Baths for domestic purposes

This European Standard specifies "characteristics", test methods and procedures for evaluation of conformity for baths used for domestic purposes and personal hygiene, which ensure that the product, when installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, will satisfy requirements for cleanability and durability.
This European Standard is applicable to all sizes and shapes of baths.
This European Standard does not cover baths for use with medical provisions.
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this standard the term "domestic purposes" includes use in hotels, accommodation for students, hospitals and similar buildings.
NOTE 2   Annex A lists characteristics of materials commonly used for manufacturing baths.

Badewannen für den Hausgebrauch

Diese Europäische Norm legt "Eigenschaften", Prüfverfahren sowie Verfahren zur Bewertung der Konformi¬tät für Badewannen für den Hausgebrauch und persönliche Hygiene fest, die sicherstellen, dass das in Über¬einstimmung mit den Herstelleranweisungen eingebaute und gepflegte Produkt für die Nutzung zur persön¬lichen Hygiene die Anforderungen an die Reinigbarkeit und Dauerhaftigkeit erfüllt.
Diese Europäische Norm ist auf alle Größen und Formen von Badewannen anwendbar.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für Badewannen für spezielle medizinische Anwendungen.
ANMERKUNG 1   Der Begriff „für den Hausgebrauch“ in dieser Norm schließt die Verwendung in Hotels, Studenten-wohnheimen, Krankenhäusern und ähnlichen Einrichtungen ein.
ANMERKUNG 2   Anhang A führt Eigenschaften von Werkstoffen auf, die üblicherweise für die Herstellung von Bade-wannen eingesetzt werden.

Baignoires à usage domestique

"La présente Norme européenne" détermine les !caractéristiques", les méthodes d'essai et les modes opératoires pour l'évaluation de la conformité des baignoires à usage domestique et hygiène personnelle assurant que le produit, lorsqu'il est installé et entretenu conformément aux instructions du fabricant, répond aux exigences de l’aptitude au nettoyage et de durabilité.
"La présente Norme européenne" s'applique à toutes les formes et tailles de baignoires.
"La présente Norme européenne" ne couvre pas les baignoires utilisées avec des dispositions médicales.
NOTE 1   Pour les besoins de la présente norme, l’expression "à usage domestique" comprend les utilisations dans les hôtels, les logements d’étudiants, les hôpitaux et bâtiments similaires.
NOTE 2   L'Annexe A dresse la liste des caractéristiques des matériaux généralement utilisés pour la fabrication des baignoires.

Kopalne kadi za domačo uporabo

Ta evropski standard določa »karakteristike«, preskusne metode in postopke za oceno skladnosti za kopalne kadi za domačo uporabo in osebno higieno, s katerimi se zagotavlja, da bo proizvod, ki je nameščen in vzdrževan v skladu z navodili proizvajalca, izpolnjeval zahteve glede čiščenja in trpežnosti.
Ta evropski standard se uporablja za vse velikosti in oblike kopalnih kadi.
Ta evropski standard ne zajema kadi za uporabo, za katero veljajo medicinska določila.
OPOMBA 1:   Za namen tega standarda izraz »domača uporaba« vključuje uporabo v hotelih, namestitvah za študente, bolnišnicah in podobnih stavbah.
OPOMBA 2:   V Dodatku A so navedene značilnosti materialov, ki se običajno uporabljajo za izdelavo kadi.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Nov-2018
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Due Date
04-Mar-2021
Completion Date
11-May-2021

RELATIONS

Effective Date
13-Jun-2018
Effective Date
13-Jun-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Badewannen für den HausgebrauchBaignoires à usage domestiqueBaths for domestic purposes91.140.70Sanitarne napraveSanitary installationsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14516:2015+A1:2018SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019en,fr,de01-januar-2019SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 14516:20151DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 14516:2015+A1
November
t r s z ICS
{ sä s v rä y r Supersedes EN
s v w s xã t r s wEnglish Version
Baths for domestic purposes Baignoires à usage domestique
Badewannen für den Hausgebrauch This European Standard was approved by CEN on
t r August
t r s w and includes Amendment
s approved by CEN on
s y May

t r s zä egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s v w s xã t r s w ªA sã t r s z ESIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5 4 Classification ..................................................................................................................................................... 6 5 !Characteristics for type 1 products" ............................................................................................. 6 5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 6 5.2 Cleanability ........................................................................................................................................................ 6 5.2.1 Appearance of surface ................................................................................................................................... 6 5.2.2 Drainage of water ............................................................................................................................................ 6 5.3 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................... 6 5.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 6 5.3.2 Stability of bottom .......................................................................................................................................... 6 5.3.3 Resistance to chemicals and staining agents ........................................................................................ 6 5.3.4 Resistance to temperature changes ......................................................................................................... 7 6 !characteristics for type 2 products" .............................................................................................. 7 6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 6.2 Cleanability ........................................................................................................................................................ 8 6.2.1 Appearance of surface ................................................................................................................................... 8 6.2.2 Drainage of water ............................................................................................................................................ 8 6.3 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................... 8 6.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8 6.3.2 Materials ............................................................................................................................................................. 8 7 Dangerous substances ................................................................................................................................... 8 8 Test methods .................................................................................................................................................... 8 8.1 Stability of the bottom of the bath ............................................................................................................ 8 8.1.1 Test apparatus.................................................................................................................................................. 8 8.1.2 Determination of the load ............................................................................................................................ 8 8.1.3 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................... 9 8.2 Resistance to chemicals and staining agents ........................................................................................ 9 8.2.1 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................. 9 8.2.2 Test apparatus and chemicals .................................................................................................................... 9 8.2.3 Test specimens .............................................................................................................................................. 10 8.2.4 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 10 8.2.5 Expression of results ................................................................................................................................... 11 8.3 Resistance to temperature changes ...................................................................................................... 11 8.3.1 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................................ 11 8.3.2 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 11 9 Marking, labelling and packaging .......................................................................................................... 12 10 Assessment and verification of constancy of performance - AVCP ............................................ 13 10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13 10.2 Type testing .................................................................................................................................................... 13 10.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13 SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 3 10.2.2 Samples, testing and compliance criteria" ...................................................................................... 14 10.3 Factory production control ....................................................................................................................... 15 10.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15 10.3.2 Equipment ....................................................................................................................................................... 15 10.3.3 Raw materials and components .............................................................................................................. 16 10.3.4 Product testing and assessment .............................................................................................................. 16 10.3.5 Non-conforming products ......................................................................................................................... 16 10.3.6 Corrective action ........................................................................................................................................... 16 Annex A (informative)

Materials .......................................................................................................................... 17 A.1 Synthetic materials ...................................................................................................................................... 17 A.2 Ceramic materials......................................................................................................................................... 17 A.2.1 Vitreous china ................................................................................................................................................ 17 A.2.2 Fireclay ............................................................................................................................................................. 17 A.3 Enamelled materials .................................................................................................................................... 17 A.3.1 Enamelled cast iron ..................................................................................................................................... 17 A.3.2 Enamelled steel ............................................................................................................................................. 17 A.4 Stainless steel ................................................................................................................................................. 17 Annex B (informative)

Surfaces of baths ........................................................................................................... 18 Annex ZA (informative)

!Relationship of this European Standard with Regulation (EU) No.305/2011" ............................................................................................................................................ 19 ZA.1 Scope and relevant characteristics ........................................................................................................ 19 ZA.2 System of Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance (AVCP) ...................... 19 ZA.3 Assignment of AVCP tasks ......................................................................................................................... 20 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 21

SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 14516:2015+A1:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 163 “Sanitary appliances”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by August 2020. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 2018-05-17. This document supersedes !EN 14516:2015". The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !". This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. For relationship with EU Construction Products Regulation, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard specifies !characteristics", test methods and procedures for evaluation of conformity for baths used for domestic purposes and personal hygiene, which ensure that the product, when installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, will satisfy requirements for cleanability and durability. This European Standard is applicable to all sizes and shapes of baths. This European Standard does not cover baths for use with medical provisions. NOTE 1 For the purpose of this standard the term “domestic purposes” includes use in hotels, accommodation for students, hospitals and similar buildings. NOTE 2 Annex A lists characteristics of materials commonly used for manufacturing baths. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 232, Baths — Connecting dimensions EN ISO 28706-1:2011, Vitreous and porcelain enamels — Determination of resistance to chemical corrosion — Part 1: Determination of resistance to chemical corrosion by acids at room temperature (ISO 28706-1:2008) EN ISO 28706-2:2011, Vitreous and porcelain enamels — Determination of resistance to chemical corrosion — Part 2: Determination of resistance to chemical corrosion by boiling acids, boiling neutral liquids and/or their vapours (ISO 28706-2:2008) EN ISO 28706-3:2011, Vitreous and porcelain enamels — Determination of resistance to chemical corrosion — Part 3: Determination of resistance to chemical corrosion by alkaline liquids using a hexagonal vessel (ISO 28706-3:2008) 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 bath sanitary appliance used for partial immersion and washing of the human body or parts of it, and for directing water to a waste outlet after use 3.2 cleanability characteristics which allow the surface intended to come into contact with water to be non-absorbent and readily kept visually free from dirt and/or stains when subject to a maintenance regime which may include, when appropriate, specific instructions for use and care specified by the manufacturer 3.3 durability attributes of materials and their surfaces intended to come into contact with water, which allow the anticipated working life of the product SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 6 4 Classification — !Type" 1: Products complying with the requirements of Clause 5. — !Type" 2: Products complying with the requirements of Clause 6. 5 !Characteristics for type 1 products" 5.1 General !With each bath instructions on installation and care shall be provided." NOTE Annex B gives advice which manufacturers can include in their instructions. 5.2 Cleanability 5.2.1 Appearance of surface When a bath is inspected under strong and oblique illumination, the surfaces intended to come into contact with water shall be visibly smooth, non-absorbent and free from inaccessible corners that would impair the cleanability. NOTE Surfaces with cracks, chips, crazing and other similar defects are not considered to be smooth. 5.2.2 Drainage of water Baths shall have at least one waste outlet hole. The dimensions of the waste outlet hole shall comply with the requirements of EN 232. Other dimensions are permissible, if the manufacturer provides or recommends a suitable waste fitting. All water shall empty from the bath unless prevented by surface tension. 5.3 Durability 5.3.1 General Conformance with the requirements of 5.3.2 to 5.3.4 give an assurance of durability. 5.3.2 Stability of bottom When tested in accordance with 8.1, there shall be no permanent distortion or other defects, e.g. cracks, such that the requirements of 5.2.2 are not satisfied. 5.3.3 Resistance to chemicals and staining agents 5.3.3.1 General When baths, other than those made from the materials specified in 5.3.3.2, are tested in accordance with 8.2, the surface finish shall be unaffected by the chemicals and staining agents specified in Table 1, except for superficial surface changes which are removable with water or with water and the specified abrasive agent. SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 7 Table 1 — Chemicals and staining agents Family Product Acids Acetic acid (CH3COOH), 10 % V/V Alkalines Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 5 % m/m Alcohols Ethanol (C2H5OH), 70 % V/V Bleaches Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI), 5 % active chlorine (CI2) a Staining agents Methylene blue, 1 % m/m a The specified bleach may be replaced by sodium percarbonate (2Na2CO3 · 3H2O2) prepared as follows: Dissolve 1 g of a commercial available powdery bleach based on sodium percarbonate containing 15 % to 30 % of the active component in 100 ml deionized water at room temperature. 5.3.3.2 Particular requirements for baths made of enamelled steel and enamelled cast iron Baths made from enamelled steel and enamelled cast iron shall comply with the requirements given in Table 2. Table 2 — Requirements for baths made of enamelled steel and enamelled cast iron Requirement Parameter Test method Resistance to boiling water < 10 g/m2 EN ISO 28706-2:2011, Clause 13 Resistance to cold citric acid !Type" A+ EN ISO 28706-1:2011, Clause 9 Resistance to boiling citric acid < 5 g/m2 EN ISO 28706-2:2011, Clause 10 Resistance to cold sulphuric acid !Type" A+ EN ISO 28706-1:2011, Clause 10 Resistance to alkali solutions < 8 g/m2 Testing in accordance with EN ISO 28706-2:2011, Clause 14 Test solution in accordance with EN ISO 28706-3:2011, Clause 9 Duration of test: 2,5 h 5.3.4 Resistance to temperature changes When tested in accordance with 8.3, all baths shall show no evidence of distortion or other defects, e.g. crazing, which will impair their cleanability. Experience has shown that baths manufactured from the stainless steel grades listed in Annex A, enamelled steel, enamelled cast iron and glazed ceramics comply with this requirement. 6 !characteristics for type 2 products" 6.1 General

!With each bath instructions on installation and care shall be provided." NOTE Annex B gives advice which manufacturers can include in their instructions. SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 8 6.2 Cleanability 6.2.1 Appearance of surface When a bath is inspected under strong and oblique illumination, the surfaces intended to come into contact with water shall be visibly smooth, non-absorbent and free from inaccessible corners that would impair the cleanability. NOTE Surfaces with cracks, chips, crazing and other similar defects are not considered to be smooth. 6.2.2 Drainage of water Baths shall have at least one waste outlet hole. The dimensions of the waste outlet hole shall comply with the requirements of EN 232. Other dimensions are permissible, if the manufacturer provides or recommends a suitable waste fitting. All water shall empty from the bath unless prevented by surface tension. 6.3 Durability 6.3.1 General Baths shall be readily cleanable for their anticipated working life when normal cleaning and maintenance is carried out. 6.3.2 Materials Experience has shown that baths made from plastics materials, enamelled steel, enamelled cast iron, stainless steel, glazed ceramics or glass and their surfaces intended to come into contact with water have the properties described in 6.3.1. 7 Dangerous substances National regulations on dangerous substances may require verification and declaration on release, and sometimes content, when construction products covered by this standard are placed on those markets. In the absence of European harmonised test methods, verification and declaration on release/content should be done taking into account !deleted text" provisions in the place of use. NOTE An informative database covering European and national provisions on dangerous substances is available at the Construction web site on EUROPA and can be accessed through: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/cp-ds/. 8 Test methods 8.1 Stability of the bottom of the bath 8.1.1 Test apparatus — adequate number of reinforced cloth bags each with dimensions of approximately 500 mm x 200 mm filled with lead shot, iron shot or sand of a mass of 25 050+, kg or 12,5 050+, kg. 8.1.2 Determination of the load The load to be applied for the test shall comprise: — adequate number of cloth bags (see 8.1.1) equating to 100 kg for each user intended to use the bath at the same time; SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 9 — adequate number of cloth bags (see 8.1.1) to simulate the mass of water that can be contained in the bath. The load shall equate to the volume of water with an accuracy of +250 kg, if 25 kg bags are used, or +12,50 kg, if 12,5 kg bags are used, when the bath is filled to the overflow. If no overflow is provided the volume to the overspill level shall be used. The volume can be determined by measurement, or values declared in the manufacturer’s documents can be used. 8.1.3 Procedure a) Install the bath in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. b) Position the bags to simulate the mass of water that can be contained along the bottom of the bath as shown in Figure 1. c) Position the adequate number of bags for each user that can use the bath at the same time in separate piles, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Load application (for each user) d) Leave the total load for 10 10+ min. e) Without moving the bags representing the mass of water that can be contained, move the pile(s) of bags representing a user(s) to a different position(s) along the bottom of the bath and leave again for 10 10+min. When a bath has a clearly indicated position for a user to stand or to sit, e.g. a slip resistant feature or a seating area, carry out one loading test with a pile of bags representing a user, at the approximate centre of any such feature. f) On completion of the tests remove all the bags. g) After 10 10+ min verify that the bath complies with 5.3.2 by pouring copious amounts of water coloured in contrast with the colour of the bath around all the inner surface of the sides of the bathing area. 8.2 Resistance to chemicals and staining agents 8.2.1 Principle The test is intended to give an indication of the effect of commonly used household chemicals and cleansing agents. 8.2.2 Test apparatus and chemicals 8.2.2.1 Chemicals and staining agents: A list of chemicals and staining agents to be used is specified in Table 1. Each chemical solution shall be prepared immediately before use with deionized water, and it shall be applied at a temperature (23 ± 5) °C. SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 10 8.2.2.2 Borosilicate watch glasses: 40 mm nominal diameter. 8.2.2.3 Pipettes. 8.2.2.4 Cleaning device: A typical cleaning device is shown in Figure 2. It consists of a disc of 75 mm diameter, faced with synthetic flexible open cell foam 15 mm in thickness. The device is driven by means of a square axle which fits loosely into the device. Any device having a mass of (1 000 ± 50) g can be used. 8.2.2.5 Abrasive comprising 12 h-alumina (suspension of aluminium oxide in water)1).

Key 1 square axle (a = b – 1 mm) 2 disc faced with foam Figure 2 — Cleaning device 8.2.3 Test specimens Carry out the tests on the bottom, and on a flat part of the wall of the bath or on test specimens cut from these areas. 8.2.4 Procedure a) Select an area to be tested.

1) A suitable product is available from MERCK Eurolab-Prolabo, 54 rue Roger Salengro, 94126 Fontenay sous Bois CEDEX, France, as DURMAXTM under product description N° 20993. This information is given for the convenience of users of this standard and does not constitute an endorsement by CEN of these products. SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 11 b) Use each test area only once for each application. Clean the test area thoroughly with hot soapy water, rinse and wipe dry with a clean dry cloth. c) At each of the test areas deposit a drop of the test solution. Cover the drop with a watch glass concave face downwards. The drop size shall be such that it is completely covered by the watch glass. Leave for (120 ± 5) min with the test area protected from sunlight. d) Thoroughly rinse the test areas with deionized water and visually check for any adverse change in appearance. If any deterioration is noticed, dip the foam disc in deionized water and place it on the surface that was tested. Rotate the cleaning device at a speed of 60 min1. Clean for 30 revolutions. e) Rinse with deionized water, dry and visually re-examine the test areas. If any deterioration persists, repeat the cleaning process using the abrasive comprising 12 h-aluminia suspended in water and re-examine. 8.2.5 Expression of results a) Note the exact test area. b) Record: 1) whether or not the reagent causes a stain or deterioration of the surface; 2) whether or not such stain or deterioration is removed, and if so, whether with water or with water including abrasive agent. 8.3 Resistance to temperature changes 8.3.1 Apparatus 8.3.1.1 Water supply capable of discharging cold and hot water with temperatures, flow rates and volumes as defined in 8.3.2. 8.3.1.2 Pipe with a nominal diameter of 22 mm; 8.3.1.3 Thermometer with an accuracy of 1 % at the measured values; 8.3.1.4 Flow meter suitable for measuring a flow rate of (0,32 ± 0,032) l/s. 8.3.2 Procedure a) With the waste outlet open, discharge (50 ± 1) l of water through the pipe positioned not more than 125 mm above the overspill level of the bath. The pipe shall also be positioned so that the water impinges on the side of the bathing area nearest to the waste outlet hole, in a position where a supply fitting is likely to discharge. The temperature of water at the outlet of the pipe shall be (90 ± 2) °C and the flow rate into the bath shall be (0,32 ± 0,032) l/s. b) With the waste outlet closed, discharge immediately afterwards (100 ± 2) l of water at a temperature (12 ± 3) °C at the same flow rate through the same pipe in the same position. c) Leave the water in the bath for 10 10+ min then allow it to drain off. d) With the waste outlet closed, discharge water through the pipe positioned not more than 125 mm above the overspill level of the bath. The pipe shall also be positioned so that the water impinges on the side of the bathing area nearest to the waste outlet hole, in a position where a supply fitting is SIST EN 14516:2015+A1:2019

EN 14516:2015+A1:2018 (E) 12 likely to discharge. The water shall fill the bath to a height of 250 mm minimum above the waste outlet level. The temperature of water at the outlet of the pipe shall be (75 ± 2) °C and the flow rate into the bath shall be (0,32 ± 0,032) l/s. e) Leave the water in the bath for 10 10+ min then allow it to drain off. f) With the waste outlet closed, add immediately afterwards the same volume of cold water with a temperature of (12 ± 3) °C, at the same flow rate through the same pipe in the same position. g) Leave the water in the bath for 10 10+ min then allow it to drain off. h) Repeat this procedure 100 times without interruption. i) After the last cycle, apply over the surface of the bath by means of a sponge or paint brush a solution of eosine in water

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