Stationary source emissions - Guidance on the application of EN ISO 16911-1

This CEN Technical Report provides guidance only on the application of the European Standard EN ISO 16911-1:2013.
This CEN Technical Report does not provide guidance on the application of EN ISO 16911-2:2013.

Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Leitlinien zur Anwendung von EN ISO 16911-1

Émissions de sources fixes - Préconisations concernant l’application de l’EN ISO 16911-1

Le présent Rapport technique du CEN fournit des préconisations concernant uniquement l'application de la Norme européenne EN ISO 16911‐1:2013.
Le présent Rapport technique du CEN ne fournit pas de préconisations concernant l'application de l'EN ISO 16911‐2:2013.

Emisije nepremičnih virov - Navodilo za uporabo standarda EN ISO 16911-1

To tehnično poročilo CEN zajema smernice za pomoč pri uporabi standarda EN 16911-1:2013. Izdelano je bilo kot odgovor na zahtevo zrcalnih odborov držav članic za pojasnitev elementov standarda EN 16911-1:2013 in načina interpretacije nekaterih zahtev, določenih v tem standardu. Standard EN 16911-1:2013 velja za nabor aplikacij v okviru različnih zahtev za negotovost. To tehnično poročilo CEN podaja priporočila o tem, katere zahteve in lastnosti delovanja veljajo za določene cilje spremljanja in področja uporabe, da bi bila dosežena enotna uporaba standarda EN 16911-1:2013. To tehnično poročilo CEN ne določa smernic glede uporabe standarda EN 16911-2:2013.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Mar-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
22-Mar-2017
Completion Date
22-Mar-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17078:2017
01-julij-2017
(PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY1DYRGLOR]DXSRUDERVWDQGDUGD(1,62
Stationary source emissions - Guidance on the application of EN ISO 16911-1
Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Leitlinien zur Anwendung von EN ISO 16911-1

Émissions de sources fixes - Préconisations concernant l’application de l’EN ISO 16911-

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17078:2017
ICS:
13.040.40 (PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY Stationary source emissions
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17078:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17078:2017
CEN/TR 17078
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
March 2017
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 13.040.40
English Version
Stationary source emissions - Guidance on the application
of EN ISO 16911-1

Émissions de sources fixes - Préconisations concernant Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Leitlinien zur

l'application de l'EN ISO 16911-1 Anwendung von EN ISO 16911-1

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 20 February 2017. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

264.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 17078:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 7

5 General guidance on manual determination of velocity and flow rate in ducts....................... 7

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1.1 Role of this CEN Technical Report ............................................................................................................. 7

5.1.2 How to use this Technical Report .............................................................................................................. 8

5.2 Scope and structure of EN ISO 16911-1 ................................................................................................... 8

5.2.1 Scope of EN ISO 16911-1 ............................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.2 Concept of EN ISO 16911-1 .......................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.3 Relationship to other international standards .................................................................................... 8

5.3 Summary of different requirements for determination of velocity and flow rate .................. 8

5.3.1 Velocity and flow rate monitoring requirements under the Industrial Emissions

Directive ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.2 Velocity and flow rate monitoring requirements under the EU ETS Directive ......................... 8

5.3.3 Other requirements for monitoring velocity and flow rate in ducts and stacks ...................... 9

6 Specific guidance on the application of EN ISO 16911-1 ................................................................... 9

6.1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Terms, definitions ........................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................ 9

6.4.1 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4.2 Abbreviated terms ....................................................................................................................................... 10

6.5 Principle .......................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

6.5.2 Principle of flow velocity determination at a point the duct ........................................................ 10

6.6 Principle of measurement of flow rate ................................................................................................. 10

6.6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

6.6.2 Principle of volume flow rate determination from point velocity measurements .............. 11

6.6.3 Determination of volume flow rate using tracer dilution measurements .............................. 11

6.6.4 Determination of volume flow rate using transit time tracer measurements ....................... 11

6.6.5 Determination of volume flow rate from plant thermal input .................................................... 11

6.7 Selection of a monitoring approach ...................................................................................................... 11

6.7.1 Measurement objective .............................................................................................................................. 11

6.7.2 Choice of technique to determine point flow velocity .................................................................... 11

6.7.3 Choice of technique for volume flow rate and average flow determination .......................... 11

6.8 Measuring equipment ................................................................................................................................ 11

6.8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.8.2 Measurement of duct area ........................................................................................................................ 12

6.9 Performance characteristics and requirements ............................................................................... 13

6.10 Measurement Procedure — Site survey before testing .................................................................. 15

6.11 Determination of sampling plane and number of measurement points.................................. 15

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6.12 Checks before sampling .............................................................................................................................. 16

6.12.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

6.12.2 Pre-test leak check ....................................................................................................................................... 17

6.12.3 Check on stagnation and reference pressure taps (S-type Pitot tube) ...................................... 18

6.12.4 Test of repeatability at a single point .................................................................................................... 18

6.12.5 Swirl or cyclonic flow .................................................................................................................................. 18

6.13 Quality control ............................................................................................................................................... 19

6.14 Measurement of flow at locations within the measurement plane ............................................ 19

6.15 Post-measurement quality control ........................................................................................................ 19

6.16 Calculation of results ................................................................................................................................... 20

6.16.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 20

6.16.2 Measurement of velocity ............................................................................................................................ 20

6.16.3 Determination of the mean velocity ...................................................................................................... 20

6.16.4 Correction of average velocity for wall effects ................................................................................... 20

6.16.5 Calculation of the volume flow rate from the average velocity ................................................... 20

6.16.6 Conversion of results to standard conditions .................................................................................... 20

6.17 Establishment of uncertainty results .................................................................................................... 20

6.18 Evaluation of the method ........................................................................................................................... 20

7 Annex A: Measurement of velocity using differential pressure based techniques ............... 20

7.1 A.1: Principle of differential pressure based technique ................................................................. 20

7.2 A.2: Measuring Equipment ........................................................................................................................ 20

7.2.1 A.2.1: Pitot tubes ........................................................................................................................................... 20

7.2.2 A.2.2: Differential pressure flow measurement equipment ......................................................... 21

8 Annex F: Example of uncertainty budget established for velocity and volume flow

rate measurements by Pitot tube ........................................................................................................... 22

8.1 F.1: Process of uncertainty estimation .................................................................................................. 22

8.1.1 F.1.1: General .................................................................................................................................................. 22

8.1.2 F.1.2: Determination of model function................................................................................................ 22

8.1.3 F.1.3: Quantification of uncertainty components.............................................................................. 22

8.1.4 F.1.4: Calculation of the combined uncertainty ................................................................................. 22

8.1.5 F.1.5: Other sources of errors ................................................................................................................... 23

8.2 F.2: Example uncertainty calculation .................................................................................................... 24

8.2.1 F.2.1: Calculation of the physicochemical characteristics of the gas effluent ......................... 26

8.2.2 F.2.2: Calculation of uncertainty associated with the determination of local velocities .... 27

8.2.3 F.2.3: Calculation of uncertainty associated with the mean velocity ......................................... 35

8.2.4 F.2.4: Calculation of uncertainty in reported values ........................................................................ 36

9 Annexes B, C, D, E, G, H, I and J .................................................................................................................. 37

Annex A (informative) Degree of swirl determination example method .............................................. 38

Annex B (informative) S-type Pitot leak check example method ............................................................. 39

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 40

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 17078:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air

quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.
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Introduction

This CEN Technical Report provides supporting guidance on the application of EN ISO 16911-1:2013. It

has been produced in response to the request from Member State mirror committees for clarification on

elements of EN ISO 16911-1:2013 and on how certain requirements specified within it should be

interpreted. EN ISO 16911-1:2013 has been written to apply to a range of applications with different

uncertainty requirements. This CEN Technical Report makes recommendations in regards to which

requirements and performance characteristics apply to specified measurement objective(s) and

application area(s) in order to achieve a consistent application of EN ISO 16911-1:2013.

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1 Scope

This CEN Technical Report provides guidance only on the application of the European Standard

EN ISO 16911-1:2013.

This CEN Technical Report does not provide guidance on the application of EN ISO 16911-2:2013.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 14181, Stationary source emissions - Quality assurance of automated measuring systems

EN 15259:2007, Air quality - Measurement of stationary source emissions - Requirements for

measurement sections and sites and for the measurement objective, plan and report

EN ISO 16911-1:2013, Stationary source emissions - Manual and automatic determination of velocity and

volume flow rate in ducts - Part 1: Manual reference method (ISO 16911-1:2013)

EN ISO 16911-2:2013, Stationary source emissions - Manual and automatic determination of velocity and

volume flow rate in ducts - Part 2: Automated measuring systems (ISO 16911-2:2013)

ISO 10780, Stationary source emissions — Measurement of velocity and volume flowrate of gas streams in

ducts
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 16911-1:2013 and the

following apply.
3.1
emission source

separately identifiable part of an installation or a process within an installation, from which relevant

greenhouse gases are emitted and are regulated under the EU Emissions Trading System

[SOURCE: Commission Regulation (EU) No. 601/2012, Article 3, Definition (5)]
3.2
tier

set requirement under the EU Emissions Trading System used for determining activity data, calculation

factors, annual emission and annual average hourly emission, as well as for payload

[SOURCE: Commission Regulation (EU) No. 601/2012, Article 3, Definition (8)]
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4 Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the symbols and abbreviations given in EN ISO 16911-1:2013 and

the following apply.
4.1 Symbols:
dl change in length (m, inches)
L initial length of measuring rod (m, inches)
α linear temperature expansion coefficient (m/m°C)
t initial temperature (°C)
t final temperature (°C)
CF correction factor at position i
V average velocity of fixed device measurements
fav
V velocity of fixed measurement device at position i
V corrected velocity at position i
ticorr
V velocity measured
meas
hs corrected height of the indicating fluid to standard temperature
ht height of the indicating fluid at the temperature when read
ps density of the indicating fluid at standard temperature
pt density of the indicating fluid at the temperature when read
gs gravitational acceleration assumed at calibration, ms
gt gravitational acceleration at test location, ms
θ latitude (North/South position with the Equator being zero), °
H height above sea level, m
4.2 Abbreviations:
EU ETS Emissions Trading System
CO (e) Carbon Dioxide equivalent
5 General guidance on manual determination of velocity and flow rate in ducts
5.1 General
5.1.1 Role of this CEN Technical Report

The role of this CEN Technical Report is to provide guidance on the application of the European

Standard EN ISO 16911-1:2013 on the manual determination of velocity and flow rate in ducts. This

Technical Report offers clarification on matters of interpretation of EN ISO 16911-1:2013 and provides

recommendations on its application depending on the uncertainty requirements of the measurement

objective. The adoption of the full Technical Report or parts of it may be decided by individual Member

States' regulatory authorities.

Throughout this Technical Report, reference to the Standard refers to EN ISO 16911-1:2013.

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5.1.2 How to use this Technical Report

This Technical Report does not follow the numbering of EN ISO 16911-1:2013; however for easier

handling it uses the same headings and sub-headings as EN ISO 16911-1:2013. It does not repeat text,

tables or diagrams from EN ISO 16911-1:2013, instead it refers to the relevant sections of the Standard.

It is therefore essential that the reader has a copy of the Standard to refer to. For sections of the

Standard where this Technical Report does not provide any text or guidance it is deemed that the

relevant section does not require any additional clarification.

An error has been identified in Formula (F.10) of the uncertainty example in EN ISO 16911-1:2013,

Annex F. It is recommended that the uncertainty example provided in this CEN Technical Report

(see Clause 8) replaces the existing one in the Standard.
5.2 Scope and structure of EN ISO 16911-1
5.2.1 Scope of EN ISO 16911-1

EN ISO 16911-1:2013 is applicable to industrial plants falling under the European Industrial Emission

Directive (2010/75/EU). It is also applicable to industrial plants falling under the EU Emissions Trading

System Directive (EU ETS) (2003/87/EC) that are required or have opted to use the measurement-

based methodology as specified in Commission Regulation (EU) No 601/2012 of 21 June 2012 on the

monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions (MRR).
5.2.2 Concept of EN ISO 16911-1

EN ISO 16911-1 has been written to apply to different measurement objectives with different

uncertainty requirements ranging from very stringent (EU ETS Tier 4 - ± 2,5 %) to less demanding

(support of isokinetic sampling). The performance characteristics and requirements within the

Standard have been specified as a means of achieving the most stringent uncertainty requirements.

Although not explicitly specified within the Standard, it is implied that the level of quality control

should be determined by the uncertainty requirements of the measurement objective. Therefore for

measurement objectives with lesser uncertainty requirements the level of quality assurance and control

can be reduced. It is the role of this Technical Report to make these distinctions and provide guidance

as to the level of quality control that may be applied.
5.2.3 Relationship to other international standards

EN ISO 16911-1 does not replace existing standards. This Technical Report does not reproduce any

detailed procedures; therefore users will have access to the documents referenced in Clause 2 and in

the final Bibliography.

5.3 Summary of different requirements for determination of velocity and flow rate

5.3.1 Velocity and flow rate monitoring requirements under the Industrial Emissions Directive

The measurement of velocity and flow rate is required under the Industrial Emissions Directive as part

of periodic monitoring for compliance purposes or pollution inventory reporting which involves the

determination of mass emissions. It is also required for the control of isokinetic conditions during the

manual sampling of atmospheric pollutants.
5.3.2 Velocity and flow rate monitoring requirements under the EU ETS Directive

The MRR specify that all flow automated measuring systems (AMS) used for the monitoring and

reporting of GHG under the EU ETS, shall follow the quality assurance procedures specified within

EN 14181 and other corresponding EN standards and therefore by deduction require the flow AMS to

adhere to EN ISO 16911-2:2013 and its calibration (procedure specified in EN ISO 16911-2) to be

carried out using one of the techniques specified within EN ISO 16911-1:2013.
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The MRR prescribe Tiers and corresponding maximum permissible uncertainties (Table 1) for emission

sources regulated under the EU ETS. An emission source is considered tier 4 if it emits more than 5,000

tonnes of CO (e) per year or contributes more than 10 % of the total annual emissions of the installation

(Commission Decision [EU] No. 601/2012 – 2012). The maximum permissible uncertainty specified for

each tier is the combined uncertainty of the concentration AMS and flow AMS expanded to a 95 %

confidence interval. Under tier 4 – assuming an equal value on both uncertainty components

(concentration and flow) – the target value for each uncertainty component is approximately ± 1,8 %.

The requirement to achieve such a low uncertainty value has dictated the selection and associated

values of certain performance characteristics and requirements specified within EN ISO 16911-1.

Table 1 — Maximum permissible uncertainty for measurement-based methods
Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4
CO emission ±10 % ±7,5 % ±5 % ±2,5 %
sources
N O emission ±10 % ±7,5 % ±5 % N/A
sources

Source: Commission Regulation (EU) No. 601/2012 of 21 June 2012 on the monitoring and reporting of

greenhouse gas emissions pursuant to Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council.

5.3.3 Other requirements for monitoring velocity and flow rate in ducts and stacks

A flow profile characterization at the measurement plane may be required. This may be part of the pre-

installation work carried out before a new flow AMS is commissioned and installed or for any other

measurement objective that may require information on the uniformity of flow at the measurement

plane.

The majority of times the calibration of a flow AMS is carried out for reasons of compliance with the EU

ETS Directive. However the calibration of a flow AMS for any other regulatory reasons is not excluded

from the scope of EN ISO 16911-1. The user should adopt those elements required to achieve the

specified uncertainty requirement for their application.
6 Specific guidance on the application of EN ISO 16911-1
6.1 Scope
No guidance required.
6.2 Normative references
No guidance required.
6.3 Terms, definitions
No guidance required.
6.4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
6.4.1 Symbols
No guidance required.
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6.4.2 Abbreviated terms
No guidance required.
6.5 Principle
6.5.1 General
No guidance required.
6.5.2 Principle of flow velocity determination at a point the duct

EN ISO 16911-1 specifies the use of 2D Pitot tubes as one of the techniques for the determination of

flow velocity at a measurement point within a duct or stack. In regard with quality assurance and

control of 2D Pitot tubes it refers users to US EPA Method 2G. Table 2 of this Technical Report

reproduces the main performance characteristics and requirements for 2D Pitot tubes as specified in US

EPA Method 2G. For test laboratories wishing to use 2D Pitot tubes the full set of specifications and

requirements of US EPA Method 2G should be adhered to. These requirements only apply to 2D Pitot

tubes that are not covered in detail in EN ISO 16911-1. For example they do not apply for manual S-type

Pitot tubes as the performance characteristics for these are specified within the main text of the

Standard.

Table 2 —Performance characteristics and requirements for 2D Pitot tubes as specified in US

EPA Method 2G
Performance characteristic Criterion Frequency
Calibration acceptance criterion ±3° at 0° Prior to use
for 2D-Probe (yaw and pitch
angles)
Width of reference scribe line (to ≤ 1,6 mm Prior to use
determine yaw angles of flow)
Diameter of tubing used to ≥ 3,2 mm Prior to use
connect the probe and pressure
readout device
Uncertainty of yaw angle- ≤ ± 1° Prior to use
measuring device
Horizontal straightness check < 5° Before field measurement
Rotational positional check of ±1° Before field measurement
angle measuring device
Rotational positional check of ±2° Post field measurement check
angle measuring device
Calibration acceptance criterion ±2° of a known angle θ of the Prior to use
for yaw-angle measuring device triangular block used for
calibration
6.6 Principle of measurement of flow rate
6.6.1 General
No guidance required
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6.6.2 Principle of volume flow rate determination from point velocity measurements

EN ISO 16911-1 specifies the use of S-type, 3D or 2D Pitot tubes for the determination of swirl at a

measurement plane. This Technical Report recommends the use of L-type Pitot tubes as another viable

technique for this type of measurement. For more information on the procedure for measuring the

degree of swirl at the measurement plane see 6.12.5.
6.6.3 Determination of volume flow rate using tracer dilution measurements
No guidance required.
6.6.4 Determination of volume flow rate using transit time tracer measurements
No guidance required.
6.6.5 Determination of volume flow rate from plant thermal input
No guidance required.
6.7 Selection of a monitoring approach
6.7.1 Measurement objective

This Technical Report adopts a slightly different grouping for measurement objectives than

EN ISO 16911-1. This is in order that objectives are grouped based on the proposed quality control that

will be recommended throughout this Technical Report. The grouping of measurement objectives is as

follows:

a) periodic monitoring for compliance purposes according to EN 15259 or pollution inventory

reporting which involves the determination of mass emissions and for the control of isokinetic

conditions during manual sampling;

b) calibration of flow AMS under EN 14181 and EN ISO 16911-2 and/or flow profile characterization

either to meet the requirements of the EU ETS Directive or any other regu
...

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