Railway applications - Fire protection on railway vehicles - Toxicity test of materials and components

This document describes the measurement of the toxicity potential of the products of combustion based on two test methods:
- Method 1: EN ISO 5659-2 Smoke chamber area-based test with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) gas analysis techniques;
- Method 2: NF X70-100-2 Tubular furnace small mass-based test.
NOTE 1 This document also specifies test equipment and set out the calculation procedures for evaluation of toxicity data.
NOTE 2 This document can be used in addition to others for the determination of toxic gases from devices installed in tunnel.

Bahnanwendungen - Brandschutz in Schienenfahrzeugen - Prüfung der Toxizität von Materialien und Komponenten

Dieses Dokument beschreibt die Messung des Toxizitätspotenzials der Verbrennungsprodukte basierend auf zwei Prüfverfahren:
   Verfahren 1: EN ISO 5659 2 flächenbasierte Rauchkammerprüfung mit Gasanalyse durch Fourier-Transform-Infrarotspektroskopie (FTIR);
   Verfahren 2: NF X70 100 2 auf kleinen Massen basierende Rohrofenprüfung.
ANMERKUNG 1   Dieses Dokument legt auch die Prüfeinrichtung und Berechnungsverfahren für die Beurteilung von Toxizitätsdaten fest.
ANMERKUNG 2   Dieses Dokument kann als Ergänzung zu anderen Dokumenten zur Bestimmung von durch in Tunneln montierten Geräten ausgehenden toxischen Gase verwendet werden.

Applications ferroviaires - Protection contre les incendies dans les véhicules ferroviaires - Essai de toxicité des matériaux et des composants

La présente norme décrit la mesure de la toxicité potentielle des produits de combustion selon deux méthodes d'essai :
- Méthode 1 : essai basé sur la surface, réalisé dans une enceinte à fumée conforme à l'EN ISO 5659-2 à l'aide de techniques d'analyse des gaz par spectroscopie infrarouge à transformée de Fourier (IRTF) ;
- Méthode 2 : essai basé sur de faibles masses, réalisé dans un four tubulaire NF X70-100-2.
NOTE 1 La présente norme spécifie également l'équipement d'essai et définit les procédures de calcul pour l'évaluation des données de toxicité.
NOTE 2 La présente norme peut être utilisée en conjonction avec d'autres normes pour la détermination des gaz toxiques provenant de dispositifs installés dans un tunnel.

Železniške naprave - Požarna zaščita v železniških vozilih - Preskušanje toksičnosti materialov in sestavnih delov

Ta standard določa preskušanje toksičnosti materialov in sestavnih delov železniških vozil. Ta standard opisuje preskusne metode za določanje strupenih plinov iz železniških izdelkov.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Dec-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
19-Dec-2018
Completion Date
19-Dec-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17084:2019
01-marec-2019
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Railway applications - Fire protection in railway vehicles - Toxicity test of materials and

components
Bahnanwendungen - Brandschutz in Schienenfahrzeugen - Prüfung der Toxizität von
Materialien und Komponenten

Applications ferroviaires - Protection contre les incendies dans les véhicules ferroviaires -

Essai de toxicité des matériaux et des composants
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17084:2018
ICS:
13.220.40 Sposobnost vžiga in Ignitability and burning
obnašanje materialov in behaviour of materials and
proizvodov pri gorenju products
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
SIST EN 17084:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 17084:2019
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SIST EN 17084:2019
EN 17084
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.220.40; 45.060.01
English Version
Railway applications - Fire protection on railway vehicles -
Toxicity test of materials and components

Applications ferroviaires - Protection contre les Bahnanwendungen - Brandschutz in

incendies dans les véhicules ferroviaires - Essai de Schienenfahrzeugen - Prüfung der Toxizität von

toxicité des matériaux et des composants Materialien und Komponenten
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 October 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17084:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 17084:2019
EN 17084:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Principles ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Product assessment for toxicity ................................................................................................................. 7

4.1.1 General principles ........................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1.2 Method 1: Smoke Chamber .......................................................................................................................... 8

4.1.3 Method 2: Tube Furnace ............................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Analysis of fire effluents ............................................................................................................................... 8

5 Method 1 – Smoke chamber ........................................................................................................................ 9

5.1 Gas sampling test apparatus ....................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Calibration ...................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.2.1 General calibrations .................................................................................................................................... 12

5.2.2 Chamber leakage test ................................................................................................................................. 12

5.2.3 Gas analyser calibration ............................................................................................................................ 12

5.3 Test environment ......................................................................................................................................... 13

5.4 Conditioning of samples ............................................................................................................................ 13

5.5 Test specimen preparation....................................................................................................................... 13

5.6 Gas testing ....................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.6.1 Pre-test conditions ...................................................................................................................................... 13

5.6.2 Testing .............................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.6.3 Operation before each test ....................................................................................................................... 14

5.6.4 Operation during a test .............................................................................................................................. 14

5.6.5 Operation after each test ........................................................................................................................... 15

5.7 Data analysis .................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.7.2 Calculation of corrected volume fraction ............................................................................................ 16

5.7.3 Calculation of time shift ............................................................................................................................. 16

5.7.4 Variability of test results ........................................................................................................................... 17

6 Method 2 – Tube furnace ........................................................................................................................... 17

6.1 Test apparatus............................................................................................................................................... 17

6.2 Test environment ......................................................................................................................................... 17

6.3 Conditioning of samples ............................................................................................................................ 17

6.4 Test specimen preparation....................................................................................................................... 17

6.5 Test for gases ................................................................................................................................................. 17

7 Calculations of CIT ........................................................................................................................................ 18

7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 18

7.2 Calculation of CIT – Method 1 ................................................................................................................ 19

7.3 Calculation of CIT – Method 2 ........................................................................................................... 20

NLP

8 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 20

8.1 For all product tests (according to Method 1 or Method 2) .......................................................... 20

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EN 17084:2018 (E)

8.2 For tests according to Method 1 .............................................................................................................. 21

8.3 For tests according to Method 2 .............................................................................................................. 22

Annex A (informative) Calculations of FED/FEC ............................................................................................... 23

A.1 Calculation of FED ......................................................................................................................................... 23

A.2 Calculation of FEC.......................................................................................................................................... 23

A.3 Scaling term .................................................................................................................................................... 24

A.4 Reporting ......................................................................................................................................................... 24

Annex B (informative) Worked Example of Calculation of FED and FEC ................................................. 25

Annex C (informative) Typical calibration procedure using certified gas cylinder ............................ 40

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 40

C.2 Set up of apparatus....................................................................................................................................... 40

C.3 Calibration procedure ................................................................................................................................. 41

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC aimed to be covered............................................... 43

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 44

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SIST EN 17084:2019
EN 17084:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17084:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway

applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC.

For relationship with EU Directive 2008/57/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of

this document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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EN 17084:2018 (E)
Introduction

This document has been developed with the aim to take over the content of EN 45545-2:2013+A1:2015,

Annex C.

NOTE It is also based on the results of the European project TRANSFEU - Transport Fire Safety Engineering in

the European Union - FP7 (Contract Number: 233786) [8], [9].
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EN 17084:2018 (E)
1 Scope

This document describes the measurement of the toxicity potential of the products of combustion based

on two test methods:

— Method 1: EN ISO 5659-2 Smoke chamber area-based test with Fourier transform infrared

spectroscopy (FTIR) gas analysis techniques;
— Method 2: NF X70-100-2 Tubular furnace small mass-based test.

NOTE 1 This document also specifies test equipment and set out the calculation procedures for evaluation of

toxicity data.

NOTE 2 This document can be used in addition to others for the determination of toxic gases from devices

installed in tunnel.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 45545-1, Railway applications — Fire protection on railway vehicles — Part 1: General

EN ISO 5659-2:2017, Plastics — Smoke generation — Part 2: Determination of optical density by a single-

chamber test (ISO 5659-2:2017)
EN ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary (ISO 13943)

ISO 8421-1, Fire protection — Vocabulary — Part 1: General terms and phenomena of fire

ISO 12828-1, Validation method for fire gas analysis — Part 1: Limits of detection and quantification

ISO 12828-2, Validation method for fire gas analysis — Part 2: Intralaboratory validation of

quantification methods
ISO 19701, Methods for sampling and analysis of fire effluents

ISO 19702:2015, Guidance for sampling and analysis of toxic gases and vapours in fire effluents using

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy

NF X70-100-1, Fire tests — Analysis of gaseous effluents — Part 1: Methods for analysing gases stemming

from thermal degradation

NF X70-100-2, Fire tests — Analysis of gaseous effluents — Part 2: Tubular furnace thermal degradation

method
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EN 17084:2018 (E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 13943, ISO 8421-1 and

EN 45545-1 shall apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
CIT(n)

conventional index of toxicity (dimensionless value) where n is the elapsed time since the start of

testing in minutes
3.2
FEC
fractional effective concentration
Note 1 to entry: For full details see EN ISO 13943.
3.3
FED
fractional effective dose
Note 1 to entry: For full details see EN ISO 13943.
4 Principles
4.1 Product assessment for toxicity
4.1.1 General principles

Test specimens for a product used in a railway vehicle are heated to induce combustion under

controlled conditions. The gases are analysed to determine the potential toxicity of the combustion

products.

The product shall be tested in relation to the surface exposed in the real conditions of use. In the case

where both surfaces are exposed and the product is not symmetrical, each surface shall be tested.

The specimens shall be representative of the product to be tested. They shall be cut, sawn, formed or

printed from the same sample area of material and shall be the same thickness and density as in end

use, as far as is practicable.

Covering materials shall be prepared to be as similar to end use conditions as practicable. The test

specimen may include adhesives, varnishes, substrates and supports. Details of test specimen

preparation shall be reported.

The conditions selected are representative of fires that may impact on the railway product during either

the developing stages or the developed stage of a fire inside or outside the railway vehicle.

There are two methods detailed in this document that shall be used for determining the composition of

gases generated by the combustion of specified railway products:

— Method 1: EN ISO 5659-2 Smoke chamber area-based test with Fourier transform infrared

spectroscopy (FTIR) gas analysis techniques;
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EN 17084:2018 (E)
— Method 2: Tubular furnace NF X70-100-2 Small mass-based test.

The document, which specifies the reaction to fire performance requirements of the product, such as

EN 45545-2, shall indicate which test method, test specifications and testing rules are to be used and

results required.
CIT values shall be calculated in accordance with this document (see Clause 7).

In the case of Method 1, FED and FEC values should also be calculated (see Annex A).

4.1.2 Method 1: Smoke Chamber

This method is based on the exposure of a test specimen to radiant heat with or without application of a

pilot flame.

The test apparatus for Method 1 is described in EN ISO 5659-2 with additional information provided in

this document.

This method gives toxicity data which is processed according to Clause 7 for product evaluation and

eventual classification purposes (which are outside the scope of this document).

NOTE The smoke density measurement can be made simultaneously as described in EN ISO 5659-2.

4.1.3 Method 2: Tube Furnace

This method is based on the exposure of small test specimens (mass of 1 g) to heat in a tube furnace.

The test apparatus and procedures for Method 2 are described in NF X70-100-2 and ISO 19701, with

additional information provided in this document.

This method gives toxicity data, which is processed according to Clause 7 for product evaluation and

eventual classification purposes (which are outside the scope of this document).
4.2 Analysis of fire effluents

For the scope of this document, the following 8 gas components shall be analysed:

— CO , carbon dioxide;
— CO, carbon monoxide;
— HF, hydrogen fluoride;
— HCl, hydrogen chloride;
— HBr, hydrogen bromide;
— HCN, hydrogen cyanide;
— SO , sulfur dioxide;
— NO , oxides of nitrogen.
NOTE 1 NO includes NO2 and NO quoted as NO .
x 2
The conventional index of toxicity, CIT, shall be calculated:
— CIT : Method 1, according to 7.2;
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EN 17084:2018 (E)
— CIT : Method 2, according to 7.3.
NLP

Values of FED and FEC should be calculated for Method 1 in accordance with Annex A.

NOTE 2 FED and FEC are calculated to allow comparative data to be accumulated in anticipation of a change

from CIT to FED and FEC.
5 Method 1 – Smoke chamber
5.1 Gas sampling test apparatus
The test apparatus specified in EN ISO 5659-2 shall be used.

The gas sampling system shall conform to the general requirements set out in ISO 19702 and shall

conform to the specific requirements set out in this document.

The gas sampling system shall consist of a sampling probe, a main filter, a gas sampling line, a

secondary filter, a gas cell, a pressure transducer, an optional cooler, a pump and a flowmeter. The main

filter shall be located directly after the probe. The gas analyser shall be located after the end of the

sampling line and up-stream of the pump. An example of suitable sampling system is shown in Figure 1.

Other arrangements are possible, if they respect key points of this document: flow rate conditions, main

heated filter just after the smoke chamber and sampling probe, and a heated zone from outlet of the

smoke density chamber to the outlet of the FTIR gas cell, no gas return system.

The smoke density chamber shall be equipped with a pressure transducer, which allows recording

internal pressure P as function of time.
chamber
Key

A EN ISO 5659-2 smoke chamber and sampling probe F2 secondary heated filter, see 5.1.4

B thermocouple extremity, see 5.1.1 G pump
C heated sampling line, see 5.1.3 H flowmeter
D FTIR heated gas cell, see 5.1.5 I to exhaust, at atmospheric pressure
E gas cooler P pressure transducer
F1 3-way valve and main heated filter, see 5.1.2 T thermocouple transducer
Figure 1 — Schematic of an example layout of sampling system
5.1.1 Sampling probe.

The internal probe shall be made from a 5 mm ± 0,1 mm internal diameter stainless steel tube with a

closed end, as shown in Figure 2. It shall be fixed in the central point of the chamber roof and projected

into the chamber by 80 mm from the chamber ceiling.
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The probe shall have three 2 mm ± 0,1 mm diameter sampling holes, facing toward the rear of the

chamber, as shown in Figure 2, positioned at 40 mm ± 0,5 mm, 55 mm ± 0,5 mm and 70 mm ± 0,5 mm

measured from the internal ceiling of the chamber.
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 chamber ceiling
2 thermocouple
3 probe with three holes (2 mm diameter)
A closed end
Figure 2 — Internal probe

Close to the central hole on the internal probe, a shielded thermocouple (K-type, maximum diameter

2 mm) shall be placed at a distance of (8 ± 2) mm from the hole, to measure the temperature of the gas

being sampled.

The thermocouple shall be positioned to the side of the internal probe and on the side furthest from the

radiative cone and/or the burning test specimen.

The temperature shall be recorded when the sampling has been made in order to calculate the mass

concentration of gas species.
5.1.2 Main filter.

The FTIR cell shall be protected by a filter unit from contamination of soot and other solid particles that

are often contained in fire effluents. The filter unit shall be such that the filter element can be changed.

ISO 19702 describes characteristics of suitable filter units.

The main filter unit shall be placed between the chamber and the sampling line, immediately after the

3-way valve placed after the sampling probe (see F1 in Figure 1). The temperature of the filtering

system shall be set to (180 ± 10) °C.

NOTE A filtering system constituted of a cylindrical PTFE cartridge of 30 mm diameter and 75 mm length

with porosity of 2 µm inside a heated housing has been found suitable for the purpose of this analysis.

The use of PTFE is recommended as it is not reactive with fire effluents. Fibre glass is often

inappropriate as it is known to react with HF, and ceramic wool is often inappropriate as it is known to

absorb hydrogen halides even at high temperature.
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5.1.3 Sampling line before gas cell.

The sampling line used between the main filter and the FTIR gas cell shall be made of a heated flexible

PTFE tube. The sampling line shall have an inner diameter of (4,0 ± 0,2) mm and a maximum length of

3 m. Temperature of the sampling line shall be (180 ± 10) °C. The sampling line shall be manufactured

so that the PTFE tube is able to be replaced as needed.
5.1.4 Secondary filter.

To increase the level of protection of internal mirrors, a secondary filter shall be placed just before FTIR

gas cell. This secondary filter shall be heated to the same temperature as the sampling line and gas cell.

NOTE A small circular planar filter (47 mm diameter) using a 1 µm porosity PTFE membrane has been found

suitable as secondary filter.
5.1.5 FTIR gas cell.

The gas cell used shall have a volume not greater than 0,5 l. Temperature of the gas cell shall be

(180 ± 10) °C. Pressure shall be monitored and corrected, in order to maintain pressure conditions

during the test identical to the calibration pressure with a maximum deviation of ± 1,33 kPa, as

specified in ISO 19702.

The renewal of gas in the cell is at least 3 renewals per minute. The response time of the analysis,

determined according to ISO 19702, shall be short enough to permit at least acquisition of 3 spectra per

minute so that the interval between spectra is less or equal to 20 s. Other systems shall be allowed if

they demonstrate the compliance with these performance requirements.

NOTE Gas cells with a volume from 0,2 l to 0,4 l and an optical path length from 2 m up to 5 m have been

found suitable for the purposes of this document.
5.1.6 Conditioning of sampling flow and pump capacity.

The flow rate shall be maintained at (1,5 ± 0,1) l/min, using a flowmeter connected to an outlet at

ambient pressure. The flow rate shall be maintained using a manual regulation valve or an automatic

flow control system. The temperature of the gas entering in the flowmeter shall be less than 30 °C.

NOTE A gas cooler followed by a pump with a capacity of at least four times the inner volume of the gas cell

plus gas sampling line per minute has been found suitable.
5.1.7 Sampling flow rate.
The sampling flow rate shall be maintained to (1,5 ± 0,1) l/min during the test.

NOTE Sampling flow rate of (1,5 ± 0,1) l/min has been found suitable for the following reasons [8]:

1) No influence has been found on smoke density measurement according to EN ISO 5659-2.

2) The volume drawn out of the chamber during 20 min is limited so as to avoid any under-pressure effects

inside the Smoke Chamber.
5.1.8 FTIR Spectrometer.

The following FTIR spectrometer parameters are required for application of this document:

— an IR source stabilized at high intensity and temperature;
-1 -1 -1

— a resolution better or equal to 4 cm over a range between 600 cm and 4 400 cm ;

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EN 17084:2018 (E)
— a resolution of 0,5 cm is recommended to correct from interference;
— a measurement interval (interval between spectra) ≤ 20 s.

The Minimum Detection Limit for gas species of interest (MDL) depends on the type of gas, and is

determined according to ISO 12828-1.

NOTE An MDL ≤ 15 × 10 l/l (≤15 µl/l) is suggested for the majority of species, except for carbon dioxide for

which MDL is usually < 300 × 10 l/l (<300 µl/l).
5.2 Calibration
5.2.1 General calibrations
The following elements shall be calibrated with the periodicity mentioned:
— chamber leakage according to 5.2.2: daily;
— cone radiator irradiance according to EN ISO 5659-2: daily;
— smoke density measurement system according to EN ISO 5659-2: every 6 months;
— FTIR gas analyser: performance is checked each day of use, see 5.6.1.
5.2.2 Chamber leakage test

Perform the Smoke Chamber leakage test in accordance with EN ISO 5659-2:2017, 7.6 and 9.6. The

leakage test is essential for this test method, and the following section details the procedure to be

applied in addition to EN ISO 5659-2.

Use a heated three-position valve connected just outside the smoke chamber and before the main filter

to perform this leakage test.
5.2.3 Gas analyser calibration

The principle of FTIR gas analyser calibration is to collect a series of absorbance spectra for each gas

species to be analysed. For the purpose of this document, FTIR shall be calibrated for all gases that are

required to satisfy the test requirements. The laboratory shall follow ISO 12828-2 to validate the

method.

NOTE The list of gases to be analysed defined in subclause 4.2 might be extended by a product specification

or other document that refers to this European Standard.

For calibration of the gas analyser, the use of some pressure reducing valves has proven to diminish the

detectable concentration of HF,
...

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