Cranes - General design - Part 3-4: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery - Bearings

This document is to be used together with EN 13001-1 and EN 13001-2 and as such they specify general conditions, requirements and methods to prevent mechanical hazards of cranes by design and theoretical verification.
NOTE 1 Specific requirements for particular types of crane are given in the appropriate European Standard for the particular crane type.
This document covers bearings in cranes. It is not intended for bearings being part of standard components, e.g. gearboxes, motors - however those bearings shall be designed using load actions from EN 13001-2 and classification parameters of EN 13001-1.
NOTE 2 EN 13001-3-7 is under preparation for gears and gearboxes and deals with load actions for bearings in gear boxes.
The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks to persons during intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. Clauses 4 to 7 of this document are necessary to reduce or eliminate risks associated with the following hazards:
- exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);
- exceeding temperature limits of material or components;
- elastic instability of the crane or its parts (buckling, bulging).
This document is not applicable to cranes which are manufactured before the date of its publication as an EN and serves as reference base for the European Standards for particular crane types (see Annex D).
NOTE EN 13001-3-4 deals only with limit state method in accordance with EN 13001-1.

Krane - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 3-4: Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweise für Maschinenbauteile - Lager

Dieses Dokument ist gemeinsam mit EN 13001 1 und EN 13001 2 anzuwenden; sie legen die allgemeinen Bedingungen, Anforderungen und Methoden zur Vermeidung von Gefahren bei Kranen durch Konstruktion und theoretische Nachweisverfahren fest.
ANMERKUNG 1   Spezifische Anforderungen an bestimmte Krantypen sind in den entsprechenden Europäischen Normen für den jeweiligen Krantypen enthalten.
Dieses Dokument beschäftigt sich mit Lagern in Kranen. Es ist nicht für Lager vorgesehen, die Teil von Normbauteilen, z. B. Getrieben, Motoren, …, sind; derartige Lager müssen jedoch unter Anwendung der Lasteinwirkungen von EN 13001 2 und Klassifizierungsparameter von EN 13001 1 konstruiert werden.
ANMERKUNG 2   EN 13001 3 7 für Zahnräder und Getriebe ist in Vorbereitung und behandelt die Lasteinwirkungen bei Lagern in Getrieben.
Nachfolgend ist eine Auflistung der signifikanten Gefährdungssituationen und Gefährdungsereignisse aufgeführt, die während der bestimmungsgemäßen Verwendung und der vernünftigerweise vorhersehbaren Fehlanwendung zu Risiken für Personen führen könnten. Die Abschnitte 4 bis 7 des vorliegenden Dokuments sind notwendig, um Risiken in Verbindung mit den folgenden Gefährdungen zu mindern oder zu beseitigen:
—   Überschreitung der Festigkeitsgrenzwerte (Fließgrenze, Bruch  und Ermüdungsfestigkeit);
—   Überschreitung von Temperaturgrenzwerten des Werkstoffs oder der Komponenten;
—   elastische Instabilität des Krans oder seiner Teile (Knicken, Ausbeulen).
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für Krane, die vor dem Datum der Veröffentlichung dieses Dokuments als eine Europäische Norm hergestellt wurden und dient als Referenzgrundlage für die Europäischen Normen für bestimmte Krantypen (siehe Anhang D).
ANMERKUNG   EN 13001 3 4 behandelt ausschließlich die Methoden der Grenzzustände nach EN 13001 1.

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Conception générale - Partie 3-4 : États limites et vérification d'aptitude des éléments de mécanismes - Paliers

Le présent document doit être utilisé conjointement avec l’EN 13001-1 et l’EN 13001-2 et dans ce cadre, elles spécifient les conditions générales, les prescriptions et les méthodes visant à prévenir les dangers mécaniques liés aux appareils de levage à charge suspendue par la conception et par la vérification théorique.
NOTE 1 Des prescriptions spécifiques relatives à des types particuliers d’appareil de levage à charge suspendue sont données dans la Norme européenne appropriée au type particulier d’appareil de levage.
Le présent document couvre les paliers des appareils de levage à charge suspendue. Il n’est pas destiné aux paliers faisant partie de composants standards, tels que les réducteurs ou moteurs. Néanmoins, ces paliers doivent être conçus en appliquant les charges de l’EN 13001-2 et les paramètres de classification de l’EN 13001-1.
NOTE 2 L’EN 13001-3-7 relative aux engrenages et réducteurs est en cours d’élaboration et traite des charges s’appliquant aux paliers des réducteurs.
Ce qui suit est une liste de situations et d’événements dangereux significatifs susceptibles d’entraîner des risques pour les personnes lors d’une utilisation normale et d’une mauvaise utilisation raisonnablement prévisible. Les Articles 4 à 7 du présent document sont nécessaires pour réduire ou éliminer les risques associés à ces phénomènes dangereux :
- dépassement des limites de résistance (élasticité, rupture, fatigue) ;
- dépassement des limites de température du matériau ou des composants ;
- instabilité élastique de l’appareil de levage à charge suspendue ou de ses parties (flambage, voilement).
La présente Norme européenne ne s’applique pas aux appareils de levage à charge suspendue fabriqués avant sa date de publication en norme EN, et fait office de référence pour les Normes européennes relatives aux types particuliers d’appareil de levage à charge suspendue (voir Annexe D).
NOTE L’EN 13001-3-4 traite uniquement de la méthode des états limites conformément à l’EN 13001-1.

Žerjavi - Konstrukcija, splošno - 3-4. del: Mejna stanja in dokaz varnosti mehanizma - Ležaji

Ta evropski standard je namenjen uporabi s standardoma EN 13001-1 in EN 13001-2. Ti standardi skupaj določajo splošne pogoje, zahteve in metode za preprečevanje mehanskih nevarnosti žerjavov s preverjanjem konstrukcije in teoretičnih predpostavk.
OPOMBA:   Posebne zahteve za posamezne vrste žerjavov so navedene v ustreznem evropskem standardu za posamezne vrste žerjavov.
Ta evropski standard zajema ležaje, ki jih ne obravnavajo drugi standardi EN 13001.
Spodaj je naveden seznam pomembnih nevarnih razmer in dogodkov, zaradi katerih bi lahko prišlo do ogroženosti oseb med nameravano uporabo in razumno predvideno nepravilno uporabo. Točki 4 in 7 v tem standardu sta potrebni za omejitev ali odpravo tveganj, povezanih z naslednjimi nevarnostmi:
– prekoračitev mej trdnosti (meja prožnosti, končna meja, meja utrujanja);
– prekoračitev temperaturnih omejitev materiala ali komponent;
– elastična nestabilnost žerjava ali njegovih delov (uklon, izbočenost).
Ta evropski standard se ne uporablja za žerjave, ki so izdelani pred datumom objave te publikacije kot standarda EN, in se uporablja kot referenčna osnova evropskim standardom za posamezne vrste žerjavov.
OPOMBA:   Standard prEN 13001-3-4 v skladu s standardom EN 13001-1 obravnava le metodo mejnega stanja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Dec-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
05-Dec-2018
Completion Date
05-Dec-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 13001-3-4:2019
01-april-2019
Žerjavi - Konstrukcija, splošno - 3-4. del: Mejna stanja in dokaz varnosti
mehanizma - Ležaji

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Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 13001-3-4:2018
ICS:
21.100.01 Ležaji na splošno Bearings in general
53.020.20 Dvigala Cranes
SIST EN 13001-3-4:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 13001-3-4:2019
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SIST EN 13001-3-4:2019
EN 13001-3-4
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 21.100.01; 53.020.20
English Version
Cranes - General design - Part 3-4: Limit states and proof
of competence of machinery - Bearings

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Conception Krane - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 3-4:

générale - Partie 3-4 : États limites et vérification Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweise für

d'aptitude des éléments de mécanismes - Paliers Maschinenbauteile - Lager
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 22 July 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 13001-3-4:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 13001-3-4:2019
EN 13001-3-4:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions, symbols and abbreviations ........................................................................... 7

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

3.2 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 8

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

4.1 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 15

4.2 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 15

4.2.1 Grades and qualities for slewing rings ................................................................................................. 15

4.2.2 Grades and qualities for rolling bearings, except slewing rings ................................................. 16

4.2.3 Materials for plain bearings ..................................................................................................................... 16

4.3 Bearings ........................................................................................................................................................... 17

4.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

4.3.2 Slewing rings .................................................................................................................................................. 17

4.3.3 Rolling bearings ............................................................................................................................................ 20

4.3.4 Plain bearings ................................................................................................................................................ 21

4.4 Proofs of competence for bearings ........................................................................................................ 25

5 Proof of static strength ............................................................................................................................... 26

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

5.2 Limit design stresses and forces ............................................................................................................. 26

5.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

5.2.2 Limit design forces and stresses for slewing rings .......................................................................... 26

5.2.3 Execution of the proof for slewing rings .............................................................................................. 40

5.2.4 Limit design forces and stresses for rolling bearings ..................................................................... 41

5.2.5 Execution of the proof for rolling bearings ......................................................................................... 43

5.2.6 Limit design forces and stresses for plain bearings ........................................................................ 44

5.2.7 Execution of the proof for plain bearings ............................................................................................ 49

6 Proof of endurance and fatigue strength ............................................................................................. 49

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 49

6.2 Slewing rings .................................................................................................................................................. 49

6.2.1 Design dynamic loads and load ratings ................................................................................................ 49

6.2.2 Fatigue strength of the fixing elements ................................................................................................ 56

6.2.3 Execution of the proof for slewing rings .............................................................................................. 57

6.3 Rolling bearings ............................................................................................................................................ 59

6.3.1 Design dynamic loads and load ratings ................................................................................................ 59

6.3.2 Execution of the proof for rolling bearings ......................................................................................... 62

6.4 Plain bearings ................................................................................................................................................ 65

6.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 65

6.4.2 Cylindrical plain bearings ......................................................................................................................... 65

6.4.3 Spherical plain bearings ............................................................................................................................ 69

6.4.4 Execution of the proof of endurance for plain bearings ................................................................ 73

6.4.5 Plain bearing design life ............................................................................................................................ 75

7 Proof of elastic stability ............................................................................................................................. 75

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Annex A (informative) Calculation factors and guide load ratings of slewing rings ........................... 76

A.1 Excess load factor K ............................................................................................................................... 76

rep

A.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 76

A.1.2 Analytical method of determining K ............................................................................................... 77

rep

A.2 Influence factors ........................................................................................................................................... 78

A.2.1 Proof of static strength ............................................................................................................................... 78

A.2.1.1 Factor for shear in sub-hardened layer f ........................................................................................... 78

A.2.1.2 Factor for surface hardness f ................................................................................................................. 79

A.2.2 Proof of fatigue strength: factor f′ for sub-hardened layer ....................................................... 79

A.2.3 Proof of fatigue strength: Inclusion factor f′ ................................................................................... 80

A.2.4 Proof of fatigue strength: Surface hardness factor f′ ................................................................... 80

A.3 Guidelines for various load ratings ........................................................................................................ 81

A.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 81

A.3.2 Guide value of limit design static axial load rating C for slewing rings with ball

0aRd

bearings ............................................................................................................................................................ 81

A.3.3 Guide value of limit design static load ratings C and C for slewing rings
0a,Rd 0r,Rd

with roller bearing ....................................................................................................................................... 82

A.3.3.1 Limit design static axial load rating C ........................................................................................ 82

0a,Rd

A.3.3.2 Limit design static radial load rating C (three-row roller bearing) ................................ 82

0r,Rd

A.3.4 Basic dynamic axial load rating C of a slewing ring with ball bearings .................................. 83

A.3.4.1 Single-row with 4 contact points and double-row with 2 point contacts ................................. 83

A.3.4.2 Double-row with 4 contact points .......................................................................................................... 84

A.3.5 Basic dynamic load ratings C and C of a slewing ring with roller bearings ......................... 84

a r

A.3.5.1 Basic dynamic axial load rating C ......................................................................................................... 84

A.3.5.2 Basic dynamic radial load rating C (three-row roller bearing) ................................................. 85

A.4 Fixing elements: alternative calculation of the design stress σ .............................................. 85

A.4.1 Bolt prying moment M ............................................................................................................................ 85

A.4.2 Normal design stress σ ........................................................................................................................... 90

A.4.3 Calculation of the lever arm s ................................................................................................................ 90

Annex B (informative) Proof of fatigue strength of slewing ring raceway: calculation of load

history parameter s (example) ............................................................................................................ 92

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 92

B.2 Working cycles ............................................................................................................................................... 92

B.2.1 Type of crane .................................................................................................................................................. 92

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B.2.2 Description of the sequence of movements ........................................................................................ 93

B.3 Description of the slewing ring ............................................................................................................... 94

B.3.1 Type of slewing ring .................................................................................................................................... 94

B.3.2 Main data ......................................................................................................................................................... 95

B.4 Proof of fatigue strength ............................................................................................................................ 95

B.4.1 Load combinations ...................................................................................................................................... 95

B.4.2 Dynamic axial equivalent loads P for supporting/retaining raceways ............................... 97

a,i

B.4.3 Dynamic radial equivalent loads P for radial raceway .............................................................. 99

r,i

B.4.4 Classification of the raceways .................................................................................................................. 99

B.4.4.1 Supporting raceway .................................................................................................................................... 99

B.4.4.2 Retaining raceway ..................................................................................................................................... 100

B.4.4.3 Radial raceway ............................................................................................................................................ 101

Annex C (informative) Equivalence of proofs of fatigue strength of slewing rings and rolling

bearings according to EN 13001 method and ISO 281 one ......................................................... 103

Annex D (informative) Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application ..... 105

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC ..................................................................................... 107

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................... 108

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EN 13001-3-4:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 13001-3-4:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147

“Cranes - Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annexes ZA, which are an integral part of this

document.

This European Standard is one Part of the EN 13001 series. The other parts are as follows:

— Part 1: General principles and requirements;
— Part 2: Load actions;
— Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel structures;

— Part 3-2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire ropes in reeving systems;

— Part 3-3: Limit states and proof of competence of wheel/rail contacts;
— Part 3-5: Limit states and proof of competence of forged hooks;

— Part 3-6: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery — Hydraulic cylinders;

— Part 3-7: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery — Gears;
— Part 3-8: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery — Shafts.
Annexes A, B, C and D are informative.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,

Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

the United Kingdom.
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EN 13001-3-4:2018 (E)
1 Scope

This document is to be used together with EN 13001-1 and EN 13001-2 and as such they specify general

conditions, requirements and methods to prevent mechanical hazards of cranes by design and theoretical

verification.

NOTE 1 Specific requirements for particular types of crane are given in the appropriate European Standard for

the particular crane type.

This document covers bearings in cranes. It is not intended for bearings being part of standard

components, e.g. gearboxes, motors … however those bearings shall be designed using load actions from

EN 13001-2 and classification parameters of EN 13001-1.

NOTE 2 EN 13001-3-7 is under preparation for gears and gearboxes and deals with load actions for bearings in

gear boxes.

The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks

to persons during intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. Clauses 4 to 7 of this document are

necessary to reduce or eliminate risks associated with the following hazards:
— exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);
— exceeding temperature limits of material or components;
— elastic instability of the crane or its parts (buckling, bulging).

This document is not applicable to cranes which are manufactured before the date of its publication as

an EN and serves as reference base for the European Standards for particular crane types (see Annex D).

NOTE EN 13001-3-4 deals only with limit state method in accordance with EN 13001-1.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 10083-1:2006, Steels for quenching and tempering — Part 1: General technical delivery conditions

EN 10247:2017, Micrographic examination of the non-metallic inclusion content of steels using standard

pictures

EN 13001-1, Cranes — General design — Part 1: General principles and requirements

EN 13001-2, Crane safety — General design — Part 2: Load actions

EN 13001-3-1, Cranes — General design — Part 3-1: limit states and proof of competence of steel structure

EN ISO 148-1, Metallic materials, Charpy pendulum impact test — Part 1: Test method (ISO 148-1)

EN ISO 683-17, Heat-treated steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 17: Ball and roller bearing

steels (ISO 683-17)

EN ISO 4287:1998, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Terms,

definitions and surface texture parameters (ISO 4287)
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EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk

reduction (ISO 12100:2010)
ISO 76:2006, Rolling bearings — Static load ratings
ISO 281:2007, Rolling bearings — Dynamic load ratings and rating life
ISO 4306-1:2007, Cranes — Vocabulary — Part 1: General
3 Terms and definitions, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 12100:2010 and

ISO 4306-1:2007, Clause 6 for the definitions of loads, and the following applies.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
plain bearing

bearing in which the type of relative movement is sliding but with the exclusion of those operating under

conditions of hydrodynamic lubrication
3.1.2
rolling bearing

bearing operating with rolling motion between the parts supporting load and moving in relation to each

other, which comprises raceway members and rolling elements with or without means for their spacing

and/or guiding

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, it is designed to support radial, axial, or combined radial and

axial load.
[SOURCE: ISO 5593, modified]
3.1.3
slewing ring
slewing ring bearing

large-size rolling-element bearing providing a connection between two adjacent structures and allowing

rotation and transmission of loads between them (axial and radial loads and a tilting moment)

Note 1 to entry: Slewing ring is usually provided with holes for fixing bolts, with internal or external gear

facilitating the rotation of one structure relative to the other and with lubrication and seals.

3.1.4
nominal contact angle

angle between a plane perpendicular to a bearing axis (a radial plane) and the nominal line of action of

the resultant of the forces transmitted by a bearing ring or washer to a rolling element (see

reference 04.02.10 in Figure 1 below)
[see SOURCE: ISO 5593:1997, definition 04.02.10 and Figures 93, 94]
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EN 13001-3-4:2018 (E)
Figure 1 — Rolling bearings dimensions
3.2 Symbols and abbreviations
The symbols and abbreviations used in this document are given in Table 1.
Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviations
Symbols,
Description
abbreviations
Life modification factor for reliability (ISO 281:2007)
A Apportionment factor for axial load F (slewing ring)
pF a
A Apportionment factor for tilting moment M (slewing ring)
pM r
Bolt stress area (fixing element)
b Distance between two adjacent bolts (slewing ring)
C Total number of working cycles (EN 13001-1)
Basic dynamic axial load rating (ISO 281:2007)
Basic dynamic radial load rating (ISO 281:2007)
Limit design dynamic axial load (slewing ring, rolling bearing)
a,Rd
Limit design dynamic radial load (slewing ring, rolling bearing)
r,Rd
Basic static axial load rating (slewing ring, rolling bearing, spherical plain
bearing)
Basic static radial load rating (slewing ring, rolling bearing, spherical plain
bearing)
Limit design static axial load rating (slewing ring)
0a,Rd
Limit design static radial load rating (slewing ring)
0r,Rd
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EN 13001-3-4:2018 (E)
Symbols,
Description
abbreviations
Tightening torque
Internal diameter (thrust washer)
External diameter (thrust washer, flanged bush)
Pitch Circle Diameter of rolling elements (denoted D in ISO 76 and
ISO 281)
Pitch Circle Diameter of fixing elements
Ball diameter (rolling element)
Roller diameter (rolling element)
Nominal diameter of a screw/bolt (slewing ring); shaft diameter (plain
bearing)
Sphere diameter of a spherical plain bearing
E Modulus of elasticity
Modulus of elasticity of a bolt
Modulus of elasticity of a slewing ring supporting flange
Distance (lever arm) between external force F and the centre of the
supporting width 2 · u of the slewing ring
Lever arm of external load F to bolt axis (slewing ring)
Distance between bolt axis and the centre of the supporting width 2 · u of the
slewing ring
Axial load
Axial load, range i (fatigue)
a,i
Bolt load
Fatigue bolt load
b,f
Equivalent bolt load
b,2
Slewing ring contact load
Limit force
External load (slewing ring)
Critical opening force for a slewing ring
e,cr
Design maximum external load
e,max
Design maximum fatigue external load
e,f,max
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Symbols,
Description
abbreviations
Minimal preload in bolts
p,min
Design plain bearing force
pb,Sd
Radial load (slewing ring)
Radial load, range i (fatigue)
r,i
Limit design forces
Design dynamic load (plain bearing)
Sd,f,i
Mean equivalent radial load (plain bearing)
Sd,f,eq
Bolt yield force
Calculation factor (ISO 281:2007)
Reliability factor (fatigue, slewing ring and rolling bearing)
Inclusion factor (fatigue slewing ring)
Factor for additional influences (fatigue)
Surface hardness factor (fatigue)
Limit design stress
Fixing element ultimate strength
Yield stress of material
Fixing element yield stress
Factor for calculation of basic static load rating (ISO 76:2006)
Factor for shear in slewing ring sub-hardened layer (static)
f Factor for shear in slewing ring sub-hardened layer (fatigue)
Deformation influence factor for slewing ring (static)
f Deformation influence factor for slewing ring (fatigue)
Surface hardness factor (static)
Height of slewing ring
ring
Height of tubular shell (slewing ring)
Moment of inertia of a bolt (slewing ring)
Moment of inertia of slewing ring supporting flange
Excess load factor for raceway (slewing ring, static and fatigue)
rep;
rep
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SIST EN 13001-3-4:2019
EN 13001-3-4:2018 (E)
Symbols,
Description
abbreviations
Excess load factor for bolts (slewing ring)
rep,b
Dynamic pressure spectrum factor (plain bearing)
Dynamic load spectrum factor (slewing ring)
Dynamic load spectrum factor (rolling bearing)
Axial loading offset (plain bearing)
Length of plain bearing
L ; L
Internal and external chamfers of plain bearing
ci ce
Length of equivalent elastic beam (slewing ring)
Radial loading offset (plain bearing)
Length between supports of equivalent beam (slewing ring)
Effective clamping length
Tilting moment (slewing ring)
Tilting moment, range i (fatigue)
r,i
Bolt prying moment (slewing ring)
m Slope constant of the log p-log N curve (plain bearing)
N Shaft rotational speed (plain bearing)
Total n
...

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