Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators - Part 4: Location and arrangement of displays and control actuators

This European Standard contains ergonomic requirements for the location and arrangement of displays and control actuators in order to avoid hazards associated with their use.
This European Standard applies to displays and control actuators for machinery and other interactive equipment (e.g. devices and installations, instrument panels, control and monitoring consoles).
This European Standard is not applicable to the location and arrangement of displays and control actuators which are manufactured before the date of its publication as EN.

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Ergonomische Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von Anzeigen und Stellteilen - Teil 4: Lage und Anordnung von Anzeigen und Stellteilen

Diese Europäische Norm enthält ergonomische Anforderungen an die Lage und Anordnung von Anzeigen und Stellteilen, um Gefährdungen vorzubeugen, die mit deren Anwendung im Zusammenhang stehen.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für Anzeigen und Stellteile an Maschinen und sonstiger interaktiver Ausrüstung (z. B. Geräte und Anlagen, Instrumententafeln, Stell  und Überwachungspulte).
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für die Lage und Anordnung von Anzeigen und Stellteilen, die vor dem Datum der Veröffentlichung dieser Norm als EN hergestellt wurden.

Sécurité des machines - Spécifications ergonomiques pour la conception des dispositifs de signalisation et organes de service - Partie 4: Agencement et arrangement des dispositifs de signalisation et organes de service

La présente Norme européenne contient les exigences ergonomiques relatives au positionnement et à
l’arrangement des dispositifs de signalisation et des organes de service afin d’éviter les phénomènes
dangereux associés à leur utilisation.
La présente Norme européenne s’applique aux dispositifs de signalisation et aux organes de service des
machines et autres équipements interactifs (par exemple, dispositifs et installations, tableaux de bord,
pupitres de commande et de surveillance).
La présente Norme européenne n’est pas applicable au positionnement et à l’arrangement des dispositifs de
signalisation et des organes de service fabriqués avant sa date de publication en tant que norme EN.

Varnost strojev - Ergonomske zahteve za načrtovanje slikovnih zaslonov in krmilnih stikal - 4. del: Namestitev in razvrstitev slikovnih zaslonov in krmilnih stikal

Ta evropski standard vsebuje ergonomske zahteve za namestitev in razvrstitev slikovnih zaslonov in krmilnih stikal da se izognemo nevarnostim ki so povezane z njihovo uporabo. Ta evropski standard velja za slikovne zaslone in krmilna stikala za stroje in drugo interaktivno opremo (npr. naprave in inštalacije, armaturne plošče, kontrolne in nadzorne konzole). Ta evropski standard ne velja za namestitev in razvrstitev slikovnih zaslonov in krmilnih stikal, ki so bili proizvedeni pred datumom, ko je dokument objavljen kot EN.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Jun-2010
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
26-Feb-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 894-4:2010
01-december-2010
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NUPLOQLKVWLNDOGHO1DPHVWLWHYLQUD]YUVWLWHYVOLNRYQLK]DVORQRYLQNUPLOQLK

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Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control

actuators - Part 4: Location and arrangement of displays and control actuators
Sicherheit von Maschinen - Ergonomische Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von

Anzeigen und Stellteilen - Teil 4: Lage und Anordnung von Anzeigen und Stellteilen

Sécurité des machines - Spécifications ergonomiques pour la conception des dispositifs

de signalisation et organes de service - Partie 4: Agencement et arrangement des
dispositifs de signalisation et organes de service
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 894-4:2010
ICS:
13.110 Varnost strojev Safety of machinery
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
SIST EN 894-4:2010 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 894-4:2010
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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 894-4
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
June 2010
ICS 13.110; 13.180
English Version
Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of
displays and control actuators - Part 4: Location and
arrangement of displays and control actuators

Sécurité des machines - Spécifications ergonomiques pour Sicherheit von Maschinen - Ergonomische Anforderungen

la conception des dispositifs de signalisation et organes de an die Gestaltung von Anzeigen und Stellteilen - Teil 4:

service - Partie 4: Agencement et arrangement des Lage und Anordnung von Anzeigen und Stellteilen

dispositifs de signalisation et organes de service
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 May 2010.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the

official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 894-4:2010: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EN 894-4:2010 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................5

4 Principles for location and arrangement of displays and control actuators ...................................6

5 Phases and steps for location and arrangement of displays and control actuators .....................8

5.1 Phase 1 – Evaluation of task/activities and information collection ..................................................8

5.1.1 Step 1.1 – Define tasks and functions .................................................................................................8

5.1.2 Step 1.2 – Determine the operators' relevant physical and cognitive characteristics ...................8

5.2 Phase 2 – Evaluation of task requirements and constraints ............................................................8

5.2.1 Step 2.1 – List of displays and control actuators ...............................................................................8

5.2.2 Step 2.2 – Determine general priorities ...............................................................................................8

5.2.3 Step 2.3 – Define operators' work postures ........................................................................................9

5.2.4 Step 2.4 – Define space constraints ....................................................................................................9

5.2.5 Step 2.5 – Define and analyse information flows ............................................................................ 10

5.3 Phase 3 – Location of displays and control actuators ................................................................... 10

5.3.1 Step 3.1 – Identify location of zones within fields of vision and actuation areas for primary

and secondary elements .................................................................................................................... 10

5.3.2 Step 3.2 – Specify location of consoles and panels ....................................................................... 13

5.3.3 Step 3.3 – Locate displays and control actuators on consoles and panels according to

priorities and constraints ................................................................................................................... 14

5.4 Phase 4 – Arrangement of displays and control actuators − principles and applications ......... 17

5.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 17

5.4.2 Step 4.1 – Arrange displays and control actuators among themselves – Grouping ................... 18

5.4.3 Step 4.2 − Ensuring Compatibility .................................................................................................... 26

5.4.4 Step 4.3 − Ensuring integration of the system ................................................................................ 32

5.5 Phase 5 – Implementation and evaluation ....................................................................................... 33

5.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 33

5.5.2 Steps for carrying out an evaluation ................................................................................................ 33

Annex A (informative) Dimensions for sitting and standing consoles ....................................................... 35

Annex B (informative) Coding Methods ......................................................................................................... 39

Annex C (informative) Suitability of Colour Combinations .......................................................................... 42

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC ....................................................................................... 43

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 44

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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EN 894-4:2010 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN 894-4:2010) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics”, the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2010, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn

at the latest by December 2010.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EN 894-4:2010 (E)
Introduction

This European Standard has been prepared to be a harmonized standard in the sense of the Machinery

Directive and the associated EFTA regulations.
This document is a type B standard as stated in EN ISO 12100.

The provisions of this document can be supplemented or modified by a type C standard.

NOTE For machines which are covered by the scope of a type C standard and which have been designed and built

according to the provisions of that standard, the provisions of that type C standard take precedence over the provisions of

this type B standard.
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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EN 894-4:2010 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard contains ergonomic requirements for the location and arrangement of displays and

control actuators in order to avoid hazards associated with their use.

This European Standard applies to displays and control actuators for machinery and other interactive

equipment (e.g. devices and installations, instrument panels, control and monitoring consoles).

This European Standard is not applicable to the location and arrangement of displays and control actuators

which are manufactured before the date of its publication as EN.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 614-1, Safety of machinery — Ergonomic design principles — Part 1: Terminology and general principles

EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008, Safety of machinery — Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and

control actuators — Part 1: General principles for human interactions with displays and control actuators

EN 894-2:1997+A1:2008, Safety of machinery — Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and

control actuators — Part 2: Displays

EN 894-3, Safety of machinery — Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control

actuators — Part 3: Control actuators

EN ISO 9241-11, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) — Part 11:

Guidance on usability (ISO 9241-11:1998)

EN ISO 9241-110, Ergonomics of the human-system interaction — Part 110: Dialogue principles

(ISO 9241-110:2006)

EN ISO 12100-1:2003 Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Part 1: Basic

terminology, methodology (ISO 12100-1:2003)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 12100-1:2003 and the following

apply.
3.1
control/display ratio
C/D ratio

ratio of the movement of a control actuator to that of an associated element, display or controlled object

3.2
elements
generic term for displays and control actuators on consoles and panels
3.3
primary element

element frequently used for direct operation and monitoring of the system which includes safety and

emergency related elements
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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EN 894-4:2010 (E)
3.4
secondary element
element not frequently used for the direct operation of a system
EXAMPLE The time and duration of use can be freely selected.
3.5
grouping

arrangement of several elements of a system in such a way that they appear to be associated functionally

3.6
coding

procedure within the design process by which categories of information (e.g. form, colour, etc.) are allocated

to elements for the purpose of reliable identification
3.7
arrangement

way of combining or separating displays and control actuators relative to their function, task and/or location

3.8
surface

surface on which elements are positioned and arranged, considering task priorities, information flows, and

space constraints
4 Principles for location and arrangement of displays and control actuators

The location and arrangement of displays and control actuators are intended to ensure the general reliability,

safety and efficiency of the human-machine system. The most important tasks of the operator are to monitor,

control and ensure continuous availability of the technical system and the interaction of its elements. This shall

place the operator in a position to fulfil the following functions correctly and on time without becoming

overtaxed:
 to perceive the current tasks;
 to control the operation;
 to select and/or develop suitable action strategies.
Basic principles for human machine interaction are given in EN 894-1.

The following describes a design procedure that will assist designers and manufacturers in complying with the

requirements in this standard. It consists of six main phases, each of which contains several more detailed

steps. These steps should be carried out iteratively until the requirements are met. The procedure is illustrated

in Figure 1. In Phase 0 the initial information about the overall purpose, design goals and roles of the

operators (see EN 894-1) is assembled.
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EN 894-4:2010 (E)
Key
Possible iteration
Figure 1 — Design procedure for location and arrangement

NOTE For details of each step see Clause 5 (e.g. step 1.1 is in 5.1.1; step 3.1 in 5.3.1).

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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EN 894-4:2010 (E)

5 Phases and steps for location and arrangement of displays and control actuators

5.1 Phase 1 – Evaluation of task/activities and information collection
5.1.1 Step 1.1 – Define tasks and functions

Typical operator tasks are e.g. monitoring, error detection, diagnosis of faults and performing control actions;

the following operating situations should be considered: start up, normal operation, troubleshooting, shutdown,

emergency stop, etc., see EN 894-1, -2 and -3.

Task sequence and relevant information flows shall be recorded for each relevant operating situation.

If two or more operators may work at the same workplace the interactions between their tasks, control actions

and information flows shall be specified to help avoid possible conflicts and improve overall safety.

5.1.2 Step 1.2 – Determine the operators' relevant physical and cognitive characteristics

The general principle as defined in EN 614-1, e.g. strength, body size, visual acuity, skills, experience and

disabilities, shall be considered. Specific information on relevant physical characteristics for displays and

control actuators is given in EN 894-2 and -3.
5.2 Phase 2 – Evaluation of task requirements and constraints
5.2.1 Step 2.1 – List of displays and control actuators

Types of displays and control actuators which comply with the relevant requirements of EN 894-2 and

EN 894-3 should be compiled in a list.

Technological features and/or constraints such as for multifunctional elements, e.g. touch screens, scroll balls,

remote or handheld controllers need to be assessed.
5.2.2 Step 2.2 – Determine general priorities

The task requirements for each operational situation shall be specified and prioritized taking into account

safety, performance and usability goals. Task requirements include accuracy, speed, force, frequency,

importance, duration of use, sensitivity to error and sequence of use, etc.

Tasks should be assigned a level of priority, i.e. primary or secondary elements as defined in 3.3 and 3.4.

These priorities are used in Phase 3 to help locate displays and control actuators, and to exclude unnecessary

elements.

The activities that make up the tasks should be identified, this helps to choose the most appropriate physical

arrangements, e.g. which parts of the task can be done seated, which parts of the task require communication

with other operators, which parts of the task require problem solving activities. There also needs to be

consideration of the operator's action strategy in each operating situation.
The following constraints on activities shall be considered where appropriate:

a) need for direct vision over the top of a console e.g. when monitoring supplementary information;

b) need for continuous direct vision while controlling e.g. during a driving task, using a mobile machine;

c) need for indirect vision (by e.g. camera systems) while controlling;

d) need for direct vision and interaction with other people, e.g. crane operation;

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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EN 894-4:2010 (E)

e) need to use horizontal surfaces e.g. for writing, placing written material, work material, etc.

5.2.3 Step 2.3 – Define operators' work postures
5.2.3.1 General

The postures that have to be adopted when using displays and control actuators need to be specified as they

strongly influence where the elements can be placed. Natural (not awkward) body postures should be

selected which allow a balance between avoiding excessive movement and encouraging sufficient movement

to allow a range of muscles to be used. Arrangements which allow changing of posture and do not

continuously stress one part of the body should be selected. EN ISO 14738 provides additional information on

how to select the main working postures.
5.2.3.2 Activities in seated position

The sitting position shall be selected particularly if the following demands are made:

 a high degree of body stability;
 high accuracy requirements.

For prolonged work periods it is important to allow for changes of posture and rest periods.

5.2.3.3 Activities in standing position
The standing position shall be selected for carrying out activities if:
 high mobility is required;
 extensive control movements are to be carried out;
 body weight is used in application of the force; and
 a large workplace is to be serviced.
5.2.3.4 Combination of activities in the sitting and standing positions

Control consoles where both standing and sitting is possible shall be set up when:

a) a firm sitting support has to be assured for precise work;

b) wide panels with displays and control actuators have to be monitored and actuation activities have to be

carried out on them;

c) there is an anticipated temporary increase in task demands where another operator has to help out.

Wherever possible, the operator should be able to sit and stand in order to have the benefits of both work

postures. This helps to avoid the build up of musculoskeletal problems which can occur, particularly under

conditions of psychological stress, when using one posture for a prolonged period of time.

5.2.4 Step 2.4 – Define space constraints

Any restrictions on the dimensions of the space available for positioning and moving displays and control

actuators shall be fully recorded. This should include restrictions for direct vision of the process or objects

where this is relevant to the performance of the tasks. Restrictions can arise from technological,

environmental or task limitations.
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EN 894-4:2010 (E)
5.2.5 Step 2.5 – Define and analyse information flows

Collate information on the sequence of use of elements, their frequency of use and their relative importance.

Identify any pre-existing stereotypes for the use of these elements.

Identify those elements which are used in combination, e.g. controls with their associated displays.

5.3 Phase 3 – Location of displays and control actuators

5.3.1 Step 3.1 – Identify location of zones within fields of vision and actuation areas for primary and

secondary elements
5.3.1.1 General

Displays and control actuators should be located in the appropriate zones taking account of requirements for

frequency, importance, accuracy and order of operation, as well as operator's work postures and physical

dimensions. Surfaces on which elements are positioned and arranged should then be determined within these

zones considering task priorities, information flows and space constraints.

The field of vision (monitoring area) A, B, C is defined in EN 894-2:1997+A1:2008, Figure 2.

NOTE The information in EN 894-2:1997+A1:2008, Figure 2 applies to activities when sitting or standing.

In the same way, as shown in the following Figure 2, the actuation area A', B', C' are classified in three

different zones, each with a different level of suitability.
The field of vision and the actuation area are classified as follows:
 A, A' : recommended;
 B, B' : acceptable;
 C, C' : not recommended.
Thus for the various task priorities the following applies:

Elements used in primary tasks are located in recommended zones A and A’. They are used for the following:

a) maximum priority for safe operation;
b) quick and accurate reading (or actuation);
c) important indicators (or control actuators) for operating the system;
d) lengthy observation (and/or frequent actuation);
e) elements for secondary and less important tasks, if space is left.

Elements used in secondary tasks are located in acceptable zones B and B’. They are used for the following:

f) displays (or control actuators) of secondary importance that only have to be observed (or actuated)

intermittently.

Elements used in less important tasks are located in the not recommended zones C and C’. They are used for

the following:
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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EN 894-4:2010 (E)

g) only suitable for displays (or control actuators) that are seldom used and are of low priority or importance

such as for temperature regulation in a room.
5.3.1.2 Zones within fields of vision − seated

Figure 2 illustrates the display zones A, B, C. The eye height of the operators should be taken into account

when calculating the position of displays using these angles. Annex A gives an example of console

dimensions based on an average European sitting eye height of 1 250 mm. Further information on sight lines

in different seated postures for control centre workstations can be found in EN ISO 11064-4, and for mobile

machinery in EN ISO 6682. Typical distances for comfortably viewing displays such as video screens are

400 mm to 700 mm.

NOTE 1 A distinction should be made between leaning forwards, keeping vertical and leaning backwards in the sitting

postures. When the posture is changed, the field of vision (or actuation) moves. For design purposes it is helpful to use the

vertical (upright) position as a reference when calculating constraints on postures, for details see EN ISO 3411. Good

design permits the adoption of other postures and easy accessibility.

The line of sight is located at 15° to the horizontal from the eye point. Zones (A, B, C) within the field of vision

are derived from those given in EN 894-2.

It is important to ensure that discrimination of colours is not required towards the extremes of the field of vision.

Figures 2 and 3 give some information about colour discrimination.

NOTE 2 The information about colour discrimination does not take account of head movement.

Key
1 Optimum control zone between elbow and shoulder height 7 Horizontal
2 Lower visual limit 70° 8 Primary display & secondary control
3 Upper visual limit 9 Primary display & control
4 Limit for colour vision 10 Primary control, secondary display
5 Low priority display, control A, B, C Display zones (see 5.3.1.1)
6 Secondary display, control A', B', C' Control zones (see 5.3.1.1)

Figure 2 — Location of Display Zones A, B, C and Control Zones A', B', C' (Vertical)

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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EN 894-4:2010 (E)
Key
1 Line of Sight-0°
2 Limit for colour vision
A, B, C Display zones (see 5.3.1.1)
NOTE 1 Vision to both sides needs to be considered.

NOTE 2 For the field of vision it is good practise to move the head 45° to left and right.

Figure 3 — Location of display zones A, B and C (horizontal)
5.3.1.3 Zones within actuation areas − seated

The zones within actuation areas are shown in Figure 2 as A', B', C' and partially overlap with the zones for

field of vision A, B, C. The actuation areas should be readily reached by an operator, this means that they

should be no more than 450 mm in front of the body for frequently used or important controls. The actuation

area for primary elements in the horizontal plane is within a sector of about 60° in front of the operator. This

sector of 60° is defined by the lateral rotation of both left and right arms in a horizontal plane. For further

dimensions of actuation areas see Annex A and EN ISO 14738 and for mobile machinery see EN ISO 6682.

If all the control actuators cannot be housed in actuation zone A', they shall be as close as possible to it.

EN ISO 14738 gives further information on reach zones.

It is important to consider the angles of the shoulder, elbow and wrist that will be required in order to operate a

control actuator, EN 1005-4 gives some advice on suitable angles for maintaining comfort. The degree of

accuracy, the frequency and duration of use will all affect the overall comfort of using a control actuator in a

particular posture (EN 894-3).
5.3.1.4 Zones within field of vision and actuation areas − Standing

The zones within field of vision and actuation areas for a standing operator need not be as precisely defined

as those for a seated operator because a standing operator can easily face in any direction or can walk from

one position to another. Information on working heights with different visual demands are given in

EN ISO 14738:2008, Clause 9:

 the 50 percentile shall be used as the basis for specifying the fields of vision and actuation areas in the

standing position;

 the recommended zone within the field of vision should be between 1 370 mm and 1 680 mm above the

horizontal reference surface (floor);

 in most cases lateral dimensions need not be taken into account because the operator can freely change

position when standing. However, if groups of control actuators are to be operated quickly and

simultaneously, their sideways separation should be within 760 mm;
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SIST EN 894-4:2010
EN 894-4:2010 (E)

 the recommended zone within the actuation area should be between 1 040 mm and 1 370 mm above the

horizontal reference surface;

 actuation area positions more than 1 830 mm above the horizontal reference surface are not suitable;

 actuation area positions less than 920 mm above the horizontal reference surface are not suitable.

Annex A provides further information on dimensions of a standing console that is based on average European

body measurements.
5.3.1.5 Zones for combined sitting and standing positions

Special attention should be paid to specifying a similar eye height for both the sitting and standing positions by

using an adjustable raised seat and adjustable foot support. EN ISO 14738 contains information on suitable

dimensions for raised sitting. An installation angle for surfaces with displays of 50° to 70° from the horizontal is

suggested. (See Annex A, Figure A.2.)
5.3.2 Step 3.2 – Specify location of consoles and panels
5.3.2.1 External shape and inclination of surfaces of consoles and panels

The following points shall be taken into account when specifying the shape and inclination of the surfaces:

 the displays for the particular visual tasks such as observation, screen or scale reading and activities that

are to be carried out;

 the avoidance of parallaxes of displays by correct design of the shapes and inclination of the surfaces;

 prevention of unintentional actuation;

 location and direction of movement of the controls so that they are easy to handle;

 adequate space for the body of the operator in the selected work postures and for the activities of

operators in a team;

 task constraints (e.g. need for direct vision in control room or vehicle, need for direct vision and personal

interaction, need for using horizontal work surface);
 technolog
...

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