Space engineering - Communications

This Standard specifies the requirements for the development of the end­to­end data communications system for spacecraft.
Specifically, this standard specifies:
-   The terminology to be used for space communication systems engineering.
-   The activities to be performed as part of the space communication system engineering process, in accordance with the ECSS-E-ST-10 standard.
-   Specific requirements on space communication systems in respect of functionality and performance.
The communications links covered by this Standard are the space­to­ground and space­to­space links used during spacecraft operations, and the communications links to the spacecraft used during the assembly, integration and test, and operational phases.
Spacecraft end­to­end communication systems comprise components in three distinct domains, namely the ground network, the space link, and the space network. This Standard covers the components of the space link and space network in detail. However, this Standard only covers those aspects of the ground network that are necessary for the provision of the end­to­end communication services.
NOTE    Other aspects of the ground network are covered in ECSS-E ST 70.
This Standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S ST 00.

Raumfahrttechnik - Kommunikation

Ingénierie spatiale - Communications

Vesoljska tehnika - Komunikacije

Ta standard določa zahteve za razvoj celovitega podatkovnega komunikacijskega sistema za vesoljska plovila. Ta standard podrobno določa predvsem:
• terminologijo, uporabljeno za inženiring za vesoljske komunikacijske sisteme,
• dejavnosti, ki se izvajajo kot del inženirskega postopka za vesoljski komunikacijski sistem
v skladu s standardom ECSS-E-ST-10,
• posebne zahteve za vesoljske komunikacijske sisteme glede
funkcionalnosti in delovanja. Komunikacijske povezave, zajete v tem standardu, so povezave vesolje-zemlja in vesolje-vesolje, ki se uporabljajo med operacijami vesoljskih plovil, in komunikacijske povezave do vesoljskega plovila, ki se uporabljajo v času montaže, integracije, testiranja in delovanja. Celoviti komunikacijski sistemi za vesoljska plovila sestavljajo tri različna področja, in sicer zemeljsko omrežje, povezava z vesoljem in vesoljsko omrežje. Ta standard podrobno zajema komponente povezave z vesoljem in vesoljskega omrežja. Vendar pa ta standard zajema le tiste vidike
zemeljskega omrežja, ki so nujni za zagotavljanje celovitih komunikacijskih storitev. OPOMBA Drugi vidiki zemeljskega omrežja so zajeti v standardu ECSS-E-ST-70. Ta standard se lahko prilagodi posameznim lastnostim in omejitvam vesoljskega projekta v skladu s standardom ECSS-S-ST-00.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
09-Sep-2014
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
06-Jul-2022

RELATIONS

Effective Date
13-Jul-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16603-50:2014
01-november-2014
Vesoljska tehnika - Komunikacije
Space engineering - Communications
Raumfahrttechnik - Kommunikation
Ingénierie spatiale - Communications
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16603-50:2014
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16603-50:2014 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16603-50
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2014
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Communications
Ingénierie spatiale - Communications Raumfahrttechnik - Kommunikation
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 March 2014.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving

this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning

such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN and CENELEC

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre

has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16603-50:2014 E

worldwide for CEN national Members and for CENELEC
Members.
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
Table of contents

Foreword .................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 6

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references ............................................................................................. 8

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ............................................................ 9

3.1 Terms defined in other standards ............................................................................. 9

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ..................................................................... 9

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 11

4 Space communications engineering principles ............................................... 13

4.1 Context ................................................................................................................... 13

4.2 Overall space communication ................................................................................. 14

4.3 Space communication domains .............................................................................. 17

4.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 17

4.3.2 Space network .......................................................................................... 18

4.3.3 Space link ................................................................................................. 18

4.3.4 Ground network ........................................................................................ 19

4.4 Communications engineering process .................................................................... 19

4.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 19

4.4.2 Communication engineering activities ....................................................... 19

4.4.3 Process milestones ................................................................................... 21

4.5 Relationship with other standards ........................................................................... 22

4.6 Communications architecture ................................................................................. 22

4.7 Spacecraft control considerations ........................................................................... 23

5 Requirements ........................................................................................................ 25

5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 25

5.2 Space communication system engineering process ................................................ 25

5.2.1 Requirements engineering ........................................................................ 25

5.2.2 Analysis .................................................................................................... 26

5.2.3 Design and configuration........................................................................... 27

5.2.4 Implementation ......................................................................................... 28

5.2.5 Verification ................................................................................................ 29

5.2.6 Operations ................................................................................................ 29

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5.3 Space communication system ................................................................................ 30

5.3.1 Bandwidth allocation ................................................................................. 30

5.3.2 Congestion ................................................................................................ 30

5.3.3 Cessation of emission ............................................................................... 31

5.4 Telecommanding .................................................................................................... 31

5.4.1 Commandability at all attitudes and rates .................................................. 31

5.4.2 Telecommand delivery service .................................................................. 31

5.4.3 Erroneous telecommand rejection ............................................................. 31

5.4.4 Essential command distribution ................................................................. 31

5.4.5 Command authentication .......................................................................... 32

5.4.6 Command encryption ................................................................................ 32

5.4.7 Commanding-in-the-blind .......................................................................... 32

5.4.8 Telecommand acknowledgement .............................................................. 32

5.5 Telemetry ............................................................................................................... 32

5.5.1 Telemetry at all attitudes and rates ........................................................... 32

5.5.2 Essential telemetry acquisition .................................................................. 32

5.5.3 Telemetry source identification .................................................................. 33

5.5.4 Telemetry-in-the-blind ............................................................................... 33

5.5.5 Telemetry packet time stamping................................................................ 33

5.5.6 Simultaneous support of differing source rates .......................................... 33

5.6 Space link ............................................................................................................... 34

5.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 34

5.6.2 Directionality ............................................................................................. 34

5.6.3 Short contact periods ................................................................................ 34

5.6.4 Interoperability .......................................................................................... 35

5.6.5 Orbits ........................................................................................................ 35

5.6.6 Noise sources ........................................................................................... 35

5.6.7 Mission phases ......................................................................................... 35

5.6.8 Link setup times ........................................................................................ 35

5.6.9 Mixed isochronous and asynchronous traffic ............................................. 35

5.6.10 Mixed housekeeping and payload data ..................................................... 35

5.6.11 Space link performance ............................................................................ 36

5.6.12 Space link frequency ................................................................................. 37

5.6.13 Space link protocol .................................................................................... 38

5.6.14 Space link service ..................................................................................... 39

5.7 Space network ........................................................................................................ 41

5.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 41

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EN 16603-50:2014 (E)

5.7.2 Space network services ............................................................................ 42

5.8 Ground network ...................................................................................................... 43

5.8.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 43

5.8.2 Data labelling ............................................................................................ 43

5.8.3 Security ..................................................................................................... 43

5.8.4 Error rates ................................................................................................. 43

5.8.5 Hot redundant operation of ground network nodes .................................... 43

5.8.6 Ground network availability ....................................................................... 43

Annex A (normative) Communication system requirements document

(CSRD) - DRD ....................................................................................................... 44

Annex B (normative) Communication system baseline definition (CSBD) -

DRD ...................................................................................................................... 48

Annex C (normative) Communication system analysis document (CSAD) -

DRD ...................................................................................................................... 53

Annex D (normative) Communication system verification plan (CSVP) -

DRD ...................................................................................................................... 56

Annex E (normative) Communication system architectural design

document (CSADD) - DRD .................................................................................. 59

Annex F (normative) Communication system detailed design document

(CSDDD) - DRD .................................................................................................... 62

Annex G (normative) Communication system profile document (CSPD) -

DRD ...................................................................................................................... 64

Annex H (normative) Communication system operations manual (CSOM) -

DRD ...................................................................................................................... 66

Annex I (informative) Documentation summary .................................................. 69

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 72

Figures

Figure 4-1: Example configuration of a space communication system .................................. 14

Figure 4-2: CCSDS and Internet space link protocols ........................................................... 17

Figure 4-3: Space communications reference architecture ................................................... 22

Tables

Table A- 1 ECSS-E-ST-50 DRD list ...................................................................................... 70

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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
Foreword
This document (EN 16603-50:2014) has been prepared by Technical Committee
CEN/CLC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This standard (EN 16603-50:2014) originates from ECSS-E-ST-50C.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either
by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March
2015, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by
March 2015.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document
may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held
responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the
European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has
therefore precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider
domain of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards
organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European
Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United
Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
Introduction
This standard specifies requirements for the development of the end-to-end
data communication system for spacecraft. Implementation aspects are defined
in both ECSS-E-ST-50 Level 3 standards and CCSDS standards.
The complete set of standards to define a complete communication link is
project dependent and cannot be specified here. ECSS-E-HB-50 provides some
guidance on this aspect, and gives some practical examples.
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
Scope
This Standard specifies the requirements for the development of the end-to-end
data communications system for spacecraft.
Specifically, this standard specifies:
• The terminology to be used for space communication systems
engineering.
• The activities to be performed as part of the space communication system
engineering process, in accordance with the ECSS-E-ST-10 standard.
• Specific requirements on space communication systems in respect of
functionality and performance.
The communications links covered by this Standard are the space-to-ground
and space-to-space links used during spacecraft operations, and the
communications links to the spacecraft used during the assembly, integration
and test, and operational phases.
Spacecraft end-to-end communication systems comprise components in three
distinct domains, namely the ground network, the space link, and the space
network. This Standard covers the components of the space link and space
network in detail. However, this Standard only covers those aspects of the
ground network that are necessary for the provision of the end-to-end
communication services.
NOTE Other aspects of the ground network are covered
in ECSS-E-ST-70.

This Standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of

a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of any of these
publications, do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS
Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most
recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated
references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS system — Glossary of terms
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms defined in other standards
For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from
ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply, in particular for the following term:
function
3.2 Terms specific to the present standard
3.2.1 channel
combination of protocol and medium that provides a physical layer service
from end-to-end
NOTE This is the transfer of the unstructured bitstream
from point-to-point.
3.2.2 communication service
service that provides the capability of moving data between users.
NOTE At least two users are involved when a
communication service is used, one sending data
and the other(s) receiving data.
3.2.3 cross support
use by one party of part of another party’s data system resources to
complement its own system
3.2.4 entity
active element within a system
3.2.5 interface
description of the connection between real or abstract objects
3.2.6 isochronous service
service providing for the transfer of data with a defined maximum deviation
from a nominal delay from end to end
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
3.2.7 protocol
set of rules and formats (semantic and syntactic) that determine the
communication behaviour of layer entities in the performance of
communication functions
3.2.8 service
capability of a layer, and the layers beneath it (a service-provider), that is
provided to service-users at the boundary between the service-provider and the
service-users
NOTE The service defines the external behaviour of the
service-provider, independent of the mechanisms
used to provide that behaviour. Layers, layer
entities, and application-service-elements are
examples of components of a service-provider.
3.2.9 service data unit
amount of information whose identity is preserved when transferred between
peer entities in a given layer and which is not interpreted by the supporting
entities in that layer
3.2.10 service-provider

abstract representation of the totality of those entities which provide a service to

service-users
NOTE A service provider includes entities in the layer at
which the service is provided, and in the layers
beneath it.
3.2.11 service-user
entity in a single system that makes use of a service
NOTE The service-user makes use of the service through
a collection of service primitives defined for the
service.
3.2.12 simplex
communicating in one direction from data source to data sink
3.2.13 source
entity that sends service-data-units, using a service provider
3.2.14 sink
entity that receives service-data-units from a service provider
3.2.15 telecommand
communication link from ground to space by which a spacecraft is commanded
3.2.16 telemetry
housekeeping data and payload data
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
NOTE Housekeeping telemetry is usually transmitted at
low rate, but payload data can be transmitted at a
very high rate.
3.2.17 telemetry link
link from spacecraft to ground over which data generated on the spacecraft is
provided to ground
3.2.18 user
service-user
3.2.19 user application
application that makes use of data handling system services
NOTE An application can be a software entity or a
non-software entity which is controlling an
onboard system.
3.3 Abbreviated terms
For the purpose of this Standard, the abbreviated terms from ECSS-ST-00-01
and the following apply:
Abbreviation Meaning
AIT assembly, integration, and test
AR acceptance review
ARQ automatic repeat request
BER bit error rate
CCITT Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and
Telephone
CCSDS
Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems
CDMU central data management unit
CDR critical design review
CSAD communication system analysis document
CSADD communication system architectural design document
CSBD communication system baseline definition
CSDDD
communication system detailed design document
CSOM communication system operations manual
CSPD communication system profile document
CSRD communication system requirements document
CSVP
communication system verification plan
DRD document requirements definitions
EIRP
equivalent isotropically radiated power
EMC electromagnetic compatibility
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITU-R
ITU – Radiocommunication
ITU-RR ITU – Radio Regulations
LEOP launch and early operations phase
MEC mission experiment centre
OSI open system interconnection
OCC operational control centre
PDR preliminary design review
PFD power flux density
QR qualification review
RF radio frequency
SDU service data unit
SRR system requirements review
TT&C telemetry, tracking and command
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
Space communications engineering
principles
4.1 Context
Space communications engineering is concerned with the provision of
end-to-end communication services to and from spacecraft. Communication
links are generally between the spacecraft and ground. However, this Standard

also addresses spacecraft-to-spacecraft links, e.g. in spacecraft constellations,

and can be applied to links between spacecraft and landed elements such as
orbiter-lander or orbiter-lander-rover configurations.
End-to-end communication is used both to control the operation of the
spacecraft, and to transfer data, such as payload data. However, the
requirements on the communications system for controlling the spacecraft
differ from those for payload data transfer. For control operations, the
communication system objective is to provide guaranteed delivery of
commands in the order of transmission. Commands can be repeated, but not
lost. By contrast, the requirement for payload data transfers is to transfer as
much data as possible. Some loss of data may be acceptable, and delivery order
is generally unimportant, provided the data can be reconstituted.
In addition to the end-to-end transfer of commands and data, some additional
services are provided across space communication links, such as time
correlation and ranging. Time correlation is used to accurately relate the local
time maintained at each end of the communication link in order to determine
the absolute time relationship between events. Ranging is used to determine the
distance to the spacecraft, e.g. between a ground station antenna and the
spacecraft, or between two spacecraft, and is used for orbit determination.
The goals of standardization for space communication systems are:
• to ensure efficient use of the RF spectrum allocated to the space
infrastructure in a non-interfering manner;
• to ensure that the RF links to and from the spacecraft can be used for
orbit determination and ranging;
• to ensure reliable and error free end-to-end communication between
ground stations and the spacecraft;
• to enable the use of the same ground segment infrastructure by different
spacecraft;
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SIST EN 16603-50:2014
EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
• to ensure that standard communication interfaces are provided to the
spacecraft payloads and experiments in order to simplify the spacecraft
development process;
• to enable cross support between agencies.
Cross support can be beneficial for many reasons, including:
• Technical: to attain additional network coverage or to conduct some
programmatic endeavour, such as very long baseline interferometry
measurements.
• Economic: to avoid the expense of duplicate implementation, especially
to meet some short term requirement.
• Emergency: to increase mission support over that normally planned.
• Research: to avoid the cost and time delay of repeating investigations or
re-flying an experiment and to obtain unique data acquired in the past
and held by another agency.
These arguments were apparent as long ago as the early 1970s. For this reason,
the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) was established
to standardize space link protocols. Where appropriate, this ECSS Standard
calls up CCSDS recommendations directly.
Space communication engineering involves many different disciplines. The
physical layers of wireless communications links are the preserve of RF or
optical specialists, and wired links are the speciality of analogue electronics
engineers. The electronic components that implement the communication
services are designed and implemented by analogue and digital electronics
engineers, and the design of the protocols used in the provision of services is
entrusted to protocol experts. In many cases, the higher level services and
protocols are implemented in software by specialized software engineers. Other
ECSS Standards which are applicable to this discipline are called up within this
Standard.
4.2 Overall space communication
Figure 4-1 shows an example of a configuration for a space communication
system.
NOTE This configuration includes a space-to-space link
between two flight elements.
Operations Mission
Spacecraft 2
Spacecraft 1 Ground control centre experiment
(e.g. Probe,
(e.g. Orbiter) station (OCC) centre (MEC)
Terrestrial Terrestrial
Lander)
Space link
Space link
link link
(Space-to
(Space-to
-ground)
-space)
Figure 4-1: Example configuration of a space communication system
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EN 16603-50:2014 (E)
The overall data communication requirement is to transfer data to and from any
element of the space system in accordance with the mission requirements.
The elements of a space communication system are described in the following
paragraphs. In a real space communication system, the number and type of
elements actually present can vary. For example, in complex missions, there can
be several spacecraft, and multiple ground stations. In other missions, a single
spacecraft can be controlled from a single operation control centre, without a
mission experiment centre.
The space communication system elements are:
• a spacecraft linked to the ground via a space link (space-to-ground). This
can also be linked to other spacecraft, landers, and probes via
space-to-space (proximity) links;
• other spacecraft, landers, and probes linked only with the main
spacecraft via proximity links;
• a ground station that forms the terrestrial end of the space-to-ground
space link, and is connected to the operational control centre via a
terrestrial link;
• an operational control centre (OCC), connected to the ground station via
a terrestrial link. The OCC is used to control the spacecraft;
• a dedicated mission experiment centre (MEC) connected to the
operations control centre. Mission payloads and experiments are
operated from the MEC.
Each element includes a data handling system, which provides three main
communication functions:
• managing data communication interfaces internal to the element (internal
links);
• managing data communication interfaces with external links (i.e. space
links and terrestrial links to other elements);
• performing data processing for the transfer between internal and external
links.
The data handling for transferring data from a sending element to a receiving
element of the space communication system via an external link consists of:
• For the down-link data stream:
 At sender side
o A
...

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