Earth-moving machinery - Object detection systems and visibility aids - Performance requirements and tests (ISO 16001:2017)

ISO 16001:2017 specifies general requirements and describes methods for evaluating and testing the performance of object detection systems (ODSs) and visibility aids (VAs) used on earth-moving machines. It covers the following aspects:
- detection or visibility or both of objects including people in the detection zone;
- visual, audible, or both warnings to the operator and if appropriate to the persons in the detection zone;
- operational reliability of the system;
- compatibility and environmental specifications of the system.
It is applicable to machines as defined in ISO 6165. An ODS, VA or both can be used to augment the operator's direct vision (see ISO 5006) or indirect vision using mirrors (see ISO 14401). In addition, an ODS, VA or both can be used to provide additional means of object detection or view, for example, where ergonomic considerations limit the effectiveness of direct vision and to avoid repeated turning of the head and upper body.

Erdbaumaschinen - Objekterkennungssysteme und Sichthilfsmittel - Leistungsanforderungen und Prüfverfahren (ISO 16001:2017)

Engins de terrassement - Dispositifs de détection d'objets et d'aide visuelle - Exigences de performances et essais (ISO 16001:2017)

ISO 16001:2017 définit les exigences générales et décrit les méthodes permettant d'évaluer et de soumettre à l'essai les performances des systèmes de détection d'objets (ODS) et d'aide visuelle (VA) utilisés sur des engins de terrassement. Il traite des aspects suivants:
- détection ou visibilité ou les deux des objets, y compris les personnes, se trouvant dans la zone de détection;
- avertissements visuels et/ou sonores destinés au conducteur et, le cas échéant, aux personnes se trouvant dans la zone de détection;
- fiabilité opérationnelle du système;
- compatibilité et spécifications environnementales du système.
Il s'applique aux engins de terrassement tels que définis dans l'ISO 6165. Les systèmes ODS ou VA ou les deux peuvent être utilisés pour augmenter le champ de vision direct du conducteur (voir l'ISO 5006) ou le champ de vision indirect via des rétroviseurs (voir l'ISO 14401). En outre, un ODS, VA ou les deux, peuvent être utilisés pour fournir des moyens supplémentaires pour la détection ou la visibilité d'objets, par exemple lorsque des considérations ergonomiques limitent l'efficacité de la vision directe, et pour éviter de tourner de façon répétée la tête et le haut du corps.

Stroji za zemeljska dela - Sistemi zaznavanja objektov in vizualni pripomočki - Zahtevane lastnosti in preskusi (ISO 16001:2017)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Dec-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
20-Dec-2017
Completion Date
20-Dec-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
01-marec-2018
6WURML]D]HPHOMVNDGHOD6LVWHPL]D]QDYDQMDREMHNWRYLQYL]XDOQLSULSRPRþNL
=DKWHYDQHODVWQRVWLLQSUHVNXVL ,62

Earth-moving machinery - Object detection systems and visibility aids - Performance

requirements and tests (ISO 16001:2017)

Engins de terrassement - Dispositifs de détection d'objets et d'aide visuelle - Exigences

de performances et essais (ISO 16001:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 16001:2017
ICS:
53.100 Stroji za zemeljska dela Earth-moving machinery
SIST EN ISO 16001:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
EN ISO 16001
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.100
English Version
Earth-moving machinery - Object detection systems and
visibility aids - Performance requirements and tests (ISO
16001:2017)

Engins de terrassement - Dispositifs de détection Erdbaumaschinen - Objekterkennungssysteme und

d'objets et d'aide visuelle - Exigences de performances Sichthilfsmittel - Leistungsanforderungen und

et essais (ISO 16001:2017) Prüfverfahren (ISO 16001:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 November 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 16001:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
EN ISO 16001:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
EN ISO 16001:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 16001:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 127 "Earth-

moving machinery" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 151 “Construction equipment

and building material machines - Safety” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 16001:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 16001:2017 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16001
Second edition
2017-11
Earth-moving machinery — Object
detection systems and visibility aids —
Performance requirements and tests
Engins de terrassement — Dispositifs de détection d'objets et d'aide
visuelle — Exigences de performances et essais
Reference number
ISO 16001:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
ISO 16001:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
ISO 16001:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Performance requirements and tests ............................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.1 Test to determine the detection zone boundary .................................................................................. 3

4.1.2 Test body requirements ............................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.3 Evaluation of test results .......................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Location and fixing of ODS and VA components ........................................................................................................ 3

4.3 Operator station components .................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.1 Location and images of monitor ......................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.2 Warning devices for ODS .......................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4 System activation and initial check ....................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.1 System activation on engine start ..................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.2 System activation from stand-by mode ........................................................................................................ 6

4.5 ODS detection time .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.6 Continuous self-checking ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.7 Warning device disablement for ODS .................................................................................................................................. 7

4.8 Electromagnetic compatibility and physical environment operating conditions ......................... 7

5 Marking and identification ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6 Operator's manual .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Operator’s manual................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2 Other information documents ................................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Selection of ODSs and VAs .................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex B (normative) Test procedure for closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems —

Additional performance requirements and tests ............................................................................................................17

Annex C (normative) Test procedure for radar sensors ................................................................................................................23

Annex D (normative) Test procedure for ultrasonic detection systems.......................................................................28

Annex E (normative) Test procedure for ultrasonic transponder systems ...............................................................36

Annex F (normative) Test procedure for electromagnetic (EM) signal transceiver systems .................46

Annex G (normative) Particular performance requirements and tests for CCTV system with

surround view ......................................................................................................................................................................................................53

Annex H (normative) Particular performance requirements and tests for visual ODS ...............................55

Annex I (normative) Test procedure for vision systems based on morphological recognition ...........62

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................74

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
ISO 16001:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 127, Earth-moving machinery,

Subcommittee SC 1, Test methods relating to safety and machine performance.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16001:2008), which has been technically

revised.
The main change compared to the previous edition is as follows:

— Annex G, Annex H and Annex I have been added to include state-of-the-art technologies.

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
ISO 16001:2017(E)
Introduction

This document outlines test procedures and sets criteria for the development of object detection

systems (ODSs) and visibility aids (VAs) which indicate to the operator the presence of objects which

are within the detection zone of these systems.

Proper job-site organization, operator training and the application of relevant vision standards

(ISO 5006 and ISO 14401) address the safety of people on job sites. In some cases, vision of the working

area cannot be achieved either by the operator's direct view or indirect view using mirrors. In such

cases, operator awareness can be improved by the use of ODSs and VAs.

ODSs and VAs provide information to the operator as to whether a person or object is in the path of the

machine, primarily during rearward movement.

It is essential to note that ODSs and VAs have both advantages and disadvantages. There is no device

that works perfectly in all situations. It is especially important that the shortcomings of ODSs and VAs

be recognized and known to system users. The advantages and disadvantages of selected devices are

summarized in Annex A.

The use of a haptic signal (signal that stimulates the operator’s sense of touch, vibration, force and

motion) as an alternative to the use of visual and audible signals in ODS warning devices was discussed

during the revision of this document, as haptic warnings are now being used in the automotive industry.

While this document does not currently allow warning devices that only use haptic signals, they can be

incorporated into the warning device to supplement the visual and audible signal. More study is needed

to determine the effectiveness of a haptic signal in various earth-moving machinery applications.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16001:2017(E)
Earth-moving machinery — Object detection systems and
visibility aids — Performance requirements and tests
1 Scope

This document specifies general requirements and describes methods for evaluating and testing

the performance of object detection systems (ODSs) and visibility aids (VAs) used on earth-moving

machines. It covers the following aspects:

— detection or visibility or both of objects including people in the detection zone;

— visual, audible, or both warnings to the operator and if appropriate to the persons in the

detection zone;
— operational reliability of the system;
— compatibility and environmental specifications of the system.

It is applicable to machines as defined in ISO 6165. An ODS, VA or both can be used to augment the

operator’s direct vision (see ISO 5006) or indirect vision using mirrors (see ISO 14401). In addition, an

ODS, VA or both can be used to provide additional means of object detection or view, for example, where

ergonomic considerations limit the effectiveness of direct vision and to avoid repeated turning of the

head and upper body.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3411, Earth-moving machinery — Physical dimensions of operators and minimum operator space

envelope

ISO 6394, Earth-moving machinery — Determination of emission sound pressure level at operator's

position — Stationary test conditions

ISO 9533, Earth-moving machinery — Machine-mounted audible travel alarms and forward horns — Test

methods and performance criteria
ISO 13766, Earth-moving machinery — Electromagnetic compatibility

ISO 15998, Earth-moving machinery — Machine-control systems (MCS) using electronic components —

Performance criteria and tests for functional safety

EN 50132-7:1996, Alarm systems — CCTV surveillance systems for use in security applications —

Application guidelines
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
ISO 16001:2017(E)
3.1
object detection system
ODS

system that detects objects, including people, that are in the detection zone (3.3) and warns the operator

Note 1 to entry: The system generally includes a sensing device (3.1.1), warning device (3.1.2) and evaluation

device (3.1.3).

Note 2 to entry: An ODS which operates by detection of a visual image is a visual object detection system.

Note 3 to entry: The system can also warn the person on the ground.
3.1.1
sensing device
ODS (3.1) component that detects a test body (3.4) in the detection zone (3.3)
3.1.2
warning device

ODS (3.1) component that transmits information to the operator or to persons in the detection zone

(3.3) by visual or audible or both signals
3.1.3
evaluation device

ODS (3.1) component or components that analyse the signals and information transmitted from the

sensing device and transform the corresponding signal to the warning device (3.1.2)

3.2
visibility aid
system that provides indirect visibility without a warning device (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: The system generally includes one or more monitors (3.2.1) and cameras (3.2.2).

3.2.1
monitor

VA (3.2) component that provides a visual image of the detection zone (3.3) on a screen

3.2.2
camera

VA (3.2) component that transmits to the monitor an image of the detection zone (3.3)

3.3
detection zone

zone within which a test body (3.4) is detected by an ODS (3.1) or is shown by a VA (3.2)

3.4
test body

person or a standard measuring unit representative of a person, used to test the geometry and size of

the detection zone (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: Depending on the system used, test bodies can be varied (see Annexes B to I).

3.5
self-checking

capability of the system to self-check continuously and immediately to inform the operator, audibly,

visually, or both, of a failure
3.6
detection time

time required for an object detection system to detect the test body (3.4) in the detection zone (3.3) and

activate the signal output
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
ISO 16001:2017(E)
3.7
stand-by

operation mode whereby the object detection and visibility aid systems are active, but no information

is transmitted by the warning device (3.1.2) or monitor (3.2.1)
3.8
job-site organization

rules and procedures for managing the working together of machines and people at a job site

EXAMPLE Safety instructions, traffic patterns, restricted areas, operator training, machine and vehicle

markings, communications systems.
3.9
warning range

range within the detection zone (3.3) in which a distinctive warning is provided to indicate the range

between the machine and the object being detected
4 Performance requirements and tests
4.1 General requirements
4.1.1 Test to determine the detection zone boundary

The test shall be performed on a system that is either fitted to the machine or to a representative

configuration in accordance with the appropriate annex (see Annexes B to Annex I).

4.1.2 Test body requirements
The test body requirements are specified in Annex B to Annex I.
4.1.3 Evaluation of test results
4.1.3.1 Detection

Detection shall take place unambiguously with an uninterrupted sequence of the signal or information

appropriate to the detection zone. For further details, see Annex B to Annex I.

It is possible to combine ODSs and VAs to cover the necessary detection zone in the case where a single

system cannot cover the zone.

EXAMPLE A surround view system can be combined with another object detection system, whose detection

zone covers the area where the image size achieved by the surround view system is less than required.

4.1.3.2 Evaluation of false signals
False signals, such as the following, should be minimized:
— from objects outside the detection zone;
— from weather conditions of fog, snow, rain, wind, dust, etc.
4.2 Location and fixing of ODS and VA components

Components shall be located and arranged on the machine in accordance with the specification of the

component manufacturer so that
— the component does not restrict any function or operation of the machine,
— the component is protected against external damage,
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
ISO 16001:2017(E)

— the component is affixed to the machine so as to deter unauthorized disablement or removal,

— the component is mounted so as to limit exposure to, or amplification of, dynamic loads, temperature,

shock or vibration that could prematurely damage the device,

— the attachment and fixings of ODSs and VAs component do not affect the integrity of the protective

structures, e.g. rollover protective structures (ROPS).
4.3 Operator station components
4.3.1 Location and images of monitor

The monitor shall be located such that it is in the 180° arc centred in front of the operator.

The image on the monitor should be displayed in the most intuitively logical way for the application, as

in the following examples.

— The image of a rear view camera is commonly displayed as a mirror image (see Figure 1).

— The image of a front view camera is commonly displayed as a “normal” image.

— The image from a side-mounted camera looking downwards is commonly displayed as “normal”

image.

— The image from a side-mounted camera looking rearwards could be displayed either as a “normal”

or “mirror” image.

— A 360° “surround view” image is commonly displayed as a “normal” image (see Figure 2).

Key
1 top of monitor 3 right side of monitor
2 left side of monitor 4 bottom of monitor

Figure 1 — Example of a mirror image on the monitor covering the area behind the machine

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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
ISO 16001:2017(E)
1 2
Image
Key
1 mock surround view of machine 6 ground in front of machine
2 top of monitor 7 ground to right
3 right side of monitor 8 ground in rear of machine
4 left side of monitor 9 ground to left
5 bottom of monitor

Figure 2 — Example of a normal image on the monitor showing the surround view around

the machine

The monitor should be within 1,2 m of the operator’s eye point. If the monitor location is more than

1,2 m of operator’s eye point, the displayed images shall be proportionally enlarged according to the

monitor. The test requirements shall be according to B.8.2, G.4 and G.5. The monitor shall be positioned

so as to minimize the glare caused by direct sunlight.

NOTE Factors that influence an operator’s ability to detect a person on the monitor are the position of the

monitor within the cab, the distance of the operator from the monitor, the size and resolution of monitor, the

ambient lighting, the lens on the camera and the distance of the object from the lens.

4.3.2 Warning devices for ODS

Both audible and visual warning devices are required for an ODS. These devices shall provide indications

to the operator and may provide indications to workers and other persons present at the work site.

4.3.2.1 Audible devices

Operator station warning devices shall be set at, or shall automatically adjust to, a level at least 3 dB

higher than the ambient noise level as measured at maximum governed speed under no load.

All in-cab warnings should be selected so that they are clearly audible at the operator station. The

warning signal should be in the frequency range 500 Hz to 3 400 Hz.
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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
ISO 16001:2017(E)

In-cab alarms shall be distinguishable from other sounds (for example, warnings or machinery noise)

in the operator's station.

NOTE Distinctiveness of the alarm can be achieved by varying the spectral characteristics and the temporal

distribution of the signals (see ISO 9533).
4.3.2.2 Visual devices

A green system-status light shall inform the operator that the system is powered and functional. The

status light may be continuous or may turn off after the function check is completed.

The warning signals in the cab shall be located such that it is in the 120° arc centred in front of the

operator and shall be bright enough to be viewed under sunlight operating conditions. Appropriate

shielding may be used to reduce the effect of direct sunlight onto the visual display unit.

The warning signals shall be distinguishable from other instrument panel warnings; the most severe

warning shall be a flashing red light.
4.3.2.3 External machine-mounted warning devices

If an external machine-mounted audible warning device is fitted as part of the ODS to alert workers and

other persons at the worksite, then the external alarms shall comply with ISO 9533.

External machine-mounted visual warning devices, when fitted, shall be visible to people in the

detection zone.
4.4 System activation and initial check
4.4.1 System activation on engine start

The system shall activate automatically on engine start or power-on, shall perform an initial system

check, and shall give a proper function indication.

NOTE For a visibility aid, displaying the image from a camera on the monitor fulfils this requirement.

In the case of an ODS malfunction, a warning shall be given to the operator.
4.4.2 System activation from stand-by mode

The system may remain in stand-by mode unless the relevant machine movement mode is selected.

If stand-by mode is provided, the system shall wake up and provide information from the camera or

sensor about the direction of the machine motion when the machine moves.

If multiple cameras or sensors are fitted, the system shall provide the camera view or sensor signal

appropriate to the direction of travel or other machine movement, for example:

— by using multiple monitors or multiple indicators, each of which provides information about its

corresponding camera or sensor;

— by using a single monitor or indicator which sequentially provides information about multiple

cameras or sensors;

— by using a single monitor or indicator which simultaneously provides information about multiple

cameras or sensors.
4.5 ODS detection time

After the introduction of an object to be detected, the ODS detection time shall not exceed 300 ms.

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SIST EN ISO 16001:2018
ISO 16001:2017(E)
4.6 Continuous
...

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