Plastics - Biodegradable mulch films for use in agriculture and horticulture - Requirements and test methods

This document specifies the requirements for biodegradable films, manufactured from thermoplastic materials, to be used for mulch applications in agriculture and horticulture.
This document is applicable to films intended to biodegrade in soil without creating any adverse impact on the environment.
It also specifies the test methods to assess these requirements as well as requirements for the packaging, identification and marking of films.
For information, it defines a classification of biodegradable mulch films according to their service life on soil and gives a good practice guide for the use of the films.
NOTE   Films intended to be removed after use and not incorporated in the soil are not in the scope of this standard. They are in the scope of EN 13655 [1].

Kunststoffe - Biologisch abbaubare Mulchfolien für den Einsatz in Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

Dieses Dokument legt die Anforderungen an biologisch abbaubare Folien fest, die aus thermoplastischen Materialien hergestellt wurden und für Anwendungen von Mulch in der Landwirtschaft und im Gartenbau verwendet werden.
Dieses Dokument gilt für Folien, die im Boden biologisch abbaubar sein sollen, ohne schädliche Folgen für die Umwelt zu haben.
Es legt außerdem die Prüfverfahren für die Bewertung dieser Anforderungen und der Anforderungen an Verpackung, Identifikation und Kennzeichnung von Folien fest.
Zu Informationszwecken definiert es eine Klassifizierung von biologisch abbaubaren Mulchfolien hinsichtlich ihrer Lebensdauer auf Boden und liefert einen Leitfaden für die Verwendung der Folien.
ANMERKUNG   Folien, die nach der Verwendung zu entfernen sind und nicht in dem Boden verbleiben, fallen nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieser Norm. Sie sind im Anwendungsbereich von EN 13655 enthalten [1].

Plastiques - Films de paillage biodégradables thermoplastiques pour utilisation en agriculture et horticulture - Exigences et méthodes d’essai

Le présent document spécifie les exigences relatives aux films biodégradables fabriqués à partir de matériaux thermoplastiques, à utiliser pour les applications de paillage en agriculture et en horticulture.
Le présent document s’applique aux films destinés à se biodégrader dans le sol sans créer d’impact négatif sur l’environnement.
Il spécifie également les méthodes d’essai permettant d’évaluer ces exigences ainsi que les exigences d’emballage, d’identification et de marquage des films.
À titre d’information, il définit une classification des films de paillage biodégradables en fonction de leur durée de vie utile sur le sol et donne un guide des bonnes pratiques concernant l’utilisation des films.
NOTE   Les films destinés à être retirés après utilisation et qui ne sont pas incorporés dans le sol n’entrent pas dans le domaine d’application de la présente norme. Ils sont couverts par l’EN 13655 [1].

Polimerni materiali - Biorazgradljive folije za mulčenje za uporabo v kmetijstvu in vrtnarstvu - Zahteve in preskusne metode

Ta osnutek evropskega standarda določa zahteve za biorazgradljive folije, izdelane iz plastomernih materialov, ki se uporabljajo za mulčenje v kmetijstvu in vrtnarstvu.
Ta osnutek evropskega standarda se uporablja za folije, ki se razgradijo v zemlji brez negativnega vpliva na okolje.
Določa tudi preskusne metode za ocenjevanje teh zahtev ter zahtev za pakiranje, prepoznavanje in označevanje folij.
Informativno določa način razvrščanja biorazgradljivih folij za mulčenje glede na njihovo življenjsko dobo na zemlji in vsebuje dobre prakse za uporabo folij.
OPOMBA:   Folije, ki se po uporabi odstranijo in se ne razgradijo v zemlji ne spadajo na področje uporabe tega standarda. Glej standard EN 13655 [1].

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Published
Publication Date
23-Jan-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
24-Jan-2018
Completion Date
24-Jan-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Kunststoffe - Biologisch abbaubare thermoplastische Mulchfolien für den Einsatz in Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau - Anforderungen und PrüfverfahrenPlastiques - Films de paillage biodégradables pour utilisation en agriculture et horticulture - Exigences et méthodes d’essaiPlastics - Biodegradable mulch films for use in agriculture and horticulture - Requirements and test methods83.140.10Filmi in folijeFilms and sheets65.060.99Drugi kmetijski stroji in opremaOther agricultural machines and equipmentICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 17033:2018SIST EN 17033:2018en,fr,de01-marec-2018SIST EN 17033:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 17033:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 17033
January
t r s z ICS
z uä s v rä s r English Version

Plastics æ Biodegradable mulch films for use in agriculture and horticulture æ Requirements and test methods Plastiques æ Films de paillage biodégradables thermoplastiques pour utilisation en agriculture et horticulture æ Exigences et méthodes d 5essai

Kunststoffe æ Biologisch abbaubare Mulchfolien für den Einsatz in Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau æ Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren This European Standard was approved by CEN on

s u November
t r s yä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s y r u uã t r s z ESIST EN 17033:2018
EN 17033:2018 (E) 2
Contents Page

EUROPEAN FOREWORD ................................................................................................................................................ 4 1 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................................... 5 2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 5 3 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 6 3.1 DEFINITIONS RELATED TO FILMS ................................................................................................................................... 6 3.2 DEFINITIONS RELATED TO BIODEGRADATION AND DISINTEGRATION ..................................................................................... 7 3.3 DEFINITIONS RELATED TO TEST SOIL .............................................................................................................................. 8 3.4 DEFINITIONS RELATED TO ECOTOXICITY AND CONTROL OF CONSTITUENTS ............................................................................. 9 4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................................... 9 5 REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS, TESTING SCHEMES AND EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR BIODEGRADATION AND ECOTOXICITY ................................................................................................................................................................. 9 5.1 CONTROL OF CONSTITUENTS ....................................................................................................................................... 9 5.2 BIODEGRADATION ................................................................................................................................................... 10 5.3 ECOTOXICITY .......................................................................................................................................................... 11 6 DIMENSIONAL, MECHANICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE FILMS ............................................................ 14 6.1 REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................................................................................... 14 6.2 APPEARANCE OF FILMS ............................................................................................................................................. 15 6.3 TEST METHODS ....................................................................................................................................................... 15 7 DELIVERY CHECKING ........................................................................................................................................... 17 8 FILM DESIGNATION ............................................................................................................................................ 17 9 MARKING ........................................................................................................................................................... 17 9.1 MARKING OF THE FILM (OPTIONAL) ............................................................................................................................ 17 9.2 MARKING ON PACKAGING OR LABEL ............................................................................................................................ 18 10 TEST REPORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 18 11 FUNCTIONS AND SERVICE LIFE OF BIODEGRADABLE MULCH FILMS .................................................................... 18 12 CONDITIONS FOR INSTALLATION AND USE OF MULCH FILMS ............................................................................. 18 ANNEX A (NORMATIVE)

PREPARATION OF SOILS FOR ECOTOXICITY TESTING ............................................................ 19 A.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................................................................................ 19 A.2 PREPARATION OF THE SOIL ............................................................................................................................ 19 A.3 REACTORS ...................................................................................................................................................... 19 A.4 INITIAL TEST ITEM CONCENTRATION .............................................................................................................. 19 A.5 TEST DURATION ............................................................................................................................................. 20 ANNEX B (NORMATIVE)

DETERMINATION OF ACUTE EFFECTS OF MATERIALS ON THE EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF HIGHER PLANTS .......................................................................................................................................................... 21 B.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 B.2 PROCEDURE.................................................................................................................................................... 21 SIST EN 17033:2018

EN 17033:2018 (E) 3 B.3 EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS ........................................................................................................................ 22 ANNEX C (NORMATIVE)

DETERMINATION OF ACUTE EFFECTS OF MATERIALS ON EARTHWORMS ............................. 23 C.1 GENERAL ......................................................................................................................................................... 23 C.2 PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................................................... 23 C.3 EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS ........................................................................................................................ 23 ANNEX D (NORMATIVE)

DETERMINATION OF EFFECTS OF MATERIALS ON REPRODUCTION OF EARTHWORMS ........ 24 D.1 GENERAL ......................................................................................................................................................... 24 D.2 PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................................................... 24 D.3 EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS ........................................................................................................................ 24 ANNEX E (NORMATIVE)

DETERMINATION OF NITRIFICATION ACTIVITY OF SOIL MICROORGANISMS ......................... 25 E.1 GENERAL ......................................................................................................................................................... 25 E.2 PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................................................... 25 E.3 EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS ........................................................................................................................ 25 ANNEX F (NORMATIVE)

DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE LIGHT TRANSMISSION .......................................................... 26 F.1 PRINCIPLE ....................................................................................................................................................... 26 F.2 APPARATUS .................................................................................................................................................... 26 F.3 PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................................................... 26 F.4 EXPRESSION OF RESULTS ................................................................................................................................ 26 ANNEX G (INFORMATIVE)

FUNCTIONS AND SERVICE LIFE OF BIODEGRADABLE MULCH FILMS ................................... 27 G.1 GENERAL ......................................................................................................................................................... 27 G.2 FACTORS OF DEGRADATION OF BIODEGRADABLE MULCH FILMS ................................................................... 27 G.3 MAIN FUNCTIONS OF BIODEGRADABLE MULCH FILMS ................................................................................... 27 G.4 SERVICE LIFE ON SOIL OF BIODEGRADABLE MULCH FILMS .............................................................................. 28 ANNEX H (INFORMATIVE)

GOOD PRACTICE GUIDANCE FOR USE OF BIODEGRADABLE MULCH FILMS ........................ 31 H.1 WARNING ....................................................................................................................................................... 31 H.2 SOIL PREPARATION ......................................................................................................................................... 31 H.3 FILM LAYING ................................................................................................................................................... 31 H.4 FILM PERFORATION ........................................................................................................................................ 31 H.5 CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES AND BIODEGRADABLE FILMS .............................................................................. 32 H.6 FILM LIFETIME ................................................................................................................................................ 33 H.7 TREATMENT OF FILMS AT THE END OF CULTIVATION ..................................................................................... 33 H.8 STORAGE ........................................................................................................................................................ 33 ANNEX I (INFORMATIVE)

QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE DISINTEGRATION IN A SLIDE FRAME TEST ................... 35 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................................................ 38 SIST EN 17033:2018

EN 17033:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 17033:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC249 “Plastics”, the secretariat of which is held by NBN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2018. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 17033:2018

EN 17033:2018 (E) 5 1 Scope This document specifies the requirements for biodegradable films, manufactured from thermoplastic materials, to be used for mulch applications in agriculture and horticulture. This document is applicable to films intended to biodegrade in soil without creating any adverse impact on the environment. It also specifies the test methods to assess these requirements as well as requirements for the packaging, identification and marking of films. For information, it defines a classification of biodegradable mulch films according to their service life on soil and gives a good practice guide for the use of the films. NOTE Films intended to be removed after use and not incorporated in the soil are not in the scope of this standard. They are in the scope of EN 13655 [1]. 2 Normative references The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN ISO 472, Plastics - Vocabulary (ISO 472) EN ISO 527-1, Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 1: General principles (ISO 527-1) EN ISO 527-3, Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 3: Test conditions for films and sheets (ISO 527-3) EN ISO 7765-1:2004, Plastics film and sheeting - Determination of impact resistance by the free-falling dart method - Part 1: Staircase methods (ISO 7765-1:1988) EN ISO 11268-1, Soil quality - Effects of pollutants on earthworms - Part 1: Determination of acute toxicity to Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei (ISO 11268-1) EN ISO 11268-2, Soil quality - Effects of pollutants on earthworms - Part 2: Determination of effects on reproduction of Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei (ISO 11268-2) EN ISO 11274, Soil quality - Determination of the water-retention characteristic - Laboratory methods (ISO 11274) EN ISO 12846, Water quality - Determination of mercury - Method using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with and without enrichment (ISO 12846) EN ISO 17294-2, Water quality - Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) - Part 2: Determination of selected elements including uranium isotopes (ISO 17294-2) EN ISO 17556:2012, Plastics - Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials in soil by measuring the oxygen demand in a respirometer or the amount of carbon dioxide evolved (ISO 17556:2012) ISO 4591, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of average thickness of a sample, and average thickness and yield of a roll, by gravimetric techniques (gravimetric thickness) ISO 4592, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of length and width SIST EN 17033:2018

EN 17033:2018 (E) 6 ISO 4593, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of thickness by mechanical scanning ISO 10390, Soil quality — Determination of pH ISO 15685, Soil quality — Determination of potential nitrification and inhibition of nitrification — Rapid test by ammonium oxidation OECD 208, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 2, Effects on Biotic Systems — Test No. 208: Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 472 and the following apply. ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses: — IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/ — ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp 3.1 Definitions related to films 3.1.1 mulch film film made from thermoplastic material intended to be used in agriculture and horticulture to cover the ground in order to improve growing conditions of crops and depending on the colour to control weeds Note 1 to entry: It is assumed that a transparent mulch film does not allow to control weeds. 3.1.2 material homogenous preparation of biodegradable polymer and additives, as necessary, such as carbon black and colour pigments Note 1 to entry: Additives are usually introduced under the form of masterbatches using as carrier resin a biodegradable polymer. 3.1.3 masterbatch well-dispersed mixture of a polymer and high percentages of one or more components (colorants and/or other additives) in known proportions for use in blending in appropriate amounts with the basic polymer in the preparation of a compound [SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, definition 2.574] 3.1.4 width overall width of a film when lying flat Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm). SIST EN 17033:2018

EN 17033:2018 (E) 7 3.1.5 nominal width width of a film, as declared by the manufacturer Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm). 3.1.6 thickness thickness at any point of a film Note 1 to entry:

3.1.7 nominal thickness thickness of a film, as declared by the manufacturer Note 1 to entry:

3.1.8 roll length largest dimension of the film corresponding to the length of the unwinded roll Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in metres (m). 3.1.9 nominal roll length roll length, as declared by the manufacturer Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in metres (m). 3.1.10 longitudinal direction MD direction parallel to the roll length, corresponding to the extrusion direction 3.1.11 transverse direction TD direction parallel to the width (at a right angle to the roll length) 3.1.12 radiant exposure H time integral of irradiance, measured in joules per square metre (J·m «2) Note 1 to entry: measured in joules per square metre (J m «2) [SOURCE: ISO 9370:2017, definition 3.27] 3.2 Definitions related to biodegradation and disintegration 3.2.1 ultimate aerobic biodegradation breakdown of an organic compound by microorganisms in the presence of oxygen into carbon dioxide, water and mineral salts of any other elements present (mineralization) plus new biomass SIST EN 17033:2018

EN 17033:2018 (E) 8 [SOURCE: ISO 17088:2012, 3.10] 3.2.2 mineralization decomposition of organic matter or organic substances into carbon dioxide, water and the hydrides, oxides or other mineral salts [SOURCE: ISO 11074:2005, definition 3.3.11] 3.2.3 disintegration physical breakdown of a material into very small fragments [SOURCE: ISO 17088:2012, definition 3.6] 3.2.4 degradation irreversible process leading to a significant change in the structure of a material, typically characterized by a change of properties (e.g. integrity, molecular mass or structure, mechanical strength) and/or by fragmentation, affected by environmental conditions, proceeding over a period of time and comprising one or more steps [SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, definition 2.262] 3.2.5 photodegradation degradation identified as resulting from the action of the light 3.2.6 total dry solids amount of solids obtained by taking a known volume of test material or compost and drying at about 105 °C to constant mass [SOURCE: ISO 17088:2012, definition 3.9] 3.2.7 volatile solids amount of solids obtained by subtracting the residue of a known volume of test material or compost after incineration at about 550 °C from the total dry solids of the same sample Note 1 to entry: The volatile-solids content is an indication of the amount of organic matter present. [SOURCE: ISO 17088:2012, definition 3.11] 3.2.8 constituent every pure chemical material or substance of which a thermoplastic material is composed 3.3 Definitions related to test soil 3.3.1 natural soil soil collected from the surface layer of fields and/or forests SIST EN 17033:2018

EN 17033:2018 (E) 9 3.3.2 standard soil soil made from a defined mixture of industrial quartz sand, clay, natural soil and mature compost, as defined in EN ISO 17556:2012, 8.3.2 3.4 Definitions related to ecotoxicity and control of constituents 3.4.1 microbial activity metabolic performance of microorganisms [SOURCE: EN ISO 16072:2011, definition 3.3] 3.4.2 substances of very high concern SVHC substances covered by legal provisions laid down in Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 [2] 4 General requirements In order to meet the requirements of this document, the mulch film under investigation or its plastic base material in the primary form (pellets, powder, etc.), without the additive(s) and or the masterbatch(es) which are added during the extrusion of the film, shall fulfil all the requirements given in Clause 5. The mulch film shall fulfil all the requirements given in Clause 6. If not, no reference to this document shall be made. A mulch film, made from the plastic base material that comply with the requirements specified in Clause 5, is considered to fulfil this document, provided that the addition of any masterbatch or additive during the manufacture of the mulch film does not result in a mulch film in conflict with the requirements specified in Clause 5. 5 Requirements for materials, testing schemes and evaluation criteria for biodegradation and ecotoxicity 5.1 Control of constituents 5.1.1 Regulated metals and other substances The concentrations of regulated metals and other substances in the material under investigation shall not exceed the limits as described in Table 1. SIST EN 17033:2018

EN 17033:2018 (E) 10 Table 1 — Maximum concentrations of regulated metals and other substances Element Maximum concentrationa mg/kg of dry matter Test method Cadmium (Cd) 0,5 EN ISO 17294-2 Chromium total (Cr) 50 EN ISO 17294-2 Copper (Cu) 50 EN ISO 17294-2 Mercury (Hg) 0,5 EN ISO 12846 Nickel (Ni) 25 EN ISO 17294-2 Lead (Pb) 50 EN ISO 17294-2 Zinc (Zn) 150 EN ISO 17294-2 a The maximum metal concentrations are 50 % of those prescribed in ecological criteria for the award of the Community eco-label to soil improvers [COMMISSION DECISION (EU) 2015/2099 of 18 November 2015 establishing the ecological criteria for the award of the EU Ecolabel for growing media, soil improvers and mulch (notified under document C(2015) 7891]. 5.1.2 Substances of very high concern (SVHC) From a precautionary perspective the material of the mulch film under investigation shall not contain substances of very high concern (SVHC) a) that exceed a concentration limit of 0,1 % (by weight) in the material of the mulch film, and b) which appear on the Candidate List of substances of very high concern for Authorization [3]. 5.1.3 Volatile solids Materials used for the manufacture of mulching products shall contain not less than 60 % by mass of volatile solids, which largely excludes inert products. 5.1.4 Identifying characteristics The material of the mulch film shall be identified as follows: a) information regarding the constituents of the material of the mulch film shall be obtained or declared and recorded; b) regulated metals and other substances (5.1.1) shall be determined and reported; c) information on the use of substances of very high concern (SVHC) (5.1.2) shall be recorded based on a self-declaration; d) volatile solids (5.1.3) shall be determined and reported. 5.2 Biodegradation 5.2.1 Evaluation criteria Test samples shall not be subjected to conditions or procedures, such as a pretreatment by heat and or an exposure to radiation exposure, designed to accelerate biodegradation prior to testing according to EN ISO 17556. SIST EN 17033:2018

EN 17033:2018 (E) 11 The material of the mulch film is considered to have demonstrated a satisfactory rate and level of biodegradation in soil if: a) when tested in accordance with EN ISO 17556, it achieves a minimum biodegradation percentage as specified hereunder within a test period no longer than 24 months; b) 90 % of the organic carbon shall have been converted to CO2 by the end of the test period (relative to a reference material). Both the reference material and the test item shall be tested for the same length of time and the results compared at the same point in time after the activity of both has reached a plateau; c) as an alternative, 90 % (in absolute terms) of the organic carbon shall have been converted to carbon dioxide by the end of the test period. Test environment: temperature constant to within ± 2 °C in the range between 20 °C and 28 °C, preferably 25 °C. Use as reference material a well-defined biodegradable polymer [microcrystalline-cellulose powder, ashless cellulose filters or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)]. If possible, the physical form and size of the reference material should be comparable to that of the test material. The validity criteria of the results as stated in EN ISO 17556 shall be fulfilled. 5.2.2 Requirements regarding constituents The ultimate aerobic biodegradability shall be determined for the whole material or for each organic constituent. Organic constituents which are present at concentrations of less than 1 % do not need to demonstrate biodegradability. However, the sum of such constituents shall not exceed 5 %. Carbon black is an inert solid. Therefore, it is not considered as an organic constituent and shall not be accounted in the calculation of the degree of biodegradation. Inorganic carbon coming from black masterbatches, if any, or from mineral fillers, e.g. calcium carbonate, if any, shall not be accounted in the calculation of the degree of biodegradation. 5.3 Ecotoxicity 5.3.1 Rationale Ecotoxicity tests are performed in order to investigate possible adverse effects caused by the material of the mulch film and residues as intermediates (degradation products) resulting from the degradation of the material of the mulch film in soil at the end of the intended service life. The test scheme takes into account: a) all relevant organism groups as plants, invertebrates (e.g. earthworm) and microorganisms; b) important ecological processes critical due to their role in maintaining soil functions as breakdown of organic matter, formulation of soil structure and cycling of materials; c) all relevant exposure pathways as soil pore water, soil pore air and soil material. The link between soil organism groups of major ecological importance covering all significant soil exposure pathways and suitable test methods for the evaluation of ecotoxicity of the materials of mulch films and their degradation products is shown in Table 2. SIST EN 17033:2018

EN 17033:2018 (E) 12 Table 2 — Test scheme for the assessment of ecotoxicity Organism group: Important terrestric taxa Ecological process Soil exposure pathway Test methods Plants:

Higher plants Primary production Mainly soil pore water (by root uptake) Acute toxicity plant growth test according to OECD 208 with the modifications specified in Annex B Invertebrates:

Earthworms Breakdown of organic matter; formation of soil structure Diverse and multiple uptake routes: soil pore water, ingestion of soil material, soil air Acute toxicity earthworm test according to EN ISO 11268-1 with the modifications specified in Annex C or alternatively chronic earthworm toxicity test according to EN ISO 11268-2 with the modifications specified in Annex D Microorganisms:

Bacteria Recycling of nutrients Mainly soil pore water Nitrification inhibition test with soil microorganisms according to ISO 15685 with the modifications specified in Annex E 5.3.2 Test methods 5.3.2.1 Preparation of soils for ecotoxicity tests The ecotoxicity of the materials of mulch films and remaining degradation products (intermediates) shall be evaluated according to the test methods specified in 5.3.2.2, 5.3.2.3 and 5.3.2.4 using test soils prepared according to Annex

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