Geosynthetics - Determination of friction characteristics - Part 2: Inclined plane test (ISO 12957-2:2005)

ISO 12957-2:2005 describes a method of determining the friction characteristics of geosynthetics (geotextiles and geotextile-related products, geosynthetic barriers), in contact with soils, at low normal stress, using an inclining plane apparatus.
This method is primarily intended as a performance test to be used with site-specific soils but may also be used as an index test with standard sand.
Test data obtained for geogrids tested with a rigid support are not necessarily realistic as the results depend on the friction support.

Geokunststoffe - Bestimmung der Reibungseigenschaften - Teil 2: Schiefe-Ebene-Versuch (ISO 12957-2:2005)

Dieser Europäische Norm-Entwurf beschreibt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Reibungseigenschaften von Geotextilien, Kunststoffdichtungsbahnen und geotextilver wandten Produkten im Kontakt mit Böden, bei niedriger Normal-spannung, unter Verwendung eines Schiefe-Ebene-Prüfgerätes.  Das beschriebene Prüfverfahren ist in erster Linie eine Gebrauchsprüfung, bei der die spezifischen Böden der Baustelle eingesetzt werden; es kann aber auch als Index-Versuch unter Verwendung eines Normsandes genutzt werden.

Géosynthétiques - Détermination des caractéristiques de frottement - Partie 2: Essai sur plan incliné (ISO 12957-2:2005)

L'ISO 12957-2:2005 décrit une méthode de détermination des caractéristiques en frottement des géosynthétiques (géotextiles et produits apparentés, géomembranes et produits apparentés), en contact avec divers sols, sous contrainte normale faible, en utilisant un appareillage à plan incliné.
Cette méthode d'essai est avant tout un essai de performance qui doit être conduit en utilisant les sols spécifiques du site mais peut également être utilisée en tant qu'essai de caractérisation avec un sable normalisé.
Les résultats obtenus pour les géogrilles essayées avec un support rigide ne sont pas nécessairement réalistes car ils dépendent du frottement du support.

Geosintetika - Ugotavljanje tornih značilnosti - 2. del: Preskus na nagnjeni ravnini (ISO 12957-2:2005)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Feb-2005
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
15-Feb-2005
Completion Date
15-Feb-2005

Buy Standard

Standard
EN ISO 12957-2:2005
English language
13 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 12957-2:2005
01-maj-2005

*HRVLQWHWLND8JRWDYOMDQMHWRUQLK]QDþLOQRVWLGHO3UHVNXVQDQDJQMHQLUDYQLQL

,62

Geosynthetics - Determination of friction characteristics - Part 2: Inclined plane test (ISO

12957-2:2005)
Geokunststoffe - Bestimmung der Reibungseigenschaften - Teil 2: Schiefe-Ebene-
Versuch (ISO 12957-2:2005)

Géosynthétiques - Détermination des caractéristiques de frottement - Partie 2: Essai sur

plan incliné (ISO 12957-2:2005)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 12957-2:2005
ICS:
59.080.70 Geotekstilije Geotextiles
SIST EN ISO 12957-2:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12957-2:2005
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12957-2:2005
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 12957-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
February 2005
ICS 59.080.70
English version
Geosynthetics - Determination of friction characteristics - Part 2:
Inclined plane test (ISO 12957-2:2005)

Géosynthétiques - Détermination des caractéristiques de Geokunststoffe - Bestimmung der Reibungseigenschaften -

frottement - Partie 2: Essai sur plan incliné (ISO 12957- Teil 2: Schiefe-Ebene-Versuch (ISO 12957-2:2005)

2:2005)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 November 2004.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 12957-2:2005: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12957-2:2005
EN ISO 12957-2:2005 (E)
Contents
page

Foreword......................................................................................................................................................................3

1 Scope.....................................................................................................................................................................4

2 Normative references...........................................................................................................................................4

3 Terms and definitions ..........................................................................................................................................4

4 Principle.................................................................................................................................................................4

5 Test specimens.....................................................................................................................................................5

6 Conditioning .........................................................................................................................................................5

7 Apparatus..............................................................................................................................................................5

8 Procedure..............................................................................................................................................................8

9 Calculations ..........................................................................................................................................................9

10 Test Report........................................................................................................................................................10

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12957-2:2005
EN ISO 12957-2:2005 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 12957-2:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 189 “Geosynthetics",

the secretariat of which is held by IBN, in collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC 221 “Geosynthetics".

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or

by endorsement, at the latest by August 2005, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by

August 2005.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,

Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12957-2:2005
EN ISO 12957-2:2005 (E)
1 Scope

This document describes a method to determine the friction characteristics of geosynthetics (geotextiles and

geotextile-related products, geosynthetic barriers), in contact with soils, at low normal stress, using an inclining

plane apparatus.

This test method is primarily intended as a performance test to be used with site specific soils but may also be used as

an index test with standard sand.

Test data obtained for geogrids tested with a rigid support are not necessarily realistic as the results depend on the

friction support.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references,

only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
ISO 554, Standard atmospheres for conditioning and/or testing – Specifications.

ISO 6344-2, Coated abrasives – Grain size analysis – Part 2: Determination of grain size distribution of macrogrits

P 12 to P 220.
ISO 9862, Geotextiles – Sampling and preparation of test specimens.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
normal stress (σσσσ )
n,o
normal force (N) divided by the area of the specimen, in kilopascals

σ indicates the normal stress with the table in horizontal position; σ indicates the calculated normal stress at

n,o n,calc
slippage failure with angle of slipping (β).
3.2
angle of friction (φφφφ )

angle of friction between geosynthetic and soil, in degrees, defined as the average of the values recorded in the

test
3.3
angle of slipping (ββββ)
angle, in degrees, at which the box’s displacement attains 50 mm
4 Principle

The angle of friction for the soil/geosynthetic system is determined by measuring the angle at which a soil filled box

(with possible additional weights) slides when the base supporting the geosynthetic is inclined at a constant speed.

NOTE Variations to the test described in this document can be used to measure friction properties of geosynthetics in non-

standard conditions, e.g.:

a) a second layer of geosynthetic can be fitted in the upper part of the shear box to measure geosynthetic on geomembrane friction;

b) normal pressures different from the standard values can be applied to simulate actual site conditions.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12957-2:2005
EN ISO 12957-2:2005 (E)
5 Test specimens
5.1 Sampling
Take specimens in accordance with ISO 9862.
5.2 Number and dimensions of test specimens

Cut three specimens from the test sample, for each direction to be tested. The size of the specimens shall suit the

dimensions of the apparatus.

If the two faces of the sample are different, both faces shall be tested. Three specimens shall be tested for each

face.
6 Conditioning

Condition the test specimens and conduct the tests in the standard atmosphere for testing, defined in ISO 554, i.e. at a

relative humidity of (65 ± 2) % and a temperature of (20 ± 2) °C until the change in mass between two successive

readings made at intervals of not less than two hours does not exceed 0,25 % of the mass of the test specimens.

NOTE Conditioning and/or testing at a specified relative humidity may be ommitted if it can be shown that the results are not

affected by this omission.
7 Apparatus
7.1 General

Two types of apparatus are possible, one with the upper box supported by rollers, the other without support of the

box. A diagrammatic representation of suitable equipment is shown in Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4. Figures 1 and 2

illustrate an apparatus with a rigid support for the geosynthetic. Figure 3 illustrates an apparatus in which the

geosynthetic is supported by a lower box filled with soil. Figure 4 gives the minimum dimensions of the upper

sliding box to be used with both methods.
7.2 Rigid base apparatus (see Figures 1 and 2)
7.2.1 Rigid base

The inclined plane apparatus consists of a rigid smooth plate hinged at one end. The apparatus shall be fitted with a

mechanism which allows the plane to be raised smoothly at a rate of (3 ± 0,5) degrees per minute. The inclined plane

apparatus shall be horizontal in all directions at the start of each test. Spirit levels shall be fitted to allow checking of the

inclination before each test.

The mechanism used to raise the inclined plane shall be fitted with a trip-switch which will automatically stop the raising

of the table when the displacement of the upper soil filled box exceeds 50 mm.

The inclined plane apparatus shall be fitted with an angle measurement system which allows to measure the inclination

angle of the table to the horizontal with a precision of ± 0,5 degrees.

The geosynthetic shall be fixed to the inclined plane apparatus to limit any relative displacement between the

geosynthetic and the plane.
NOTE This may be obtained by one of the following techniques:
- stitching or gluing;
- use of a rough high friction support;
- anchoring the geosynthetic outside the contact area.

For geogrids and geotextiles with open structures the support used shall be either soil or an emery cloth abradant

P 100 according to ISO 6344-2 (in case of testing with a rigid support).
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12957-2:2005
EN ISO 12957-2:2005 (E)
7.2.2 Upper soil box (see Figure 4)

The upper soil box shall be of rigid construction with the following minimum internal dimensions:

- length: 300 mm;
- width: 300 mm;
- depth: soil depth H > 7 × D' > 50 mm, where
s max
H : depth of soil in the box, in millimetres;
D' : maximum particle size of soil being used in the test, in millimetres.
max

When testing geogrids, the minimum size of the apparatus shall be such that not less than two full ribs and three full

long
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.