Unfired pressure vessels - Part 9: Conformance of the EN 13445 series to ISO 16528

This CEN Technical Report details the conformance of the EN 13445 series for "Unfired pressure vessels" to ISO 16528-1 "Boilers and pressure vessels - Part 1: Performance requirements".
This Technical Report applies to vessels of steel construction.
It is envisaged that future editions will include spheroidal graphite cast iron and aluminium vessels.

Unbefeuerte Druckbehälter - Gegenüberstellung der EN 13445 Normenreihe und ISO 16528

Récipients sous pression non soumis à la flamme - Partie 9 : Conformité de la série EN 13445 à l'ISO 16528

Le présent Rapport technique du CEN expose en détail la conformité de la série EN 13445 relative aux
« Récipients sous pression non soumis à la flamme » à l’ISO 16528-1 « Chaudières et récipients sous
pression — Partie 1 : Exigences de performance ».
Le Rapport technique s’applique aux récipients en acier. Il est envisagé que les futures éditions intègrent les
récipients en fonte à graphite sphéroïdal et en aluminium.

Neogrevane tlačne posode - 9. del: Primerjava serije EN 13445 z ISO 16528

To tehnično poročilo CEN podrobno primerja serijo EN 13445 za »Neogrevane tlačne posode« z ISO 16528-1 »Kotli in tlačne posode – 1. del: Zahteve za delovanje«. To tehnično poročilo velja za posode z jekleno konstrukcijo. Predvideno je, da bodo prihodnje izdaje vključevale posode iz litine s kroglastim grafitom in aluminijaste posode.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Jun-2011
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
29-Jun-2011
Completion Date
29-Jun-2011

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
01-januar-2011
1HRJUHYDQHWODþQHSRVRGHGHO8VNODMHQRVWVHULMH(1],62

Unfired pressure vessels - Part 9: Conformance of the EN 13445 series to ISO 16528

Unbefeuerte Druckbehälter - Gegenüberstellung der EN 13445 Normenreihe und ISO
16528

Récipients sous pression non soumis à la flamme - Partie 9 : Conformité de la série EN

13445 à l'ISO 16528
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 13445-9
ICS:
23.020.30 7ODþQHSRVRGHSOLQVNH Pressure vessels, gas
MHNOHQNH cylinders
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 13445-9
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
December 2010
ICS 23.020.30 Will supersede CEN/TR 13445-9:2007
English Version
Unfired pressure vessels - Part 9: Conformance of the EN 13445
series to ISO 16528

Récipients sous pression non soumis à la flamme - Partie 9 Unbefeuerte Druckbehälter - Teil 9: Gegenüberstellung der

: Conformité de la série EN 13445 à l'ISO 16528 EN 13445-Normenreihe und ISO 16528

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Technical Committee Approval. It has been drawn up by the Technical

Committee CEN/TC 54.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to

provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and

shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................4

2 Failure mode summary .........................................................................................................................5

3 Detailed failure mode checklists ..........................................................................................................6

4 Detailed technical requirements checklist ....................................................................................... 35

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
Foreword

This document (FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 54 “Unfired

pressure vessels”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.
This document is currently submitted to the Formal Vote.
This document will supersede CEN/TR 13445-9:2007.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
1 Scope

This Technical Report details the conformance of the EN 13445 series for "Unfired pressure vessels" to

ISO 16528-1, Boilers and pressure vessels ― Part 1: Performance requirements.

This edition is limited to vessels of steel construction, but will be amended later to include spheroidal graphite

cast iron and aluminium vessels.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
2 Failure mode summary
Table 1 — Failure mode summary
STANDARD : Unfired pressure vessels EN 13445-1:2009 to EN 13445-5:2009 and
CR 13445-7
FAILURE MODE SUMMARY
Failure modes according to ISO 16528-1:2007, 6.2 Addressed
(Y / N / P)
Brittle Fracture Y
Ductile rupture Y
Leakage at Joints Y
Elastic or Plastic Instability Y
Creep Rupture Y
Additional failure modes according to ISO 16528-1:2007, 6.1 Addressed
(Y / N / P)
Crack formation or ductile tearing due to excessive local strains Y
Creep – excessive deformations at mechanical joints or resulting in Y
unacceptable transfer of load
Creep instability Y
Erosion, corrosion P
Environmentally assisted cracking, e.g. stress corrosion cracking, P
hydrogen induced cracking, etc.
Progressive plastic deformation Y
Alternating plasticity Y
Fatigue under elastic strains (medium and high cycle fatigue) or under Y
elastic-plastic strains (low cycle fatigue)
Environmentally assisted fatigue P
Provide full title of the standard and revision or addenda level.
Failure modes addressed by this form (see ISO 16528-1).
Y – failure mode addressed by standard ;
N – failure mode not addressed by standard;
P – failure mode recognized but details not addressed.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
3 Detailed failure mode checklists
Table 2 — Detailed failure mode checklists
STANDARD: Unfired pressure vessels EN 13445:2009 (all parts)
FAILURE MODE : Brittle fracture
EXPLICIT DESIGN
References :
EN 13445-2:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 2: Materials,
Annex B "Requirements for prevention of brittle fracture",
Method 1 and Method 2
Comments :
Method 1

a) Technical requirements based on the choice of TR = T27J as specified in harmonised

European Material Standards and on the assumption that it is possible to achieve these

minimum properties after fabrication. Calculated from the principles of fracture mechanics

used for method 2 for C and CMn steels with yield strength < 460 MPa; and

b) based on operating experience for Ni-alloyed steels with Ni ≥ 3 % up to 9 %, for

austenitic steels and for bolts and nuts.
Method 2

Method developed from the principles of fracture mechanics and from operating experiences.

A more flexible approach than method 1 for derivation of technical requirements applicable to

C, CMn and low alloy ferritic steels with a specified minimum yield strength ≤ 500 MPa and for

austenitic-ferritic steels with a specified minimum yield strength ≤ 550 MPa. This method can

be applied for these steels to a wider range of thicknesses and temperatures than method 1

because TR must not be equal to T27J (see Figures B.2-1 to B.2-11). In addition, for ferritic

steels with max 355 MPa in PWHT condition operation experience was considered for higher

thicknesses.
IMPLICIT DESIGN
References:
EN 13445-2, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 2: Materials,
Annex B "Requirements for prevention of brittle fracture",
Method 3
Comments:
Method 3 is the application of a fracture mechanics analysis.
FABRICATION DETAILS
References:
Design requirements for construction details are given in:
EN 13445-3, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 3: Design
and in Annex A "Design requirements for pressure bearing welds" of this Part.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
Manufacturing tolerances are given in:
EN 13445-4:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 4: Fabrication,
Clause 5 "Manufacturing tolerances"
Comments:
Reference thickness is given in:
EN 13445-2:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 2: Materials,
Annex B "Requirements for prevention of brittle fracture",
Table B.4-1 "Reference thickness"
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-2:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 2: Materials,

4.1.6: Specified minimum impact energy measured on a Charpy-V-notch specimen at a

test temperature in accordance with Annex B.
EN 13445-4:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 4: Fabrication,
Clause 8 "Manufacture and testing of welds – Production test"
Testing of coupon plates with the same required impact energy as above.
Comments:

Impact requirements are also specified for sub-sized Charpy-V-notch specimen if the

base material is less than 10 mm thick.
EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 5 : Inspection and testing,

Clause 6 "Inspection and testing during fabrication", 6.6 "Non-destructive testing of

welded joints".
Comments:

There are four testing (examination) groups: 1 (full NDE), 2 (full NDE and reduction with

successful experience, fully mechanised and/or automatic welding process), 3 (spot

testing), 4 (visual examination only and higher test pressure).

Acceptance criteria are based on EN ISO 5817:2007, level C (level B in critical areas

when vessels are subjected to cyclic loads, see Annex G of EN 13445-5:2009).
TESTING REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-3, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 5 : Inspection and testing,
Clause 10 "Final assessment", 10.2.3 "Proof test".
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
Comments:
Higher pressure test for vessels with visual NDE only.
USE / FAILURE HISTORY
References:
Comments:
a Failure mode addressed by this form (see Table 1).

b Provide specific clause or paragraph references (including the title, if any) indicating where relevant rules can be found. These

references need not be exhaustive, but should be detailed enough to establish that the standard adequately addresses the selected

failure mode.

c Provide explanatory comments indicating the background for the approach employed or other material that might be useful. For

example, brief description of failure theor(ies) used should be provided. References to academic papers and empirical testing

methods used to establish rules are encouraged.

d Reference(s) to rules or requirements that directly affect how the standard addresses the selected failure mode, e.g. formulas for

sizing wall thickness of components for resisting ductile burst.

d This section may be used to provide references and comments when design tables, empirically based rules or other approaches

are employed whose derivation is not obvious. It may also be used to provide general information on design margins (safety factors)

on material properties, etc. Many successful standards do not provide explicit design rules for certain failure modes yet do employ

combinations of material control, temperature limits or other means to provide adequate protection against failure. This section may

be used to provide information on how his standard indirectly addresses certain failure modes when explicit rules are not provided.

e References for fabrication details relevant to the selected failure mode, e.g. control of cylinder ovality, weld profiling, control of

tolerances, etc. For example, control of cylinder ovality is important for prevention of buckling of externally loaded vessels. This

section should be used to describe such fabrication controls relevant for the designated failure mode.

f Relevant requirements for base and welding materials, e.g. control of YS/UTS ratios, provisions for addressing strain hardening,

applications of heat treatment, etc. Assuring that fabrication processes have not adversely affected material properties beyond

acceptable limits can be important for preventing certain types of failures. This section should be used to describe such controls.

g References for NDT or visual inspection relevant to the selected failure mode. (If NDT is correlated to design factors, this should

be noted.)

h Provisions for final testing, i.e. hydrostatic or leak tests should be noted with specific information on normal test pressures and

control of test lower and upper test pressures.

i An explanation shall be provided defining the limitations in the standard’s scope or application relative to EN 13445-1:2009, 6.2

failure mode(s) not addressed. References to data quantifying failure rates and other relevant experience may be provided. Likely

sources include regulatory authorities, trade associations and insurers.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
STANDARD: Unfired pressure vessels EN 13445:2009 (all parts)
FAILURE MODE : Ductile rupture
EXPLICIT DESIGN
References :
EN 13445-3:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 3: Design,

Clause 6 "Maximum allowed values of the nominal design stress for pressure parts"

Comments :
IMPLICIT DESIGN
References:
EN 13445-3:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 3: Design,
Annex B "Design by Analysis – Direct Route", B.8.2: "Gross Plastic Deformation"
Annex C "Design by Analysis – Method based on stress categories"
Comments:

In Annex B, limit analysis is used. For ferritic steels, this analysis allows the use of a

reduced safety factor versus the tensile strength at 20 °C.
FABRICATION DETAILS
References:
EN 13445-3:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 4: Fabrication,
Clause 5 "Manufacturing tolerances"
Comments:
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-2:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 2: Materials,
Clause 4 "Requirements for materials to be used for pressure-bearing parts"
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
Comments:
Requirements on ductility.
EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 5: Inspection and testing,

Clause 6 "Inspection and testing during fabrication", 6.6 "Non-destructive testing of

welded joints"
Comments:

Acceptance criteria are based on EN ISO 5817:2007, level C (level B in critical areas

when vessels are subjected to cyclic loads, see Annex G).
TESTING REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 5: Inspection and testing,

Clause 10 "Final assessment", 10.2.3 "Proof test", 10.2.3.3 "Standard pressure test",

10.2.3.9 "Acceptance criteria"
Comments:

During the proof test the vessel shall show no signs of general plastic yielding. No

leaks from the pressure envelope.
USE / FAILURE HISTORY
References:
Comments:
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
STANDARD: Unfired pressure vessels EN 13445:2009
FAILURE MODE : Leakage at joints
EXPLICIT DESIGN
References :
EN 13445-3:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 3: Design,
Clause 11 "Flanges"
Comments :

Requirements for circular bolted flanged connections. The requirements are based on

the Taylor Forge rules.

Suggested values of the gasket factors are given in Annex H: "Gasket factors m and

y".
IMPLICIT DESIGN
References:
EN 13445-3:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 3: Design,
Annex G "Alternative design rules for flanges and gasketed flange connections"
Comments:

The purpose of these rules is to ensure structural integrity and leaktightness. They are

most appropriate when:
a) thermal cycling is important;
b) bolt stress is controlled by the use of a defined tightening procedure;
c) there are significant additional loadings (forces or moments);

d) leaktightness is a special importance (requirement of a specified leaktightness).

Gasket factor values are provided for use with this annex.
FABRICATION DETAILS
References:
EN 13445-4:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 4: Fabrication,
Clause 5 "Manufacture tolerances"
Comments:
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-2:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 2: Materials,
Clause 4 "Requirements for materials to be used for pressure-bearing parts".
Comments:
EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 5: Inspection and testing,

Clause 6 "Inspection and testing during fabrication", 6.6 "Non-destructive testing of

welded joints".
Comments:
Acceptance levels based on EN ISO 5817:2003 level C.
TESTING REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-3:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 5: Inspection and testing,

Clause 10 "Final assessment", 10.2.3 "Proof test", 10.2.3.3 "Standard hydrostatic test",

10.2.3.9 "Acceptance criteria"
Comments:
During the proof test no leaks are permitted from the pressure envelope.
USE / FAILURE HISTORY
References:
Comments:
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
STANDARD: Unfired pressure vessels EN 13445:2009 (all parts)
FAILURE MODE : Elastic or plastic instability
EXPLICIT DESIGN
References :
EN 13445-3:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 3: Design,
Clause 8 "Shells under external pressure"
Comments :
This clause provides requirements for the design of stiffened and unstiffened
cylinders, cones, spheres and dished ends.
IMPLICIT DESIGN
References:
EN 13445-3:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 3: Design,
Annex B "Design by Analysis – Direct Route", B.8.4 "Instability"
Comments:
FABRICATION DETAILS
References:
EN 13445-3:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 3: Design,
Annex D "Verification of the shape of vessels subject to external pressure"

Annex E "Procedure for calculating the departure from the true circle of cylinders and

cones"
Annex F "Allowable external pressure for vessels outside circularity tolerance".
Comments:
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2011
FprCEN/TR 13445-9:2010 (E)
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-2:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 2: Materials,
Clause 4 "Requirements for materials to be used for pressure-bearing parts"
Comments:
EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 5: Inspection and testing,

Clause 6 "Inspection and testing during fabrication", 6.6 "Non-destructive testing of

welded joints".
Comments:
Acceptance criteria based on EN ISO 5817:2007 level C.
TESTING REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-3:2009, Unfired pressure vessels ― Part 5: Inspection and testing,
Clause 10 "Final assessm
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
01-november-2011
1DGRPHãþD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2007
1HRJUHYDQHWODþQHSRVRGHGHO3ULPHUMDYDVHULMH(1],62

Unfired pressure vessels - Part 9: Conformance of the EN 13445 series to ISO 16528

Unbefeuerte Druckbehälter - Gegenüberstellung der EN 13445 Normenreihe und ISO
16528

Récipients sous pression non soumis à la flamme - Partie 9 : Conformité de la série EN

13445 à l'ISO 16528
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
ICS:
23.020.30 7ODþQHSRVRGHSOLQVNH Pressure vessels, gas
MHNOHQNH cylinders
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 13445-9
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
June 2011
ICS 23.020.30 Supersedes CEN/TR 13445-9:2007
English Version
Unfired pressure vessels - Part 9: Conformance of the EN 13445
series to ISO 16528

Récipients sous pression non soumis à la flamme - Partie 9 Unbefeuerte Druckbehälter - Gegenüberstellung der EN

: Conformité de la série EN 13445 à l'ISO 16528 13445 Normenreihe und ISO 16528

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 3 April 2011. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 54.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 13445-9:2011: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................4

2 Failure mode summary .........................................................................................................................5

3 Detailed failure mode checklists ..........................................................................................................6

4 Detailed technical requirements checklist ....................................................................................... 39

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 13445-9:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 54 “Unfired

pressure vessels”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN/TR 13445-9:2007.
The main differences between this edition and CEN/TR 13445-9:2007 are:
a) updating on the basis of the 2009 edition of EN 13445;

b) inclusion of full details for the following failure modes: creep rupture, creep - excessive deformations at

mechanical joints or resulting in unacceptable transfer of load, creep instability

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
1 Scope

This CEN Technical Report details the conformance of the EN 13445 series for "Unfired pressure vessels" to

ISO 16528-1 "Boilers and pressure vessels – Part 1: Performance requirements".
This Technical Report applies to vessels of steel construction.

It is envisaged that future editions will include spheroidal graphite cast iron and aluminium vessels.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
2 Failure mode summary
Table 1 — Failure mode summary
STANDARD : Unfired pressure vessels EN 13445:2009 Parts 1 to 5 and CR 13445-7
FAILURE MODE SUMMARY
Failure modes according to ISO 16528-1 clause 6.2 Addressed
(Y / N / P)
Brittle fracture Y
Ductile rupture Y
Leakage at joints Y
Elastic or plastic instability Y
Creep rupture Y
Additional failure modes according to ISO 16528-1 clause 6.1 Addressed
(Y / N / P)
Crack formation or ductile tearing due to excessive local strains Y
Creep – excessive deformations at mechanical joints or resulting in Y
unacceptable transfer of load
Creep instability Y
Erosion, corrosion P
Environmentally assisted cracking, e.g. stress corrosion cracking, P
hydrogen induced cracking, etc.
Progressive plastic deformation Y
Alternating plasticity Y
Fatigue under elastic strains (medium and high cycle fatigue) or under Y
elastic-plastic strains (low cycle fatigue)
Environmentally assisted fatigue P
Provide full title of the standard and revision or addenda level.
Failure modes addressed by this form (see ISO 16528-1).
Y – failure mode addressed by standard
N – failure mode not addressed by standard
P – failure mode recognized but details not addressed.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
3 Detailed failure mode checklists
Table 2 — Detailed failure mode checklists
STANDARD : Unfired pressure vessels EN 13445:2009
FAILURE MODE : Brittle fracture
EXPLICIT DESIGN
References :
EN 13445-2:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 2: Materials
Annex B "Requirements for prevention of brittle fracture"
Method 1 and Method 2
Comments :
Method 1

a) Technical requirements based on the choice of TR = T27J as specified in harmonised

European Material Standards and on the assumption that it is possible to achieve

these minimum properties after fabrication. Calculated from the principles of fracture

mechanics used for method 2 for C and CMn steels with yield strength < 460 MPa and

b) based on operating experience for Ni-alloyed steels with Ni ≥ 3 % up to 9 %, for

austenitic steels and for bolts and nuts.
Method 2
Method developed from the principles of fracture mechanics and from operating
experiences.
A more flexible approach than method 1 for derivation of technical requirements

applicable to C, CMn and low alloy ferritic steels with a specified minimum yield

strength ≤ 500 MPa and for

austenitic-ferritic steels with a specified minimum yield strength ≤ 550 MPa. This

method can be applied for these steels to a wider range of thicknesses and

temperatures than method 1 because TR shall not be equal to T27J (see Figures B.2-1 to

B.2-11). In addition, for ferritic steels with max 355 MPa in PWHT condition operation

experience was considered for higher thicknesses.
IMPLICIT DESIGN
References:
EN 13445-2:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 2: Materials
Annex B "Requirements for prevention of brittle fracture"
Method 3.
Comments:
Method 3 is the application of a fracture mechanics analysis.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
FABRICATION DETAILS
References:
Design requirements for construction details are given in:
EN 13445-3:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 3: Design
and in Annex A "Design requirements for pressure bearing welds" of this Part.
Manufacturing tolerances are given in:
EN 13445-4:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 4: Fabrication
Clause 5: "Manufacturing tolerances"
Comments:
Reference thickness is given in:
EN 13445-2:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 2: Materials
Annex B "Requirements for prevention of brittle fracture"
Table B.4-1: "Reference thickness"
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-2:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 2: Materials
Clause 4.1.6: Specified minimum impact energy measured on a Charpy-V-notch
specimen at a test temperature in accordance with Annex B.
EN 13445-4:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 4: Fabrication
Clause 8: "Manufacture and testing of welds – Production test"
Testing of coupon plates with the same required impact energy as above.
Comments:

Impact requirements are also specified for sub-sized Charpy-V-notch specimen if the

base material is less than 10 mm thick.
EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 5: Inspection and testing

Clause 6: "Inspection and testing during fabrication", 6.6 "Non-destructive testing of

welded joints".
Comments:

There are four testing (examination) groups: 1 (full NDE), 2 (full NDE and reduction with

successful experience, fully mechanised and/or automatic welding process), 3 (spot

testing), 4 (visual examination only and higher test pressure).

Acceptance criteria are based on EN ISO 5817:2007, level C (level B in critical areas

when vessels are subjected to cyclic loads, see Annex G of EN 13445-5:2009).
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TESTING REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 5: Inspection and testing
Clause 10: "Final assessment", 10.2.3 "Proof test".
Comments:
Higher pressure test for vessels with visual NDE only.
USE / FAILURE HISTORY
References:
Comments:
a Failure mode addressed by this form (See Table 1).

b Provide specific clause or paragraph references (including the title, if any) indicating where relevant rules can be found. These

references need not be exhaustive, but should be detailed enough to establish that the standard adequately addresses the selected

failure mode.

c Provide explanatory comments indicating the background for the approach employed or other material that might be useful. For

example, brief description of failure theor(ies) used should be provided. References to academic papers and empirical testing

methods used to establish rules are encouraged.

d Reference(s) to rules or requirements that directly affect how the standard addresses the selected failure mode, e.g. formulas for

sizing wall thickness of components for resisting ductile burst.

e This section may be used to provide references and comments when design tables, empirically based rules or other approaches

are employed whose derivation is not obvious. It may also be used to provide general information on design margins (safety factors)

on material properties, etc. Many successful standards do not provide explicit design rules for certain failure modes yet do employ

combinations of material control, temperature limits or other means to provide adequate protection against failure. This section may

be used to provide information on how his standard indirectly addresses certain failure modes when explicit rules are not provided.

f References for fabrication details relevant to the selected failure mode, e.g. control of cylinder ovality, weld profiling, control of

tolerances, etc. For example, control of cylinder ovality is important for prevention of buckling of externally loaded vessels. This

section should be used to describe such fabrication controls relevant for the designated failure mode.

g Relevant requirements for base and welding materials, e.g. control of YS/UTS ratios, provisions for addressing strain hardening,

applications of heat treatment, etc. Assuring that fabrication processes have not adversely affected material properties beyond

acceptable limits can be important for preventing certain types of failures. This section should be used to describe such controls.

h References for NDT or visual inspection relevant to the selected failure mode. (If NDT is correlated to design factors, this should

be noted).

i Provisions for final testing, i.e. hydrostatic or leak tests should be noted with specific information on normal test pressures and

control of test lower and upper test pressures.

j An explanation shall be provided defining the limitations in the standard’s scope or application relative to ISO 16528-1:2007,

Clause 6.2 failure mode(s) not addressed. References to data quantifying failure rates and other relevant experience may be

provided. Likely sources include regulatory authorities, trade associations and insurers.

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CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
STANDARD : Unfired pressure vessels EN 13445:2009
FAILURE MODE : Ductile rupture
EXPLICIT DESIGN
References :
EN 13445-3:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 3: Design

Clause 6: "Maximum allowed values of the nominal design stress for pressure parts"

Comments :
IMPLICIT DESIGN
References:
EN 13445-3:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 3: Design
Annex B "Design by Analysis – Direct Route", Clause B.8.2: "Gross Plastic
Deformation"
Annex C "Design by Analysis – Method based on stress categories"
Comments:

In Annex B, limit analysis is used. For ferritic steels, this analysis allows the use of a

reduced safety factor versus the tensile strength at 20 °C.
FABRICATION DETAILS
References:
EN 13445-4:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 4: Fabrication
Clause 5: "Manufacturing tolerances"
Comments:
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CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-2:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 2: Materials
Clause 4: "Requirements for materials to be used for pressure-bearing parts"
Comments:
Requirements on ductility.
EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 5: Inspection and testing

Clause 6: "Inspection and testing during fabrication", 6.6 "Non-destructive testing of

welded joints"
Comments:

Acceptance criteria are based on EN ISO 5817: 2007, level C (level B in critical areas

when vessels are subjected to cyclic loads, see Annex G).
TESTING REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 5: Inspection and testing

Clause 10: "Final assessment", 10.2.3 "Proof test", 10.2.3.3 "Standard pressure test",

10.2.3.9 "Acceptance criteria"
Comments:

During the proof test the vessel shall show no signs of general plastic yielding. No

leaks from the pressure envelope.
USE / FAILURE HISTORY
References:
Comments:
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
STANDARD : Unfired pressure vessels EN 13445:2009
FAILURE MODE : Leakage at joints
EXPLICIT DESIGN
References :
EN 13445-3:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 3: Design
Clause 11: "Flanges"
Comments :

Requirements for circular bolted flanged connections. The requirements are based on

the Taylor Forge rules.

Suggested values of the gasket factors are given in Annex H: "Gasket factors m and

y".
IMPLICIT DESIGN
References:
EN 13445-3:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 3: Design
Annex G "Alternative design rules for flanges and gasketed flange connections"
Comments:

The purpose of these rules is to ensure structural integrity and leaktightness. They are

most appropriate when a) thermal cycling is important b) bolt stress is controlled by

the use of a defined tightening procedure c) there are significant additional loadings

(forces or moments) d) leaktightness is a special importance (requirement of a

specified leaktightness). Gasket factor values are provided for use with this annex.

FABRICATION DETAILS
References:
EN 13445-4:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 4: Fabrication
Clause 5: "Manufacture tolerances"
Comments:
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MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-2:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 2: Materials
Clause 4: "Requirements for materials to be used for pressure-bearing parts".
Comments:
EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 5: Inspection and testing

Clause 6: "Inspection and testing during fabrication", 6.6 "Non-destructive testing of

welded joints".
Comments:

Acceptance levels based on EN ISO 5817:2007 level C (level B in critical areas when

vessels are subjected to cyclic loads, see Annex G).
TESTING REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 5: Inspection and testing

Clause 10: "Final assessment", 10.2.3 "Proof test", 10.2.3.3 "Standard hydrostatic test",

10.2.3.9 "Acceptance criteria"
Comments:
During the proof test no leaks are permitted from the pressure envelope.
USE / FAILURE HISTORY
References:
Comments:
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 13445-9:2011
CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
STANDARD : Unfired pressure vessels EN 13445:2009
FAILURE MODE : Elastic or plastic instability
EXPLICIT DESIGN
References :
EN 13445-3:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 3: Design
Clause 8: "Shells under external pressure"
Comments :
This clause provides requirements for the design of stiffened and unstiffened
cylinders, cones, spheres and dished ends.
IMPLICIT DESIGN
References:
EN 13445-3:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 3: Design
Annex B "Design by Analysis – Direct Route", Clause B.8.4: "Instability"
Comments:
FABRICATION DETAILS
References:
EN 13445-3:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 3: Design
Annex D "Verification of the shape of vessels subject to external pressure "

Annex E "Procedure for calculating the departure from the true circle of cylinders and

cones"
Annex F "Allowable external pressure for vessels outside circularity tolerance".
Comments:
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CEN/TR 13445-9:2011 (E)
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-2:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 2: Materials
Clause 4: "Requirements for materials to be used for pressure-bearing parts"
Comments:
EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 5: Inspection and testing

Clause 6: "Inspection and testing during fabrication", 6.6 "Non-destructive testing of

welded joints".
Comments:

Acceptance criteria based on EN ISO 5817:2007 level C (level B in critical areas when

vessels are subjected to cyclic loads, see Annex G).
TESTING REQUIREMENTS
References:
EN 13445-5:2009 Unfired pressure vessels – Part 5: Inspection and testing

Clause 10: "Final assessment", 10.2.3 "Proof test", 10.2.3.3 "Standard hydrostatic test",

10.2.3.3.3 "Multi-compartment vessels".
Comments:
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USE / FAILURE HISTORY
References:
Comments:
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CEN/TR 13445
...

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