Industrial valves - Actuators - Part 2: Electric actuators for industrial valves - Basic requirements

This document provides basic requirements for electric valve actuators, used for on-off and control valves. It
includes guidelines for classification, design, enclosure and corrosion protection, and methods for conformity
assessment.
Combinations of electric multi-turn actuators and gearboxes supplied by the actuator manufacturer are within
the scope of this document. In all other cases this European Standard applies to the electric actuator only.
It does not cover: solenoid actuators, electro-hydraulic actuators and electric actuators which are integral in
the design of valves.
Other requirements or conditions of use different from those indicated in this document shall be agreed
between the purchaser and the manufacturer/supplier, prior to order.
The terms and definitions applicable to this European Standard are given in FprEN 15714-1.

Industriearmaturen - Antriebe - Teil 2: Elektrische Antriebe für Industriearmaturen - Grundanforderungen

Dieses Dokument enthält Grundanforderungen an elektrische Stellantriebe für Armaturen für Auf-Zu- und Regelventile. Es enthält Leitlinien für Klassifizierung, Konstruktion, Gehäuse- und Korrosionsschutz sowie Verfahren zur Konformitätsbewertung.
Vom Hersteller des Antriebs gelieferte Kombinationen von elektrischen Drehantrieben und Getrieben fallen in den Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokuments. In allen anderen Fällen gilt diese Europäische Norm aus-schließlich für den elektrischen Stellantrieb.
Sie gilt nicht für: Magnet-Stellantriebe, elektrisch-hydraulische sowie elektrische Stellantriebe, die fester Bestandteil der Armaturenkonstruktion sind.
Andere Anforderungen oder Anwendungsbedingungen als die, die in diesem Dokument angegebenen sind, sollten vor Auftrags¬erteilung zwischen Käufer und Hersteller/Lieferant vereinbart werden.
Die für die Anwendung dieser Europäischen Norm geltenden Begriffe sind in EN 15714-1 angegeben.

Robinetterie industrielle - Actionneurs - Partie 2: Actionneurs électriques pour robinetterie industrielle - Prescriptions de base

Le présent document fournit les prescriptions de base pour les actionneurs électriques d’appareils de
robinetterie, utilisés pour les robinets tout ou rien et les robinets de régulation. Il comprend des lignes
directrices pour la classification, la conception, l’enveloppe et la protection contre la corrosion ainsi que des
méthodes d’évaluation de la conformité.
Les combinaisons d’actionneurs électriques multitours et de réducteurs fournies par le fabricant de
l’actionneur font partie du domaine d’application du présent document. Dans tous les autres cas, la présente
norme Européenne s’applique uniquement à l’actionneur électrique.
Il ne prend en compte ni les actionneurs électromagnétiques, ni les actionneurs hydroélectriques, ni les
actionneurs électriques qui sont intégrés dans la conception des appareils de robinetterie.
Les prescriptions ou conditions relatives à l’utilisation, autres que celles mentionnées dans le présent
document doivent être convenues entre l’acheteur et le fabricant/fournisseur avant la commande.
Les termes et définitions applicables à la présente norme Européenne sont indiqués dans EN 15714-1.

Industrijski ventili - Pogoni - 2. del: Električni pogoni za industrijske ventile - Osnovne zahteve

Ta dokument podaja osnovne zahteve za električne pogone za ventile, ki se uporabljajo za vklopno-izklopne ventile in krmilne ventile. Vključuje smernice za klasifikacijo, načrtovanje, ohišje in zaščito pred korozijo ter metode za ocenjevanje skladnosti. V obseg uporabe tega dokumenta spadajo tudi kombinacije električnih pogonov z večkratnim zasukom in menjalnikov, ki jih dobavlja proizvajalec pogonov. V vseh drugih primerih ta evropski standard velja le za električni pogon. Ne zajema: elektromagnetnih pogonov, elektrohidravličnih pogonov in električnih pogonov, ki so sestavni del zasnove ventilov. O drugih zahtevah ali pogojih uporabe, ki so drugačni od navedenih v tem dokumentu, se morata pred naročilom dogovoriti kupec in proizvajalec/dobavitelj. Izrazi in definicije, ki veljajo za ta evropski standard, so navedeni v EN 15714-1.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
20-Oct-2009
Withdrawal Date
20-Apr-2021
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
21-Apr-2021

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Industriearmaturen - Antriebe - Teil 2: Elektrische Antriebe für Industriearmaturen - GrundanforderungenIndustrial valves - Actuators - Part 2: Electric actuators for industrial valves - Basic requirements23.060.20Zapirni ventili (kroglasti in pipe)Ball and plug valvesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 15714-2:2009SIST EN 15714-2:2011en,fr,de01-november-2011SIST EN 15714-2:2011SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 15714-2:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 15714-2
October 2009 ICS 23.060.20 English Version

Industrial valves - Actuators - Part 2: Electric actuators for industrial valves - Basic requirements

Robinetterie industrielle - Actionneurs - Partie 2: Actionneurs électriques pour robinetterie industrielle - Prescriptions de base

Industriearmaturen - Antriebe - Teil 2: Elektrische Antriebe für Industriearmaturen - Grundanforderungen This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 September 2009.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2009 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 15714-2:2009: ESIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................41 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................52 Normative references ............................................................................................................................53 Classification/Designation ....................................................................................................................53.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................53.2 Type: Part-turn, multi-turn or linear .....................................................................................................53.3 Actuator duty classification ..................................................................................................................63.3.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................63.3.2 Class A: On-off .......................................................................................................................................63.3.3 Class B: Inching/positioning ................................................................................................................63.3.4 Class C: Modulating ..............................................................................................................................63.3.5 Class D: Continuous modulating .........................................................................................................63.4 Action on loss of external electric power ...........................................................................................63.4.1 Standard action ......................................................................................................................................63.4.2 Fail safe action .......................................................................................................................................64 Design requirements .............................................................................................................................64.1 Endurance ..............................................................................................................................................64.1.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................64.1.2 Part turn actuators .................................................................................................................................74.1.3 Multi-turn actuators ...............................................................................................................................74.1.4 Linear actuators .....................................................................................................................................84.2 Environmental conditions .....................................................................................................................84.2.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................84.2.2 Ambient temperature and humidity .....................................................................................................84.2.3 Altitude ....................................................................................................................................................84.2.4 Enclosure protection .............................................................................................................................84.2.5 Hazardous areas ....................................................................................................................................84.2.6 External corrosion protection ..............................................................................................................94.2.7 Vibrations, shock and seismic conditions ..........................................................................................94.3 Actuator attachment ..............................................................................................................................94.3.1 Part-turn actuators.................................................................................................................................94.3.2 Multi-turn actuators ............................................................................................................................ 104.3.3 Linear actuators .................................................................................................................................. 104.4 Standard closing direction ................................................................................................................ 114.5 Fail safe direction ............................................................................................................................... 114.6 Electrical connections — cable entries ............................................................................................ 124.7 Performance ........................................................................................................................................ 124.7.1 Power supply tolerances ................................................................................................................... 124.7.2 Actuator duty performances .............................................................................................................. 124.7.3 Operating time and speed .................................................................................................................. 144.8 Basic requirements............................................................................................................................. 144.8.1 Motors .................................................................................................................................................. 144.8.2 Gearing and lubrication ..................................................................................................................... 144.8.3 Manual operation ................................................................................................................................ 154.8.4 Travel limitation .................................................................................................................................. 154.8.5 Torque/Thrust limitation .................................................................................................................... 154.8.6 End stop adjustment for part-turn and linear actuators ................................................................. 154.8.7 Local position indication ................................................................................................................... 155 Optional equipment ............................................................................................................................ 16SIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 3 5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 165.2 Anti-condensation heater ................................................................................................................... 165.3 Local position indication (for multi-turn or linear actuators) ......................................................... 165.4 Position transmitter ............................................................................................................................. 165.5 Actuator running transmitter.............................................................................................................. 165.6 Additional position and/or torque signalling .................................................................................... 165.7 Local control station ........................................................................................................................... 165.8 Actuator electrical controls ................................................................................................................ 165.8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 165.8.2 Positioner ............................................................................................................................................. 175.8.3 Controller.............................................................................................................................................. 175.8.4 Speed Control ...................................................................................................................................... 175.8.5 Field Bus system interface ................................................................................................................. 175.8.6 Torque transmitter (analogue or digital) ........................................................................................... 175.8.7 Actuator performance data logger .................................................................................................... 176 Conformity assessment ...................................................................................................................... 176.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 176.2 Type tests ............................................................................................................................................. 186.3 Control of production process and quality system ......................................................................... 187 Marking ................................................................................................................................................. 198 Documentation .................................................................................................................................... 20Annex A (normative)

Endurance test procedure ........................................................................................... 21A.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 21A.2 Test equipment .................................................................................................................................... 21A.3 Test conditions .................................................................................................................................... 21A.4 Test procedure ..................................................................................................................................... 21A.5 Acceptance criteria ............................................................................................................................. 21Annex B (informative)

Actuator selection guidelines ................................................................................... 22B.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 22B.2 Selection parameters .......................................................................................................................... 22B.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 22B.2.2 Valve Questions ................................................................................................................................... 22B.2.3 Actuator Questions ............................................................................................................................. 23B.3 Ancillary Questions ............................................................................................................................. 23B.4 Environmental conditions (as indicated in 4.2) ................................................................................ 23B.5 Actuator selection ............................................................................................................................... 23Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 24 SIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 15714-2:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 69 “Industrial valves”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2010, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by April 2010. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. SIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 5 1 Scope This document provides basic requirements for electric valve actuators, used for on-off and control valves. It includes guidelines for classification, design, enclosure and corrosion protection, and methods for conformity assessment.

Combinations of electric multi-turn actuators and gearboxes supplied by the actuator manufacturer are within the scope of this document. In all other cases this European Standard applies to the electric actuator only. It does not cover: solenoid actuators, electro-hydraulic actuators and electric actuators which are integral in the design of valves. Other requirements or conditions of use different from those indicated in this document should be agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturer/supplier, prior to order. The terms and definitions applicable to this European Standard are given in EN 15714-1. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 12570, Industrial valves — Method for sizing the operating element EN 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) (IEC 60529:1989) EN ISO 5210:1996, Industrial valves — Multi-turn valve actuator attachments (ISO 5210:1991) EN ISO 5211, Industrial valves — Part-turn valve actuator attachments (ISO 5211:2001) 3 Classification/Designation 3.1 General Electric valve actuators are classified per type, duty and action as detailed below. 3.2 Type: Part-turn, multi-turn or linear

3.2.1 Part-turn: An actuator which transmits torque to the valve for less than one revolution. It does not have to be capable of withstanding thrust. A combination of a

multi-turn actuator plus a part-turn gearbox can be considered, for the sake of this European Standard, a part-turn actuator. 3.2.2 Multi-turn actuator: An actuator which transmits torque to the valve/gearbox for at least one revolution. It may be capable of withstanding thrust. A combination of a multi-turn actuator plus a multi-turn gearbox can be considered, for the sake of this European Standard, a multi-turn actuator. 3.2.3 Linear actuator: An actuator which transmits thrust to the valve for a defined linear stroke. A combi-nation of a multi-turn actuator plus a linear drive can be considered, for the sake of this European Standard, a linear actuator. SIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 6 3.3 Actuator duty classification

3.3.1 General Basic design requirements for actuator duty classification are given in 4.1 and 4.7.2. 3.3.2 Class A: On-off

The actuator is required to drive the valve through its entire travel from the fully open position to the fully closed position or vice-versa. 3.3.3 Class B: Inching/positioning The actuator is required to occasionally drive the valve to any position (fully open, intermediate and fully closed). 3.3.4 Class C: Modulating

The actuator is required to frequently drive the valve to any position between fully open and fully closed. 3.3.5 Class D: Continuous modulating The actuator is required to continuously drive the valve to any position between fully open and fully closed. 3.4 Action on loss of external electric power 3.4.1 Standard action On loss of external power, the actuator remains in the position achieved before loss of power. 3.4.2 Fail safe action On loss of external power, the actuator is able to operate the valve to a pre-defined safe position. 4 Design requirements 4.1 Endurance 4.1.1 General The actuator shall be designed to meet the life endurance criteria as defined in Annex A. The endurance of modulating and continuous modulating actuators shall be based on consecutive starts spread over an intermediate stroking span of maximum 30 % of full travel. SIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 7 4.1.2 Part turn actuators Table 1 — Part-turn actuator endurance test requirements (see Annex A) Rated torque ranges a

Nm Class A and B On-Off Inching (number of cycles) b Class C Modulating (number of starts) c Class D Continuous modulating(number of starts c Up to 125 10 000 1 800 000 10 000 000 126 — 1 000 10 000 1 200 000 10 000 000 1 001 — 4 000

5 000
500 000
5 000 000 4 001 — 32 000
2 500
250 000 T B A. d Above 32 000

1 000 T.B.A. d T.B.A. d a Based on EN ISO 5211. b One cycle consists of nominal 90° angular travel in both directions (i.e. 90° to open + 90° to close), based on an average load of at least 30 % of the rated torque with the ability to transmit 100 % of the rated torque for at least 5 % at each end of travel. For angular travel other than 90°, the endurance shall be agreed between thepurchaser and the manufacturer/supplier. c One start consists of a movement of at least 1 % in either direction, with a load of at least 30 % of the rated torque. d To be agreed between manufacturer / supplier and purchaser.

4.1.3 Multi-turn actuators Table 2 — Multi-turn actuator endurance test requirements (see Annex A) Rated torque ranges a

Nm Maximum allowable thrust a

kN Class A and B On-Off Inching (number of cycles) b Class C Modulating (number of starts) c Class D Continuous modulating (number of starts) c Up to 100 ≤ to 40 10 000 1 800 000 10 000 000 101 — 700 ≤ 150 10 000 1 200 000 10 000 000 701 — 2 500 ≤ 325

5 000
500 000
5 000 000 2 501 — 10 000 ≤ 1 100
2 500
250 000 T.B.A. d Above 10 000 > 1 100

1 000 T.B.A. d T.B.A. d a Based on EN ISO 5210. b One cycle consists of 25 turns in both directions (i.e. 25 turns to open + 25 turns to close), based on an average loadof at least 30 % of the rated torque with the ability to transmit 100 % of the rated torque for at least 10 % of the travel. c One start consists of a movement of at least 1 % of travel in either direction, with a load of at least 30 % of the rated torque. d To be agreed between manufacturer/supplier and purchaser.

SIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 8 4.1.4 Linear actuators Table 3 — Linear actuator endurance test requirements (see Annex A) Rated thrust ranges a

kN Class A and B On-Off Inching (number of cycles) b Class C Modulating (number of starts) c Class D Continuous modulating (number of starts) c Up to 20 10 000 1 800 000 10 000 000 21 — 70 10 000 1 200 000 10 000 000 71 — 150

5 000
500 000
5 000 000 151 — 325
2 500
250 000 T.B.A. d Above 325

1 000 T.B.A. d T.B.A. d a Based on EN ISO 5210. b One cycle consists in a stroke of 40 mm, or in a minimum stroke (H) given in Table 5, in both directions (i.e. 40 mm to open + 40 mm to close), based on an average load of at least 30 % of the rated thrust with the ability to transmit 100 % of the rated thrust for at least 10 % of the travel. c One start consists of a movement of at least 1 % of the stroke in either direction, with a load of at least 30 % of the rated thrust. d To be agreed between manufacturer/supplier and purchaser.

4.2 Environmental conditions 4.2.1 General The following environmental conditions shall apply, unless otherwise agreed between the manufacturer/supplier and purchaser: 4.2.2 Ambient temperature and humidity The actuator shall be designed for operation at an ambient temperature range between – 20 °C and + 60 °C with relative humidity up to 80 %. 4.2.3 Altitude The actuator shall be designed for operation at an altitude up to 1 000 m above sea level. 4.2.4 Enclosure protection Electric actuators shall have at least enclosure protection type IP 65 to EN 60529. 4.2.5 Hazardous areas Electric actuators intended for use in hazardous areas shall be designed and certified in accordance with the requirements of the applicable regulations. SIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 9 4.2.6 External corrosion protection Electric actuators shall be protected against external corrosion by proper material selection and/or surface treatment. The actuator manufacturer's technical documentation shall specify the corrosion protection category according to Table 4. Table 4 — Environmental corrosion categories Corrosion category Typical environments Exterior Interior C2 (low) Atmospheres with low level of pollution. Mostly rural areas. Unheated buildings where condensation may occur, e.g. depots, sport halls. C3 (medium) Urban and industrial atmospheres, moderate sulphur dioxide pollution. Coastal areas with low salinity. Production rooms with high humidity and some air pollution, e.g. food-processing plants, laundries, breweries. C4 (high) Industrial areas and coastal areas with moderate salinity. Chemical plants, swimming pools, coastal shipyards. C5-I (very high — industrial) Industrial areas with high humidity and aggressive atmosphere. Buildings or areas with almost permanent condensation and with high pollution. C5-M (very high — marine) Coastal and offshore areas with high salinity. Buildings or areas with almost permanent condensation and with high pollution. Immersed in water a Im 1 (Immersed in fresh water) River installations, hydro-electric power plants. Im 2 (Immersed in sea or brackish water) Harbour areas and offshore structures. NOTE This table is taken, for reference purposes only, from EN ISO 12944-2. The actuator corrosion protection may also be achieved by systems/methods which deviate from those specified in EN ISO 12944-5. a Electric actuators covered by this European Standard are not designed for permanent immersion unless otherwise specified.

NOTE This table may be used to define the corrosion category in order to help the actuator manufacturers to define the surface treatment for corrosion protection. Test assessment and test procedures are the responsibility of the manufacturer. 4.2.7 Vibrations, shock and seismic conditions Actuators complying with this European Standard are designed without any specific reference to vibrations, shock and/or seismic conditions. If some of these conditions apply they shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer/supplier and the purchaser. 4.3 Actuator attachment 4.3.1 Part-turn actuators The attachment for part-turn actuators shall comply with EN ISO 5211.

SIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 10 The output drive of part-turn actuators may be an integral part or a removable component to allow it, when necessary, to be machined to suit the driven component of the valve.

The material of the drive component shall clearly be indicated in the manufacturer’s/supplier’s documentation. 4.3.2 Multi-turn actuators The attachment for multi-turn actuators shall comply with EN ISO 5210. The output drive of multi-turn actuators may be an integral part or a removable component to allow it, when necessary, to be machined to suit the driven component of the valve. The material of the drive component shall clearly be indicated in the manufacturer’s/supplier’s documentation. 4.3.3 Linear actuators For linear actuators, unless otherwise agreed between the manufacturer/supplier and the purchaser, the dimensions of the attachment shall comply with those given below (Figure 1 — Table 5).

Figure 1 — Dimensions of linear output drive SIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 11 Table 5 — Data and dimensions of output drive for linear actuators Flange type Thrust rating a d1 d2 b d3 d4 d5 Number of studs or bolts h1 h2 l2 l4 d8 H c (min. Stroke)

max.min.
mm F05
35 50 M
7 4 3 10 20
45 M 12 x 1,25
20 F07
70 M
9 4 3 12
50 M 16 × 1,5
40 F10
40 125
70 102 M 1011 4 3 15
55 M 20 × 1,5
60 F12
70 150
85 125 M 1213,54 3 18
65 M 24 × 1,5
60 F14 100 175 100 140 M 1617,54 4 24
80 M 36 × 3
80 F16 150 210 130 165 M 2022 4 5 30
90 M 42 × 3 100 F25 200 300 200 254 M 1617,58 5 24
75 100 M 48 × 3 120 F30 325 350 230 298 M 2022 8 5 30

90 120 M 56 × 4 140 F35 700 415 260 356 M 3033 8 5 45 120 150 M 80 × 4 160 a The thrust values give the maximum thrust which can be transmitted through the mounting flanges, on the basis ofthe specific criteria given in Clause 4 of EN ISO 5210:1996, when applicable. b The tolerance of the recess shall be decided by the valve manufacturer. c The maximum stroke shall be provided by the manufacturer/supplier.

4.4 Standard closing direction The standard closing direction shall be: a) for multi-turn and part-turn actuators clockwise (CW), as viewed from the actuator side of the interface; b) for linear actuators extended to close. 4.5 Fail safe direction For actuators with a fixed mechanical fail safe function, the fail safe direction of movement can be either CW or CCW (Extend or Retract for linear), and shall be clearly and permanently indicated on the actuator housing in accordance with Figure 2 (see Clause 7). For actuators including stored electrical energy systems providing a fail safe function on loss of main electrical power , supplied documentation should indicate default failsafe action/direction and possible configurable options including applicable warnings regarding stored electrical energy supply. It shall be the purchasers/users responsibility to mark the actuator with configured failsafe direction. SIST EN 15714-2:2011

EN 15714-2:2009 (E) 12

a) Turn clockwise (CW) b) Turn counter-clockwise (CCW) c) Extend d) Retract Figure 2 — Fail safe directions 4.6 Electrical connections — cable entries All internal electrical components requiring connection to external cables shall be wired to suitable terminals, in a terminal compartment provided with the appropriate number

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