Bio-based solvents - Requirements and test methods

This Technical Specification sets requirements for bio-based solvents in terms of properties, limits, application classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents:
-   fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
-   comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general solvents;
-   are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and
-   comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (regular) solvents.
The criteria of the Regulation for Environmental Assessment of Chemicals (REACH) [2] are included in the discussions that have led to this Technical Specification.
NOTE   EN 16575 defines the term “bio-based” as derived from biomass and clarifies that “bio-based” does not imply “biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not necessarily imply the use of “bio-based” material.

Biobasierte Lösemittel - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

Diese Technische Spezifikation legt Anforderungen an biobasierte Lösemittel hinsichtlich Eigenschaften, Grenzwerte, Anwendungsklassen und Prüfverfahren fest. Sie bestimmt die Merkmale und Einzelheiten für die Beurteilung von biobasierten Lösemitteln:
-   Gebrauchstauglichkeit bezüglich leistungsbezogener Eigenschaften;
-   Übereinstimmung mit den Anforderungen zu Gesundheit, Sicherheit und Umwelt, die für allgemeine Lösemittel gelten;
-   Ableitung von einer bestimmten Mindestprozentzahl an Biomasse; und
-   Übereinstimmung mit mindestens ähnlichen Nachhaltigkeitskriterien, wie vergleichbare (normale) Lösemittel.
Die Kriterien der Verordnung zur Registrierung, Bewertung, Zulassung und Beschränkung von chemischer Stoffe (REACH) [2] wurden in die Diskussionen eingebunden, die zu dieser Veröffentlichung geführt haben.
ANMERKUNG   EN 16575 definiert den Begriff „biobasiert“ als von Biomasse abgeleitet und klärt, dass „biobasiert“ nicht „bioabbaubar“ bedeutet. Außerdem impliziert „bioabbaubar“ nicht notwendigerweise die Verwendung von „biobasiertem“ Material.

Solvants biosourcés - Exigences et méthodes d'essais

La présente Spécification technique fixe les exigences relatives aux solvants biosourcés en termes de propriétés, de limites, de classes d'application et de méthodes d'essai. Elle établit les caractéristiques et les détails relatifs à l'évaluation des solvants biosourcés en ce qui concerne :
-   Leurs performances attendues pour leur utilisation en relation avec leurs propriétés ;
-   leur conformité aux exigences relatives à la santé, la sécurité et l'environnement qui s'appliquent aux solvants d'une manière générale ;
-   le fait qu'ils soient issus d'un pourcentage minimal de biomasse ; et
-   leur respect de critères de durabilité au moins similaires à ceux de solvants (ordinaires) comparables.
Les critères du Règlement relatif à l'évaluation environnementale des produits chimiques (REACH) [2] sont inclus dans les discussions ayant conduit au présent document.
NOTE   L’EN 16575 définit le terme « biosourcé » comme issu de la biomasse et précise que « biosourcé » n'implique pas « biodégradable ». De plus, « biodégradable » n'implique pas nécessairement l'utilisation d'un matériau « biosourcé ».

Topila biološkega izvora - Zahteve in preskusne metode

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
24-Mar-2015
Withdrawal Date
31-Oct-2017
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
01-Nov-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
01-junij-2015
Topila biološkega izvora - Zahteve in preskusne metode
Bio-based solvents - Requirements and test methods
Biobasierte Lösemittel - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren
Solvants biosourcés - Exigences et méthodes d'essais
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 16766:2015
ICS:
87.060.30 Topila Solvents
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN/TS 16766
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
March 2015
ICS 87.060.30
English Version
Bio-based solvents - Requirements and test methods

Solvants biosourcés - Exigences et méthodes d'essais Biobasierte Lösemittel - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 25 November 2014 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 16766:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
CEN/TS 16766:2015 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................6

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6

4 General purpose of solvents ................................................................................................................6

5 Performance ...........................................................................................................................................7

5.1 Generalities around performance ........................................................................................................7

5.2 Technical performance properties .......................................................................................................7

6 Health, safety and environmental requirements ................................................................................9

7 Bio-based content............................................................................................................................... 10

8 Sustainability ....................................................................................................................................... 10

9 Declaration and product labelling ..................................................................................................... 11

Annex A (normative) Hansen solubility parameters ..................................................................................... 12

A.1 Generalities ......................................................................................................................................... 12

A.2 Calculation of the Hansen solubility parameters for individual solvents ..................................... 13

A.3 Calculation of Hansen solubility parameters for solvent blends .................................................. 14

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
CEN/TS 16766:2015 (E)
Foreword

This document (CEN/TS 16766:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 411 “Bio-based

products”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a Mandate M/491 [1] given to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association, for the development of European Standards for solvents and

surfactants in relation to bio-based product aspects. It has been prepared by CEN/TC 411/WG 2 “Bio based

solvents”, the secretariat of which is held by the European Solvents Industry Group and NEN.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
CEN/TS 16766:2015 (E)
Introduction

Bio-based products from forestry and agriculture have a long history of application, such as paper, board and

various chemicals and materials. The last decades have seen the emergence of new bio-based products in

the market. Some of the reasons for the increased interest lie in the bio-based products’ benefits in relation to

the depletion of fossil resources and climate change. Bio-based products may also provide additional product

functionalities. This has triggered a wave of innovation with the development of knowledge and technologies

allowing new transformation processes and product development.

Acknowledging the need for common standards for bio-based products, the European Commission issued

mandate M/492 , resulting in a series of standards developed by CEN/TC 411, with a focus on bio-based

products other than food, feed and biomass for energy applications.

The standards of CEN/TC 411 "Bio-based products" provide a common basis on the following aspects:

— Common terminology;
— Bio-based content determination;
— Life Cycle Assessment (LCA);
— Sustainability aspects;
— Declaration tools.

It is important to understand what the term bio-based product covers and how it is being used. The term ‘bio-

based’ means 'derived from biomass' [3]. Bio-based products (bottles, insulation materials, wood and wood

products, paper, solvents, chemical intermediates, composite materials, etc.) are products which are wholly or

partly derived from biomass. It is essential to characterize the amount of biomass contained in the product by

for instance its bio-based content or bio-based carbon content.

The bio-based content of a product does not provide information on its environmental impact or sustainability,

which may be assessed through LCA and sustainability criteria. In addition, transparent and unambiguous

communication within bio-based value chains is facilitated by a harmonized framework for certification and

declaration. This Technical Specification has been developed with the aim to fulfil part of a Mandate [1] to

describe the technical requirements of bio-based solvents in relation to bio-based product aspects.

Solvents are liquids which have the ability to dissolve, suspend or extract other materials. In Europe,

thousands of producers and manufacturers and more than 10 million workers use solvents every day. The

solvent producing industry is composed of both small and medium-sized enterprises as well as multinationals.

Downstream users generally tend to be SMEs and micro-SMEs.

Solvents are mainly produced from fossil feedstock. The amount of fossil feedstock used for solvent

production is however low with less than 1 % of the total world's fossil feedstock consumption (see

www.esig.be).

This document describes the approach that can be taken in describing the technical requirements of bio-

based solvents in relation to bio-based product for the customers using bio-based solvents. This document

examines how to prove the criteria for “bio-based solvents”. The purpose of this document is to define how the

criteria of performance, health, safety and environment can be determined (measured and calculated) for the

1) A Mandate is a standardization task embedded in European trade laws. Mandate M/492 is addressed to the European

Standardization bodies, CEN, CENELEC and ETSI, for the development of horizontal European Standards for bio-based

products.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
CEN/TS 16766:2015 (E)

bio-based solvent placed on the market. This approach intends to strengthen the reputation of “bio-based

solvents” and the confidence of the customer in this product group.

The criteria for "bio-based solvents" published in this Technical Specification are complementary to the other,

horizontal standards by CEN/TC 411.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
CEN/TS 16766:2015 (E)
1 Scope

This Technical Specification sets requirements for bio-based solvents in terms of properties, limits, application

classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents:

— fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;

— comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general

solvents;
— are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and

— comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (regular) solvents.

The criteria of the Regulation for Environmental Assessment of Chemicals (REACH) [2] are included in the

discussions that have led to this Technical Specification.

NOTE EN 16575 defines the term “bio-based” as derived from biomass and clarifies that “bio-based” does not imply

“biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not necessarily imply the use of “bio-based” material.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

CEN/TS 16640, Bio-based products - Determination of the bio based carbon content of products using the

radiocarbon method
EN 16575:2014, Bio-based products - Vocabulary
prEN 16751:2014, Bio-based products - Sustainability criteria
prEN 16760:2014, Bio-based products - Life Cycle Assessment

EN ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products - Determination of density - Oscillating U-tube

method (ISO 12185)

EN ISO 14040, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and framework (ISO 14040)

EN ISO 14044, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines

(ISO 14044)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16575:2014 apply.

4 General purpose of solvents

Solvents are liquids which have the ability to dissolve, suspend or extract other materials. They make it

possible to process, apply, clean or separate materials. Solvents have significantly changed modern living and

are an invaluable solution for industries as diverse as pharmaceuticals and microelectronics to domestic

cleaning and printing. In fact, without solvents, many of the products we use and rely on, from penicillin to

industrial paint, would not perform to the standards we demand today.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
CEN/TS 16766:2015 (E)

Organic solvents are any organic compound which is typically used, alone or in combination with other agents,

and without undergoing a chemical change, to dissolve raw materials, products or waste materials.

Examples of applications for solvents are (as presented in the Solvents Emissions Directive [4]):

— cleaning agent,
— dissolver,
— dispersion medium,
— viscosity adjuster,
— surface tension adjuster,
— plasticiser, or
— preservative.

NOTE For more examples of applications, see the website of the European Solvents Industry Group, www.esig.org.

5 Performance
5.1 Generalities around performance

This section gives a common set of technical properties characterizing the performance of solvents including

bio-based solvents. In absence of international solvent specification standards, it is necessary to provide to

potential users the means to qualify the bio-based solvent products, especially for its technical performance.

There are a number of other factors which will determine the acceptance of a solvent product such as the

Health, Safety and Environmental properties which are treated in another section of this document.

Solvents are used in a wide variety of applications and it is not convenient to evaluate their performance with

respect to each application. Therefore, a practical approach is to define a set of measurable solvent properties

which enable technical specialists to select appropriate solvents and guide their evaluation.

A set of seven properties has been selected which describe essential properties associated with a solvent.

5.2 Technical performance properties
5.2.1 Chemical composition

While chemical composition is not a property in itself, it provides essential information regarding the suitability

of a solvent in process and applications.

Quantitative chemical composition of the product should be provided. To identify substances or mixtures as

relevant, use of the nomenclature as in EU CLP [5] shall be used.
5.2.2 Solvency power

Very different ways have been defined to measure solvency power, generally experimental measurements

such as solubility in water, solubility in oil, Aniline point, Kauri Butanol index, polarity, etc. However, such

methods are not able to describe the full extent of the solubility properties of products exhibiting a wide variety

of polarities.

A well-known quantitative assessment of solvency power has been developed through the means of the

Hansen Solubility parameters [6], which provide a suitable description of solvency properties. Annex A gives a

detailed description on how to determine these solubility parameters.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
CEN/TS 16766:2015 (E)

Other scales may be used to characterize solvency power as for example the Kamlet-Taft parameters, as long

as they are correlated to Hansen Solubility.

Values of the three Hansen solubility parameters shall be given and should be reported to one decimal place

1/2
and in units of MPa .

The source of solubility parameter values shall be reported and whether they are estimated or experimentally

determined.
5.2.3 Distillation characteristics

Numerous methods are available, based upon actual distillation measurements or on correlations, especially

from gas chromatography.

NOTE Some formulations of solvents might not be suitable for actual distillation measurement, for example some

emulsions.
A selection of recommended test methods is listed below:

— EN ISO 3405 [22], which determines distillation characteristics at atmospheric pressure used for

petroleum products of distillation points above 0 °C and end points below approximately 400 °C and is

equivalent to ASTM D86 [7, 8].

— ISO 918 [25], which determines distillation characteristics of organic liquids used for non petroleum

products of boiling points in the range of approximately 30 °C to 300 °C in atmospheric conditions and

which are stable under these conditions.

— ASTM D1078 [29], which is a test for the distillation range of volatile organic liquids used for distillation

range of organic liquids boiling between 30 °C and 350 °C and which are stable during the distillation

process.

— EN 15199-1 [20], describes the determination of boiling range distribution of materials with initial boiling

points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) below 750 °C, it is equivalent to ASTM D5399

[9].

When reported, distillation characteristics of bio-based solvents shall be expressed by providing an initial

boiling point and an end point (Dry Point or Final Boiling Point) expressed in °C with a reporting precision in

compliance with the rules of the test method standard selected. The reference of the test method standard

shall be indicated also.
5.2.4 Evaporation rate

The evaporation rate of a solvent is a useful indication of the speed at which a solvent will dry. Depending

upon the types of solvents, different scales may be used. Three different methods are applicable to various

solvent types: ASTM D1901 [31], ASTM D3539 [32] and DIN 53170 [35].

Results of measure for the evaporation rates should be provided in accordance with the relevant test

standard. The reference to the test method standard shall be indicated also.

Such methods are used on a comparative basis against a reference volatile solvent such as Di-ethyl-ether or

n-butyl-acetate. Another potentially useful property, related to the evaporation rate, is the vapour pressure

measured or calculated at a specific temperature. The vapour pressure is a property indicated in the EU CLP

Safety Data Sheet in section 9 [5].

The value of the vapour pressure may be provided in place of the evaporation rate. For an overview of test

methodologies, see CEN/TR 16569 [10]. In that case, the value of the vapour pressure shall be indicated with

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:2015
CEN/TS 16766:2015 (E)

a proper unit (e.g. Pa, kPa or mm Hg) and the temperature at which the value refers. A reference shall be

indicated (i.e. measured or calculated).
5.2.5 Colour
Depending
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 16766:2014
01-oktober-2014
Topila biološkega izvora - Zahteve in preskusne metode
Bio-based solvents - Requirements and test methods
Biobasierte Lösemittel - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren
Solvants biosourcés - Exigences et méthodes d'essais
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TS 16766
ICS:
87.060.30 Topila Solvents
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 16766:2014 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 16766:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 16766:2014
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TS 16766
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
July 2014
ICS 87.060.30
English Version
Bio-based solvents - Requirements and test methods

Solvants biosourcés - Exigences et méthodes d'essais Biobasierte Lösemittel - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

This draft Technical Specification is submitted to CEN members for formal vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

411.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to

provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Specification. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice

and shall not be referred to as a Technical Specification.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TS 16766:2014 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 16766:2014
FprCEN/TS 16766:2014 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6

4 General purpose of solvents ................................................................................................................6

5 Performance ...........................................................................................................................................7

5.1 Generalities around performance ........................................................................................................7

5.2 Technical performance properties .......................................................................................................7

5.2.1 Chemical composition ..........................................................................................................................7

5.2.2 Solvency power......................................................................................................................................7

5.2.3 Distillation characteristics ....................................................................................................................7

5.2.4 Evaporation rate.....................................................................................................................................8

5.2.5 Colour .....................................................................................................................................................8

5.2.6 Density ....................................................................................................................................................8

5.2.7 Kinematic viscosity ...............................................................................................................................9

6 Health, safety and environmental requirements ................................................................................9

7 Bio-based content..................................................................................................................................9

8 Sustainability ....................................................................................................................................... 10

9 Declaration and product labelling ..................................................................................................... 10

Annex A (normative) Hansen solubility parameters ..................................................................................... 11

A.1 Generalities ......................................................................................................................................... 11

A.2 Calculation of the Hansen solubility parameters for individual solvents ..................................... 12

A.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 12

A.2.2 Estimated values................................................................................................................................. 12

A.2.3 Experimental dispersion forces ........................................................................................................ 13

A.2.4 Experimental dipole forces ................................................................................................................ 13

A.2.5 Experimental hydrogen bonding ....................................................................................................... 13

A.3 Calculation of Hansen solubility parameters for solvent blends .................................................. 13

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 16766:2014
FprCEN/TS 16766:2014 (E)
Foreword

This document (FprCEN/TS 16766:2014) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 411 “Bio-

based products”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.
This document is currently submitted to the Formal Vote.

This document has been prepared under a Mandate M/491 [1] of the European Commission, addressed to

CEN for the development of European standards for solvents and surfactants in relation to bio-based product

aspects. It has been prepared by CEN/TC 411/WG 2 “Bio based solvents”, the secretariat of which is held by

the European Solvents Industry Group and NEN.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 16766:2014
FprCEN/TS 16766:2014 (E)
Introduction

Bio-based products from forestry and agriculture have a long history of application, such as paper, board and

various chemicals and materials. The last decades have seen the emergence of new bio-based products in

the market. Some of the reasons for the increased interest lie in the bio-based products’ benefits in relation to

the depletion of fossil resources and climate change. Bio-based products may also provide additional product

functionalities. This has triggered a wave of innovation with the development of knowledge and technologies

allowing new transformation processes and product development.

Acknowledging the need for common standards for bio-based products, the European Commission issued

mandate M/492 , resulting in a series of standards developed by CEN/TC 411, with a focus on bio-based

products other than food, feed and biomass for energy applications.

The standards of CEN/TC 411 "Bio-based products" provide a common basis on the following aspects:

− Common terminology;
− Bio-based content determination;
− Life Cycle Assessment (LCA);
− Sustainability aspects;
− Declaration tools.

It is important to understand what the term bio-based product covers and how it is being used. The term ‘bio-

based’ means 'derived from biomass' [3]. Bio-based products (bottles, insulation materials, wood and wood

products, paper, solvents, chemical intermediates, composite materials, et cetera) are products which are

wholly or partly derived from biomass. It is essential to characterize the amount of biomass contained in the

product by for instance its bio-based content or bio-based carbon content.

The bio-based content of a product does not provide information on its environmental impact or sustainability,

which may be assessed through LCA and sustainability criteria. In addition, transparent and unambiguous

communication within bio-based value chains is facilitated by a harmonized framework for certification and

declaration. This Technical Specification has been developed with the aim to fulfil part of a Mandate [1] to

describe the technical requirements of bio-based solvents in relation to bio-based product aspects.

Solvents are liquids which have the ability to dissolve, suspend or extract other materials. In Europe

thousands of producers and manufacturers and more than 10 million workers use solvents every day. The

solvent producing industry is composed of both small and medium-sized enterprises as well as multinationals.

Downstream users generally tend to be SME's and micro-SMEs.

Solvents are mainly produced from fossil feedstock. The amount of fossil feedstock used for solvent

production is however low with less than 1 % of the total world's fossil feedstock consumption.

The approach which is published in this document is focused on the view of the customer: Are the referred

criteria for “bio-based solvents” potentially provable for the formulated product? The purpose of this document

is that every statement with regard to performance, health, safety and environment and bio-based content has

to be determined (measured or calculated) for the solvent placed on the market. Finally, this approach intends

to strengthen the reputation of “bio-based solvents” and the confidence of the customer in this product group.

The criteria for "bio-based solvents" published in this Technical Specification are complementary to the other,

horizontal standards by CEN/TC 411.

A Mandate is a standardization task embedded in European trade laws. M/492 Mandate is addressed to the European

Standardization bodies, CEN, CENELEC and ETSI, for the development of horizontal European Standards for bio-based

products.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 16766:2014
FprCEN/TS 16766:2014 (E)
1 Scope

This Technical Specification sets requirements for bio-based solvents in terms of properties, limits, application

classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents as

to whether they:
- are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;

- comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general solvents;

- are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and

- comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (regular) solvents.

The criteria of the Regulation for Environmental Assessment of Chemicals (REACh) [2] are included in the

discussions that have lead to this paper.

NOTE prEN 16575 defines the term “bio-based” as derived from biomass and clarifies that “bio-based” does not

imply “biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not necessarily imply the use of “bio-based” material.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 15199-1, Petroleum products - Determination of boiling range distribution by gas chromatography method

- Part 1: Middle distillates and lubricating base oils

CEN/TS 16640, Bio-based products - Determination of the bio based carbon content of products using the

radiocarbon method
prEN 16575:2013, Bio-based products - Vocabulary
prEN 16751:2014, Bio-based products — Sustainability criteria
prEN 16760:2014, Bio-based products — Life Cycle Assessment

EN ISO 3104, Petroleum products - Transparent and opaque liquids - Determination of kinematic viscosity

and calculation of dynamic viscosity (ISO 3104)

EN ISO 3405, Petroleum products - Determination of distillation characteristics at atmospheric pressure (ISO

3405)

EN ISO 6271-1, Clear liquids - Estimation of colour by the platinum-cobalt scale - Part 1: Visual method (ISO

6271-1)

EN ISO 6271-2, Clear liquids - Estimation of colour by the platinum-cobalt scale - Part 2: Spectrophotometric

method (ISO 6271-2)

EN ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products - Determination of density - Oscillating U-tube

method (ISO 12185)

EN ISO 14040, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and framework (ISO 14040)

EN ISO 14044, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines (ISO

14044)
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ISO 918, Volatile organic liquids for industrial use — Determination of distillation characteristics

ISO 4630-1, Clear liquids — Estimation of colour by the Gardner colour scale — Part 1: Visual method

ISO 4630-2, Clear liquids — Estimation of colour by the Gardner colour scale — Part 2: Spectrophotometric

method.

ASTM D156, Standard Test Method for Saybolt Color of Petroleum Products (Saybolt Chromometer Method)

ASTM D1078, Standard Test Method for Distillation Range of Volatile Organic Liquids

ASTM D1500, Standard Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color scale)

ASTM D1901, Standard Test Method for Relative Evaporation Time of Halogenated Organic solvent and Their

Admixtures.

ASTM D3539, Standard Test Methods for the Evaporation Rates of Volatile Liquids by Shell Thin-Ffilm

Evaporometer.

ASTM D6045, Standard Test Method for Color of Petroleum Products by the Automatic Tristimulus Method

ASTM D7042, Standard Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer

(and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)

DIN 53170, Solvents for prints and varnishes - Determination of the Evaporation Rate.

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in prEN 16575 apply.

4 General purpose of solvents

Solvents are liquids which have the ability to dissolve, suspend or extract other materials. They make it

possible to process, apply, clean or separate materials. Solvents have significantly changed modern living and

are an invaluable solution for industries as diverse as pharmaceuticals and microelectronics to domestic

cleaning and printing. In fact, without solvents, many of the products we use and rely on, from penicillin to

industrial paint, would not perform to the standards we demand today.

Organic solvents are any organic compound which is typically used, alone or in combination with other agents,

and without undergoing a chemical change, to dissolve raw materials, products or waste materials.

Examples of applications for solvents are (as presented in the Solvents Emissions Directive [4])

— cleaning agent;
— dissolver;
— dispersion medium;
— viscosity adjuster;
— surface tension adjuster;
— plasticiser; or
— preservative.
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NOTE For more examples of applications see the website of the European Solvents Industry Group, www.esig.org.

5 Performance
5.1 Generalities around performance

This section gives a common set of technical properties characterizing the performance of solvents including

bio-based solvents, In absence of international solvent specification standards, it is necessary to provide to

potential users the means to qualify the bio-based solvent products, especially for its technical performance.

There are a number of other factors which will determine the acceptance of a solvent product such as the

Health, Safety and Environmental properties which are treated in another section of this document.

Solvents are used in a wide variety of applications and it is not convenient to evaluate their performance with

respect to each application. Therefore, a practical approach is to define a set of measurable solvent properties

which enable technical specialists to select appropriate solvents and guide their evaluation.

A set of seven properties has been selected which describe essential properties associated with a solvent.

5.2 Technical performance properties
5.2.1 Chemical composition

While chemical composition is not a property in itself, it provides essential information regarding the suitability

of a solvent in process and applications.

Quantitative chemical composition of the product should be provided. To identify substances or mixtures as

relevant, use of the nomenclature as in EU CLP [5] shall be used.
5.2.2 Solvency power

Very different ways have been defined to measure solvency power, generally experimental measurements

such as solubility in water, solubility in oil, Aniline point, Kauri Butanol index, polarity etc. However such

methods are not able to describe the full extent of the solubility properties of products exhibiting a wide variety

of polarities.

A well-known quantitative assessment of solvency power has been developed through the means of the

Hansen Solubility parameters [6], which provide a suitable description of solvency properties. Annex A gives a

detailed description on how to determine this solubility parameters.

Other scales may be used to characterize solvency power as for example the Kamlet-Taft parameters, as long

as they can be correlated to Hansen Solubility.

Values of the three Hansen solubility parameters shall be given and should be reported to one decimal place

1/2
and in units of MPa .

The source of solubility parameter values shall be reported and whether they are estimated or experimentally

determined.
5.2.3 Distillation characteristics

Numerous methods are available, based upon actual distillation measurements or on correlations, especially

from gas chromatography.

Some formulations of solvents may not be suitable for actual distillation measurement, for example some

emulsions.
A selection of recommended test methods is listed here below.
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— EN ISO 3405, which determines distillation characteristics at atmospheric pressure used for p

...

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