient of the train
« shape coefficient of the train

Ln m length of the train nose distance from front end to where the full cross section of the leading vehicle is achieved m kg train mass normal operational payload according to EN 15663 SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 8 Table 1 (2 of 4) Symbol Unit Significance Explanation or remark p Pa pressure

pmax Pa maximum pressure
pmin Pa minimum pressure
p1k Pa characteristic value of distributed load
p2k Pa characteristic value of distributed load
p3k Pa characteristic value of distributed load
r m curve radius
« Reynolds number based on reference length of 3,00 m at full scale Remax
« maximum Reynolds number

R1 N resistance to motion train contribution R2 N resistance to motion infrastructure contribution S m2 characteristic area

t s time

ui m/s resultant horizontal air speed of the i-th passage after transformation of the time base um,i m/s measured resultant horizontal air speed of the i-th passage

U m/s induced flow speed
U m/s mean value over all measured maxima Ui

Ui m/s maximum resultant horizontal air speed of the i-th passage after averaging and correction to the characteristic train speed

Umax m/s maximum value of U
U2 m/s upper bound of a 2
interval of maximum air speed

U95% m/s maximum resultant horizontal air speed characteristic air speed U95%,max m/s permissible maximum resultant horizontal air speed permissible characteristic air speed vtr m/s train speed

vtr,c m/s full scale train speed
vtr,i m/s train speed during the i-th passage
vtr,max m/s maximum train speed
vtr,ref m/s reference speed
vtr,test m/s nominal test speed
SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 9 Table 1 (3 of 4) Symbol Unit Significance Explanation or remark vw,x,i m/s wind speed component in x-direction during the i-th passage

« dimensionless wall distance
Y m lateral distance from track centre
Ymin m minimum lateral distance from track centre
Ymax m maximum lateral distance from track centre
m/s2 train acceleration measured during the coasting test
« pressure change coefficient Upper bound of a 2

interval of the peak-to-peak pressure change coefficient. The peak-to-peak pressure change coefficient is defined in Formula 2. p

« pressure change coefficient
Pa peak-to-peak pressure change
p∆ Pa mean value for peak-to-peak pressure change
determined over all measurements i or by CFD
Pa upper bound of a 2
interval of the peak-to-peak pressure change

95% Pa maximum peak-to-peak pressure change characteristic pressure change 95%,max=Pa permissible maximum peak-to-peak pressure change permissible characteristic pressure change i Pa maximum peak-to-peak pressure value of the i-th passage

m,i Pa maximum peak-to-peak pressure value measured during the i-th passage
sim= the head pressure variation from unsteady CFD calculations
simp∆ Pa the head pressure variation from steady CFD calculations

s characteristic time interval passage of train head, time between pressure peaks =- relative difference

i N sum of all the resistances to motion
=Pa ®s dynamic viscosity
kg/m3 air density
i kg/m3 air density determined during the i-th passage
0 kg/m3 standard air density 0 = 1,225 kg/m3 SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 10 Table1 (4 of 4) Symbol Unit Significance Explanation or remark

« standard deviation can be pressure or speed sim Pa standard deviation of simulated pressure

a) Side view
b) Top view

c) Speed vector diagram Figure 1 – Coordinate system 4 Requirements on locomotives and passenger rolling stock 4.1 Limitation of pressure variations beside the track 4.1.1 General A passing train generates a varying pressure field beside the track which has an effect on objects such as crossing trains, noise barriers, platform installations, etc. To define a clear interface between the subsystems of rolling stock and infrastructure, the train-induced aerodynamic pressure loads beside the track need to be known and limited.

In order to describe and to limit the train-induced aerodynamic pressure loads beside the track one reference case for rolling stock assessment is defined.

4.1.2 Requirements 4.1.2.1 Reference case For standard GA, GB, GC gauge according to EN 15273 in the absence of embankments, cuttings and other significant trackside structures the undisturbed pressure field generated by a passing train at a position of 2,50 m distance from the centre of a straight track with standard track formation profile is referred to as the reference case. The pressure variations occurring are characterized by the upper bound of the 95 % confidence interval for the maximum peak-to-peak pressure. This maximum peak-to-peak pressure change, 95%, refers to the maximum pressure change which occurs during the passage of the train head. SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 11 4.1.2.2 Fixed or pre-defined train compositions A fixed or pre-defined train composition, running at the reference speed in the reference case scenario shall not cause the maximum peak-to-peak pressure changes to exceed a value 95%,max as set out in Table 2 over the range of heights 1,50 m to 3,00 m above the top of rail during the passage of the train head. For non-identical end cars the requirement applies for each possible running direction. Table 2 — Maximum permissible peak-to-peak pressure change 95%,max depending on maximum design speed Maximum design speed

Permissible pressure change 95%,max at reference speed Reference speed vtr

s x r km/h no requirement 160 km/h < vtr < 250 km/h 95%,max = 800 Pa maximum design speed=250 vtr 95%,max = 800 Pa 250 km/h=4.1.2.3 Single rolling stock units fitted with a driver’s cab Single rolling stock units fitted with a driver’s cab running as the leading vehicle at the reference speed in the reference case scenario shall not cause the maximum peak-to-peak pressure changes to exceed a value 95%,max as set out in Table 2. The range of heights to be considered are 1,50 m to 3,00 m above the top of rail during the passage of the front end of this unit. For single rolling stock units capable of bidirectional operation as a leading vehicle the requirement applies for each possible running direction. 4.1.2.4 Other passenger rolling stock For passenger rolling stock which is not covered in 4.1.2.2 or 4.1.2.3 there is no requirement. 4.1.3 Full conformity assessment A full conformity assessment of interoperable rolling stock shall be undertaken according to Table 3. Table 3 — Methods applicable for the full conformity assessment of rolling stock Maximum design speed

Methods vtr
s x r km/h No assessment needed 160 km/h < vtr

Assessment by: — full-scale tests according to 6.1.2.1; or — reduced-scale moving model tests according to 6.1.2.2; or — CFD simulations according to 6.1.2.4. 4.1.4 Simplified conformity assessment A simplified conformity assessment may be carried out for rolling stock that are subject to minor design differences in comparison to rolling stock for which a full conformity assessment already exists. SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 12 With respect to pressure variations beside the track, the only relevant design differences are differences in external geometry and differences in design speed. This simplified conformity assessment shall take one of the following forms in accordance with Table 4: — a statement and rationale that the design differences have no impact on the pressure variations beside the track; — a comparative evaluation of the design differences relevant to the rolling stock for which a full conformity assessment already exists. Table 4 — Methods and requirements applicable for simplified conformity assessment of rolling stock Design differences Methods and requirements Differences in external geometry limited to — locations either downstream of the distance of the maximum cross-section from the train nose or downstream of the distance of the minimum pressure peak relative to the train nose, — the inner region of the underpart of the train (under the train and between rails), — minor differences in external geometry, — wipers and handles, — antennae with a volume smaller than 5 l, — long isolated protruding objects or gaps not being vertical or close to the front-side radius or edge smaller than 50 mm in the crosswise dimensions, — small isolated protruding objects and gaps smaller than 50 mm in each dimension. Documentation of differences, statement of no impact and reference to an existing compliant full conformity assessment.

Other differences in external geometry (e.g. in buffers, front couplers, snow ploughs, front or side windows) keeping the basic head shape features.

Documentation of differences and reference to an existing compliant full conformity assessment AND assessment of the relative effect of differences by — reduced-scale moving model tests according to 6.1.2.2 or — CFD-simulations according to 6.1.2.4, AND

evidence and documentation that

(i) the difference causes changes in p∆ less than ± 10 %, 1,0)()()(<−ApApBp∆∆∆ NOTE B refers to the new train geometry. A refers to the existing compliant train. and (ii) the difference does not exceed 50 % of the margin available on the compliance with 4.1.2. ))((5,0))()((%95max%,95AppApBp∆∆∆∆−⋅<−=Increase=of=design=speed=—=less=than=10=%=for=a=train=with=original=design=Documentation=of=differences=and=reference=to=an=existing=compliant=full=conformity=assessment=AND=SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 13 speed < 250 km/h, — for a train with original design speed

· 250 km/h. evidence and documentation based on a p analysis that the new design under investigation still fulfils the requirements listed in 4.1.2. 4.2 Limitation of slipstream effects beside the track 4.2.1 General A train generates a varying flow field beside the track which has an effect on persons and objects at the track side and at platforms. In order to define a clear interface between the subsystems of the rolling stock and the infrastructure, the train-induced slipstream effects need to be known and limited. In order to describe and to limit the train-induced slipstream effects, a reference case for rolling stock assessment is defined. NOTE Ensuring track workers' and passengers' safety at the platform involves additional issues on the operational and infrastructure side. 4.2.2 Requirements 4.2.2.1 Reference case For standard GA, GB, GC gauges according to EN 15273, in the absence of embankments, cuttings and any significant trackside structures, the undisturbed flowfield generated by a passing train at a position of 3,00 m from the centre of a straight track with standard track formation profile is referred to as the reference case. The air flows occurring are characterized by the upper bound of the 95 % confidence interval of maximum resultant horizontal air speeds. This maximum horizontal air speed U95% refers to the whole passage of the train and its wake. 4.2.2.2 Fixed or pre-defined train compositions A full-length, fixed or pre-defined train composition, running at reference speed in the reference case scenario shall not cause the maximum resultant horizontal air speed to exceed a value U95%,max as set out in Table 5 at a height of 0,20 m above the top of rail during the passage of the whole train and its wake. For non-symmetrical train compositions, the requirement applies for each possible running direction. For fixed or pre-defined train compositions consisting of more than one train unit, it is sufficient to assess a train composition consisting at least of two units and of a minimum length of 120 m. SIST EN 14067-4:2014+A1:2019

EN 14067-4:2013+A1:2018 (E) 14 Table 5 — Maximum resultant permissible horizontal air speed U95%,max depending on maximum design speed Maximum design speed vtr,max Height above the track Permissible horizontal air speed U95%,max at reference speed Reference speed vtr,ref vtr,max

¶ 160 km/h no requirement 160 km/h < vtr,max

< 250 km/h 0,2 m U95%,max = 20 m/s the maximum design speed 1,4 m U95%,max = 15,5 m/s 200 km/h or the maximum design speed, whichever is lower 250 km/h

¶ vtr,max

0,2 m U95%,max = 22 m/s 300 km/h or, if lower, at maximum design speed 1,4 m U95%,max = 15,5 m/s 200 km/h

4.2.2.3 Single rolling stock units fitted with a driver’s cab A single unit fitted with a driver's cab running at reference speed in the reference case scenario shall not cause the maximum resultant horizontal air speed to exceed a value U95%,max as set out in Table 5 at heights of 0,20 m and 1,40 m above the top of rail during the passage of the whole train and its wake. Conformity shall be assessed for units at the front and rear of a rake of passenger carriages of at least 100 m in length. Assessments shall be carried out with either one unit, or with two identical units, one at the front and one at the rear of the train. The carriages should be comprised of those likely to be used in operational conditions. The requirement applies for each possible running direction.

4.2.2.4 Other passenger rolling stock Carriages that are operated within trains of different formations are compliant, if similar to existing or proven compliant single rolling stock with respect to: — design speed (lower or equal to existing); and — bogie external arrangement (position, cavity an

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