Adhesives - Terms and definitions

This European Standard defines terms used in the adhesive industry and terms relating to adhesives in those industries that use adhesives.

Klebstoffe - Benennungen und Definitionen

Diese Europäische Norm definiert Begriffe, die in der Klebstoffindustrie verwendet werden, sowie Begriffe, die sich in der klebstoffverarbeitenden Industrie auf Klebstoffe beziehen.

Adhésifs - Termes et définitions

La présente Norme européenne définit les termes utilisés dans l’industrie des adhésifs ainsi que ceux y afférant et qui sont usités dans les industries utilisatrices d’adhésifs.

Lepila - Izrazi in definicije

Ta evropski standard določa izraze, ki se uporabljajo v industriji lepil, in izraze, ki se nanašajo na lepila v industrijah, kjer se ta lepila uporabljajo.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Dec-2015
Current Stage
9060 - Closure of 2 Year Review Enquiry - Review Enquiry
Due Date
04-Jun-2021
Completion Date
04-Jun-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 923:2016
01-marec-2016
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 923:2006+A1:2008
Lepila - Izrazi in definicije
Adhesives - Terms and definitions
Klebstoffe - Benennungen und Definitionen
Adhésifs - Termes et définitions
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 923:2015
ICS:
01.040.83 Gumarska industrija in Rubber and plastics
industrija polimernih industries (Vocabularies)
materialov (Slovarji)
83.180 Lepila Adhesives
SIST EN 923:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 923:2016
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SIST EN 923:2016
EN 923
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2015
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.83; 83.180 Supersedes EN 923:2005+A1:2008
English Version
Adhesives - Terms and definitions
Adhésifs - Termes et définitions Klebstoffe - Benennungen und Definitionen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 16 November 2015.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 923:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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EN 923:2015 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

2.1 Adhesives ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2 Functional adhesive components ........................................................................................................... 10

2.3 Chemical base products ............................................................................................................................. 14

2.4 Adhesive properties .................................................................................................................................... 25

2.5 Material and material treatment ............................................................................................................ 30

2.6 Bonding ............................................................................................................................................................ 33

2.7 Bond properties ............................................................................................................................................ 40

Annex A (informative) Adhesives ........................................................................................................................ 46

Annex B (informative) Adhesive joints ............................................................................................................. 48

Alphabetical index ..................................................................................................................................................... 49

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European foreword

This document (EN 923:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 193 “Adhesives”,

the secretariat of which is held by AENOR.
This document supersedes EN 923:2005+A1:2008.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2016, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2016.

In comparison to EN 923:2005+A1:2008, several new terms have been added ( 3 terms to Section 2.1, 3

terms to Section 2.2, 7 terms to section 2.3, 3 terms to Section 2.4, 1 term to Section 2.5, 1 term to

Section 2.6, 1 term to Section 2.7) and some definitions have been updated or corrected.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

This European Standard comprises terms peculiar to, or in general use in, the adhesive and adhesive

processing industry.

The terms defined have been classified so that, as far as possible, related concepts (adhesives,

functional adhesive components, chemical base products, adherents, adhesives properties, bonding, and

bond properties) are grouped together. All definitions are numbered and an alphabetical index which

includes all terms is provided at the end of this European Standard.

The numbering of the individual definitions is the same in all three versions (English, French and

German) of this European Standard. Consequently this European Standard can be used as a dictionary,

combined with one or both of the other versions as an aid for translation of terms into French or

German, as a source of information about related concepts in the adhesive industry or to provide a term

for a concept.
In order to find:

a) the definition of a term: look up the term in the alphabetical index at the end of this European

Standard. The index will refer to the number in this European Standard. The definition, the term

and any synonyms appear by the number;

b) information about related terms: look up the term in the alphabetical index to find its number in

this European Standard. When the term has been located in this European Standard, the related

concepts can be found in the same subdivision;

c) the translation of a term into the French or German language: look up the number of this term in

this European Standard and locate the translation of the term and the definition under the same

number in the standard of the foreign version.
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1 Scope

This European Standard defines terms used in the adhesive industry and terms relating to adhesives in

those industries that use adhesives.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1 Adhesives
2.1.1
adhesive

non-metallic substance capable of joining materials by surface bonding (adhesion), and the bond

possessing adequate internal strength (cohesion)

Note 1 to entry: Many adhesives names refer to their main functional components or the physical nature of the

adhesive.

Table A.1 lists main binders, temperature and mode of setting of these adhesives and the number of parts that

have to be mixed before use. Some other names refer to
— the method of application, or
— the mode of setting.
Furthermore, adhesives are named according to points of less significance:

— field of application (e.g. footwear adhesive, construction adhesive, packaging adhesive),

— material to bond (e.g. paper adhesive, wood adhesive, wall paper adhesive, rubber adhesive),

— place of application (e.g. in situ adhesive),
— speed of setting (e.g. instant adhesive),
— bond properties (e.g. structural adhesive),

— shape (e.g. powder adhesive, pearl glue, table glue for solid glue, adhesive film for shaped adhesive, or stick

adhesive for stick shaped adhesives), or
— aspect (e.g. white glue).
2.1.2
water-borne adhesive
aqueous adhesive
adhesive in which the solvent, or the continuous phase is water
2.1.3
glue

aqueous adhesive specifically designed for bonding of wood and other porous substrates

Note 1 to entry: A glue can be based on a natural product like protein or synthetic resins (UF, PF or PVAC, see

2.3.51, 2.3.52 and 2.3.30 respectively)
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2.1.4
paste adhesive
adhesive of a non-stringy, highly viscous nature

Note 1 to entry: Paste adhesives based on starch or cellulose ethers are usually applied for paper bonding (e.g.

paper bags or wall paper).
2.1.5
dispersion adhesive

adhesive consisting of a stable dispersion of a polymer in a liquid continuous phase, usually water

Note 1 to entry: Dispersion adhesives containing an elastomer as polymer conventionally are often termed

“latex”.
2.1.6
emulsion adhesive
adhesive consisting of a stable emulsion of a liquid hydrophobic resin in water
2.1.7
solvent-borne adhesive
solution adhesive
solvent-based adhesive
adhesive in which the binder is dissolved in a volatile organic solvent
2.1.8
solvent free adhesive
adhesive that is substantially free from organic solvents (see 2.1.7)

Note 1 to entry: “Substantially free” means that organic solvents have neither been added in the basic elements

of an adhesive nor during its process of manufacture out of these basic elements. “Low solvent adhesives” contain

at most 5 % of solvents based on total weight of the adhesive.
2.1.9
plastisol adhesive

paste or liquid adhesive material comprising a dispersion of a polymer resin in a plasticizer that when

partially heated, gels as the plasticizer is incorporated into the swollen polymer to form a solid system

Note 1 to entry: The plastisol will be converted into a solid plastic simply by heating to fully fuse.

2.1.10
toughened adhesive

adhesive which by virtue of its physical structure discourages propagation of cracks

Note 1 to entry: The toughening can be achieved, for example, by the creation of a discrete elastomeric phase

within the adhesive matrix.
2.1.11
spray adhesive
adhesive that is projected in small particles by means of a pressure medium
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2.1.12
gap-filling adhesive
adhesive designed for filling wider gaps between uneven surfaces

Note 1 to entry: For high strength load-bearing purposes, e.g. in the car industry, the adhesive will provide

satisfactory bond strength in bond-lines up to 1 mm in thickness. For the construction industry, high solid

adhesives designed for use between uneven surfaces and to bond satisfactorily in gaps up to 6 mm are used.

2.1.13
sealant

adhesive material, used to fill gaps where movement can occur in service and which, when set, can

accommodate movement

Note 1 to entry: The term “sealant” is also used for a material filling a void against the ingress or egress of a

fluid, gaseous substance or airborne particles under pressure.
2.1.14
film adhesive
adhesive in film form, with or without a carrier
Note 1 to entry: Film adhesives set usually by means of heat under pressure.
2.1.15
foaming adhesive

adhesive designed to foam in situ, after application, in order to provide extensive gap-filling properties

2.1.16
unsupported film adhesive
adhesive supplied in sheet, film or web form, without an incorporated carrier
2.1.17
supported film adhesive

adhesive supplied in sheet or film form with an incorporated carrier in sheet, film, fabric or web form

that is coated with adhesives on one or both sides and that remains in the bond when the adhesive is

applied and used

Note 1 to entry: The carrier can be woven or non-woven material consisting of organic or inorganic fibres, as

well as foams, plastic or metal films, etc.
2.1.18
adhesive tape

flexible backing or carrier coated with a pressure-sensitive, remoistenable, or heat activated adhesive

2.1.19
transfer tape

carrier coated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive which, when detached from the substrate, permits the

carrier to be removed leaving only the adhesive
2.1.20
double coated adhesive tape
double sided adhesive tape
tape where the adhesive is applied on both sides of the carrier
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2.1.21
multiple-layer adhesive

film adhesive, usually supported with a different adhesive composition on each side

Note 1 to entry: Multiple-layer adhesives are designed to bond dissimilar materials.

2.1.22
encapsulated adhesive

adhesive in which particles or droplets of the adhesive or an adhesive component are enclosed in a

protective film (microcapsules) usually to prevent cross-linking until the film is destroyed by suitable

means
2.1.23
one-way stick adhesive
adhesive that is applied to only one of the adherends
2.1.24
separate application adhesive

adhesive consisting of different components which are applied separately to adherends

Note 1 to entry: Pressing together the components initiates a chemical reaction curing the bond-line.

2.1.25
two way stick adhesive
double spread adhesive
adhesive that is applied to both adherends
2.1.26
one-component adhesive
one-part adhesive
adhesive ready for use

Note 1 to entry: A one-part adhesive may require external influences such as heat, humidity, radiation, oxygen

firing or the evaporation of solvents for setting.
2.1.27
two-component adhesive
two-part adhesive

adhesive that consists of two separate reactive components that are mixed before use

2.1.28
multi-component adhesive
multi-part adhesive

adhesive that consists of two or more separate reactive components that are mixed before use

Note 1 to entry: With some multi-part adhesives, the reactive components are applied separated onto both

adherends. The curing is going to start after the assembly.
2.1.29
contact adhesive

adhesive that is applied to both adherends and when allowed to become apparently dry will instantly

develop a firm bond when a firm but not sustained pressure is applied

Note 1 to entry: “apparently dry” means that the adhesive coats are “dry to touch” at some stage in the

evaporation of volatile constituents.
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2.1.30
hot melt adhesive

adhesive that is applied in the molten state and forms a bond on cooling to a solid state

Note 1 to entry: A “reactive hot melt adhesive” is a hot melt adhesive that after solidifying undergoes further

crosslinking reaction e.g. by moisture or ultraviolet radiation
2.1.31
heat activated adhesive

adhesive pre-applied to the adherends that is rendered tacky prior to use by application of heat and

forms a bond on cooling under pressure
2.1.32
heat sealing adhesive

adhesive pre-applied to one or both adherends that is activated by the application of heat and forms a

bond on cooling

Note 1 to entry: Heat-sealing adhesives are commonly used in the packaging industry.

2.1.33
solvent activated adhesive

adhesive pre-applied to an adherend that is rendered tacky immediately prior to use by the application

of solvent
2.1.34
pressure sensitive adhesive

adhesive which in a dry state is permanently tacky at room temperature and adheres readily to surfaces

under light and brief pressure

Note 1 to entry: Pressure-sensitive adhesives are used for instance for the manufacture of pressure

sensitive/self adhesives tapes, labels or foils.
2.1.35
cold setting adhesive
cold glue (deprecated)
adhesive that sets without the application of heat
2.1.36
hot setting adhesive
adhesive that sets only with the application of heat
2.1.37
reaction adhesive
reactive adhesive

adhesive that sets by a chemical reaction of its components and/or the action of external agents

Note 1 to entry: Chemical setting or hardening sometimes is called “curing” (deprecated).

2.1.38
cold hardening adhesive
cold curing adhesive (deprecated, see 2.1.37, Note 1 to entry)
adhesive that hardens without the application of heat
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2.1.39
hot hardening adhesive
hot curing adhesive (deprecated, see 2.1.37, Note 1 to entry)
adhesive that hardens only with the application of heat
2.1.40
combined hardening
combined curing (deprecated)

hardening that can be obtained by more than one process (e.g. by radiation and by moisture)

2.1.41
anaerobic adhesive

adhesive that cures (hardens) in absence of oxygen, curing (hardening) being inhibited by the presence

of oxygen and catalysed by metal ions
2.1.42
moisture hardening adhesive
moisture curing adhesive (deprecated, see 2.1.37, Note 1 to entry)
adhesive that hardens by reaction with water from the air or from an adherend
2.1.43
conductive adhesive

adhesive especially designed to either avoid the accumulation of an electrical charge or to conduct an

electrical current
2.1.44
adhesive batch

quantity of a particular adhesive (or component of an adhesive) manufactured in a single location at a

defined, limited time under defined conditions and considered to have uniform properties

Note 1 to entry: Adhesive “lot” is a commonly used commercial term for adhesive batch. A lot can consist of less

or more than one batch
2.1.45
hybrid adhesive

adhesive which is made of different binding agents such as for example polyurethane-epoxy, cement-

polymer dispersion
2.1.46
radiation crosslinking adhesive
radiation curing adhesive (deprecated)

adhesive which hardens under the influence of electromagnetic radiation (usually UV or VIS radiation)

2.1.47
adhesive lot

quantity of a particular adhesive (or component of an adhesive) considered to have uniform properties

Note 1 to entry: Adhesive lot may consist of less or more than one adhesive batch – see 2.1.44.

2.2 Functional adhesive components
2.2.1
binder

component of an adhesive that is primarily responsible for the adhesion and cohesion

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2.2.2
monomer

chemical compound, usually of low molecular mass, that can be converted into a polymer by combining

with itself or with other chemical compounds
2.2.3
polymer

substance composed of molecules characterized by the multiple repetition of one or more species of

atoms or groups of atoms (constitutional units) linked to each other in amounts sufficient to provide a

set of properties that do not markedly vary with the addition or removal of one or a few of the

constitutional units

Note 1 to entry: The nature of these constitutional units, their order and the average number per molecule

influence the physical and mechanical properties of the polymer.
2.2.4
copolymer
polymer derived from more than one species of monomer
2.2.5
elastomer

macromolecular material which returns rapidly to approximately its initial dimensions and shape after

substantial deformation by a weak stress and release of the stress at room temperature

2.2.6
resin

solid, semi solid or pseudosolid organic material that has an indefinite and often high relative molecular

mass, exhibits a tendency to flow when subjected to stress, usually has a softening or melting range, and

usually fractures conchoidally

Note 1 to entry: In a broader sense, the term is used to designate any polymer that is basic material for plastics.

Bitumen, pitches and waxes are excluded by convention.
Note 2 to entry: Some resins may be part of a reaction adhesive (see 2.1.37).
2.2.7
synthetic resin
resin derived from a synthetic monomer
2.2.8
thermoplastic resin
thermoplast

polymer or copolymer capable of being softened by heating and hardened by cooling

Note 1 to entry: Softening and hardening are repeatable. Many thermoplastic materials can become thermoset

by appropriate treatment to induce crosslinking, e.g. by the addition of a suitable chemical crosslinking agent or

by irradiation.
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2.2.9
thermosetting resin
thermoset

monomer, polymer or copolymer, which when cured, changes into a substantially infusible and

insoluble product

Note 1 to entry: The setting of a thermosetting resin undergoes three different stages: the “A-stage” at which

the material is still fusible and still soluble. The intermediate pseudo-stable “B-stage” at which it is fusible and

partially soluble. The “B-stage” is converted to the final crosslinked, insoluble and infusible “C-stage” by

application of heat and, usually, pressure.
2.2.10
crosslinking agent

substance that causes, promotes or regulates the formation of intermolecular, covalent or ionic bonds

between polymer chains resulting in a three dimensional molecular network

Note 1 to entry: Crosslinking can occur either between polymer chains or by reaction of simple functional

molecules (e.g. two-component polyurethane or epoxy adhesives). Crosslinking can also be produced by radiation

or oxidation. The terms “hardener” and “curing agent” (deprecated) are often used synonymously with

crosslinking agent.
2.2.11
adhesion promotor
coupling agent

substance used in small proportions to increase the adhesion to specific substrates

2.2.12
accelerator

substance used in small proportions to increase the reaction rate of a chemical system (reactants, plus

additives)
2.2.13
catalyst

substance used in small proportion, that augments the rate of a chemical reaction, and in theory

remains unchanged chemically at the end of the reaction
2.2.14
inhibitor
substance used in small proportions to suppress a chemical reaction
2.2.15
retarder

substance used in small proportions to reduce the reaction rate of a chemical system

2.2.16
antioxidant
substance used to retard deterioration caused by oxidation
Note 1 to entry: Antioxidants are sometimes referred to as anti-aging agents.
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2.2.17
flexibilizer
internal plasticizer

co-reactant which, when incorporated into a polymer confers improved flexibility and resilience to the

polymer

Note 1 to entry: A flexibilizer provides to the adhesive film a greater extension at break, a lower modulus and a

lower temperature at which it becomes brittle. A flexibilizer is not extractable and will not migrate from the

adhesive film.
2.2.18
plasticizer
external plasticizer

non-reactive substance incorporated into an adhesive to improve flexibility and resilience of its bond

Note 1 to entry: A plasticizer provides to the adhesive film a greater extension at break, a lower modulus and a

lower temperature at which it becomes brittle. A plasticizer can be soluble and can migrate from the adhesive film.

2.2.19
solvent

liquid or mixture of liquids that are used in the manufacture of adhesives to dissolve or to dilute the

binder without chemical change

Note 1 to entry: Solvents are used to control the consistency and character of the adhesive and can regulate

application properties.
2.2.20
diluent
thinner (deprecated)

liquid whose sole function is to reduce the concentration of solids and viscosity of an adhesive

2.2.21
reactive diluent

low-viscosity liquid added to a high-viscosity solvent-free adhesive which reacts chemically with the

adhesive during setting

Note 1 to entry: A reactive diluent is usually mono-functional and reduces the viscosity of the adhesive with

acceptable changes in other properties.
2.2.22
filler

relatively inert solid material added to a plastic or an adhesive to modify strength, permanence,

working properties or other quality
Note 1 to entry: Two classes of fillers are used:
— chemically inert fillers, e.g. china clay or wood flour;

— “reinforcing fillers” like silicates, carbon black, fibrous materials or aluminium powder that markedly

enhance the performance of a polymer.
2.2.23
matrix

part of an adhesive that surrounds or engulfs embedded filler or reinforcing particles and filaments

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2.2.24
modifier
ingredient which, when added to an adhesive, changes its properties

Note 1 to entry: The term modifier includes among others fillers, diluents, plasticizers and tackifiers.

2.2.25
stabilizer

substance used in the formulation of some plastics or adhesives to assist in maintaining the properties

of the material or of the adhesive and its bonds at or near their initial values during storage and

processing and under service conditions

Note 1 to entry: Special stabilizers are used to prevent or slow down undesirable effects such as coagulation,

excessive reactivity, absorption by adherends or destruction of adherends.
2.2.26
emulsifier
emulsifying agent
dispersant

surface-active substance that promotes and maintains the dispersion of two incompletely miscible

liquids or a solid and a liquid by reducing the interfacial tension between the two phases

2.2.27
tackifier
substance intended to enhance the tack or the tack range of an adhesive coat
2.2.28
extender

inert substance, which may be liquid or solid, added to a resin, plastic or adhesive primarily to reduce

cost
2.2.29
water trap
water trapping agent

substance used to bind physically or chemically residual water or moisture in an adhesive

2.2.30
prepolymer

polymer of degree of polymerization intermediate between that of the monomer or monomers and that

of the final polymer

Note 1 to entry: The term “prepolymer” is usually applied for polymeric species which are capable for further

reaction.
2.3 Chemical base products
2.3.1
soluble silicate
silicate obtained by melting a purified silica with an alkali salt

Note 1 to entry: “water glass” is a glassy, i.e. amorphous, water-soluble sodium, potassium or lithium silicate

solidified from hot melt or their aqueous solutions. A “water glass adhesive” is an adhesive based on water glass

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2.3.2
hydraulic binder
hydraulic cement

inorganic adhesive material that sets and hardens by chemical interaction with water and that is

capable of doing so under water

Note 1 to entry: Hydraulic cements set chemically by “hydration” thus forming compounds with strength-

producing properties.
There are several types of hydraulic cements:

— “Portland cement“, produced by pulverizing partially sintered “clinker” consisting primarily of hydrated

calcium silicates, and usually containing calcium sulfate in any hydration state (anhydrite, gypsum,

hemihydrate);

— “natural cement“, produced by calcining a naturally occurring argillaceouse limestone at a temperature below

the sintering point and then grinding to a fine powder;

— “slag cement“, consisting mostly of an intimate and uniform blend of granulated blast-furnace slag and

hydrated lime in which the slag constituent is more than a specified minimum percentage. Blast-furnace slag

is the non-metallic product consisting essentially of silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium and other bases

that is developed in a molten condition simultaneously with iron in a blast furnace;

— “Portland-Pozzolan cement“, consisting of an intimate and uniform blend of Portland cement or Portland

blast-furnace slag cement and fine pozzolan, in which the amount of the pozzolan constituent is within

specified limits. Pozzolan is a siliceous and aluminous material which in itself possesses little or no

cementitious value but which will, in finily divided form and in the presence of moisture, chemically react

with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing cementitious properties.

— High alumina cement, alumina cement (HAC): HAC is a carefully measured mixture of alumina and calcareous

materials. These two materials are grounded together until a fine dust is produced (pulverizing materials is a

standard process in all cement production). Limestone and bauxite are used in t
...

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