Selection, use, care and maintenance of personal protective equipment for preventing electrostatic risks in hazardous areas (explosion risks)

This Technical Report sets out guidance for the selection, use, care and maintenance of clothing and related items of personal protective equipment designed to prevent hazards caused by static electricity in hazardous areas.
Static electricity should not be confused with mains supply electricity, or other forms of electric current; the requirements for protection against static electricity are different to the requirements for protection against hazards associated with electric current. Protection against electrostatic risks should not be confused with protection against electric arc; the former is concerned with electrical properties and the latter is concerned with heat, flame and projectile protection.
Directive 89/686/EEC requires that PPE intended for use in explosive atmospheres must be so designed and manufactured that it cannot be the source of an electric, electrostatic or impact-induced arc or spark likely to cause an explosive mixture to ignite. Whereas this Technical Report addresses electrostatic ignition risks, it does not address other possible sources of ignition. Nevertheless, other possible sources of ignition are required to be considered when certifying PPE to the requirements of Directive 89/686/EEC.
NOTE   EN 13463-1 gives guidance on assessing possible ignition sources in non-electrical equipment that may be used for some items of PPE.

Izbira, uporaba, nega in vzdrževanje osebne varovalne opreme za preprečevanje elektrostatičnih tveganj v nevarnih območjih (tveganja eksplozije)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Apr-2015
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
22-Apr-2015
Completion Date
24-Apr-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/CLC/TR 16832:2015
01-julij-2015
,]ELUDXSRUDEDQHJDLQY]GUåHYDQMHRVHEQHYDURYDOQHRSUHPH]DSUHSUHþHYDQMH
HOHNWURVWDWLþQLKWYHJDQMYQHYDUQLKREPRþMLK WYHJDQMDHNVSOR]LMH

Selection, use, care and maintenance of personal protective equipment for preventing

electrostatic risks in hazardous areas (explosion risks)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/CLC/TR 16832:2015
ICS:
13.230 Varstvo pred eksplozijo Explosion protection
13.340.01 Varovalna oprema na Protective equipment in
splošno general
SIST-TP CEN/CLC/TR 16832:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/CLC/TR 16832:2015
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SIST-TP CEN/CLC/TR 16832:2015
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/CLC/TR 16832
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
April 2015
ICS 13.340.01
English version
Selection, use, care and maintenance of personal protective
equipment for preventing electrostatic risks in hazardous areas
(explosion risks)

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 21 March 2015. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JWG 7.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/CLC/TR 16832:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members and for CENELEC
Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword.............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 6

3 Term and definitions ............................................................................................................................. 7

4 Selection ............................................................................................................................................... 12

4.1 General.................................................................................................................................................. 12

4.2 Risk assessment .................................................................................................................................. 15

4.2.1 Explosive atmospheres....................................................................................................................... 15

4.2.2 Explosives and pyrotechnic articles ................................................................................................. 17

4.3 Selection of electrostatic dissipative protective clothing ............................................................... 18

4.4 Selection of gloves .............................................................................................................................. 19

4.5 Selection of footwear and leg protection .......................................................................................... 19

4.6 Selection of other items of PPE ......................................................................................................... 20

4.6.1 General.................................................................................................................................................. 20

4.6.2 Selection of head protection .............................................................................................................. 20

4.6.3 Selection of hearing protection .......................................................................................................... 21

4.6.4 Selection of eye and face protection ................................................................................................. 21

4.6.5 Selection of respiratory protection .................................................................................................... 21

4.6.6 Selection of hand and arm protection other than gloves ................................................................ 21

4.6.7 Selection of protection against falls from a height including working belts ................................ 21

4.6.8 Buoyance aids and personal floatation devices .............................................................................. 22

4.7 Marking ................................................................................................................................................. 22

5 Use ........................................................................................................................................................ 22

5.1 Earthing and equipotential bonding .................................................................................................. 22

5.1.1 General.................................................................................................................................................. 22

5.1.2 Resistance to earth limits ................................................................................................................... 23

5.1.3 Earthing personnel .............................................................................................................................. 24

5.1.4 Earthing PPE ........................................................................................................................................ 25

5.1.5 Verifying resistance to earth .............................................................................................................. 26

5.2 Instructions for use ............................................................................................................................. 27

5.2.1 Use of electrostatic dissipative protective clothing and general instructions ............................. 27

5.2.2 Use of gloves and hand and arm protection..................................................................................... 28

5.2.3 Use of footwear and leg protection ................................................................................................... 28

5.2.4 Use of head protection, eye and face protection, hearing protection and

respiratory protection ......................................................................................................................... 28

5.2.5 Use of protection against falls from a height ................................................................................... 28

5.2.6 Use of personal floatation devices .................................................................................................... 29

6 Care ....................................................................................................................................................... 29

6.1 Care of electrostatic dissipative protective clothing ....................................................................... 29

6.1.1 General.................................................................................................................................................. 29

6.1.2 Storage.................................................................................................................................................. 29

6.1.3 Cleaning ................................................................................................................................................ 29

6.2 Care of footwear and leg protection .................................................................................................. 30

6.2.1 General.................................................................................................................................................. 30

6.2.2 Storage.................................................................................................................................................. 30

6.2.3 Cleaning ................................................................................................................................................ 30

6.3 Care of other items of PPE ................................................................................................................. 30

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6.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 30

6.3.2 Storage ................................................................................................................................................. 30

6.3.3 Cleaning................................................................................................................................................ 31

7 Maintenance ......................................................................................................................................... 31

7.1 Visual inspection ................................................................................................................................. 31

7.2 Testing .................................................................................................................................................. 31

7.3 Repair .................................................................................................................................................... 31

8 Disposal ................................................................................................................................................ 31

Annex A (informative) Introduction to electrostatics and electrostatic hazards ........................................ 32

A.1 How static electricity is generated .................................................................................................... 32

A.2 Flammable atmospheres and minimum ignition energy ................................................................. 33

A.3 Electrostatic discharges ..................................................................................................................... 34

A.3.1 Types of electrostatic discharge ....................................................................................................... 34

A.3.2 Spark discharges from charged conductors .................................................................................... 34

A.3.3 The capacitance of conductive objects and ignition risk ............................................................... 34

A.3.4 Brush discharges from insulating surface ....................................................................................... 35

A.4 How to avoid electrostatic ignitions .................................................................................................. 35

A.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 35

A.4.2 Restriction of area of insulating materials ........................................................................................ 36

A.4.3 Earthing conductive objects .............................................................................................................. 36

A.4.4 Methods of making electrostatic dissipative protective clothing .................................................. 37

Annex B (informative) Classification of hazardous areas and zones .......................................................... 39

Annex C (informative) Questions and Answers ............................................................................................. 41

C.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 41

C.2 General questions and answers ........................................................................................................ 41

C.3 Questions and answers relating to selection ................................................................................... 41

C.4 Questions and answers relating to use ............................................................................................ 48

C.5 Questions and answers relating to care ........................................................................................... 50

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 51

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Foreword
This document (CEN/CLC/TR 16832:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JWG 7 “PPE against electrostatic risks”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN and/or CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
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Introduction

European Standards for personal protective equipment (PPE) are developed to ensure compliance

with the European Directive 89/686/EEC. Since the primary aim of this directive is to guarantee a free

market in the European Union, these standards are made to meet the needs for a common set of

safety requirements and test methods.

The actual use of PPE is not covered by this directive, nor by related standards.

This Technical Report has been developed to meet the needs for a document on selection, use, care

and maintenance. Regulations on health and safety are based on Directive 89/686/EEC, giving

minimum requirements on the selection and use of PPE in the workplace. EU Member States may

impose more stringent requirements and may define exposure limits.

The information in this Technical Report has been produced to assist employers in making the

necessary decisions regarding the selection, use, care and maintenance of PPE. The guidance given

may also be useful for other parties such as suppliers of PPE or services, inspection agencies,

insurance companies, etc.

The purpose of this Technical Report is to highlight the main areas that an employer needs to

consider.

This Technical Report may serve as guidance and as a checklist when a company is preparing its own

management system or programme for PPE.
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1 Scope

This Technical Report sets out guidance for the selection, use, care and maintenance of clothing and

related items of personal protective equipment designed to prevent hazards caused by static electricity

in hazardous areas.

Static electricity should not be confused with mains supply electricity, or other forms of electric current;

the requirements for protection against static electricity are different to the requirements for protection

against hazards associated with electric current. Protection against electrostatic risks should not be

confused with protection against electric arc; the former is concerned with electrical properties and the

latter is concerned with heat, flame and projectile protection.

Directive 89/686/EEC requires that PPE intended for use in explosive atmospheres must be so

designed and manufactured that it cannot be the source of an electric, electrostatic or impact-induced

arc or spark likely to cause an explosive mixture to ignite. Whereas this Technical Report addresses

electrostatic ignition risks, it does not address other possible sources of ignition. Nevertheless, other

possible sources of ignition are required to be considered when certifying PPE to the requirements of

Directive 89/686/EEC.

NOTE EN 13463–1 gives guidance on assessing possible ignition sources in non-electrical equipment that

may be used for some items of PPE.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1081, Resilient floor coverings — Determination of the electrical resistance

EN 1149-1, Protective clothing — Electrostatic properties — Part 1: Test method for measurement of

surface resistivity

EN 1149-2, Protective clothing — Electrostatic properties — Part 2: Test method for measurement of

the electrical resistance through a material (vertical resistance)

EN 1149-3, Protective clothing — Electrostatic properties — Part 3: Test methods for measurement of

charge decay

EN 1149-5, Protective clothing — Electrostatic properties — Part 5: Material performance and design

requirements

CEN/TR 15321:2006, Guidelines on the selection, use, care and maintenance of protective clothing

EN 16350, Protective gloves — Electrostatic properties

EN 60079-10-1, Explosive atmospheres — Part 10-1: Classification of areas — Explosive gas

atmospheres (IEC 60079-10-1)

EN 60079-10-2, Explosive atmospheres — Classification of areas — Combustible dust atmospheres

(IEC 60079-10-2)

CLC/TR 60079-32-1:2015, Explosive atmospheres — Part 32-1: Electrostatic hazards, Guidance

(IEC/TS 60079-32-1:2013)

EN 60079-32-2:2015, Explosive atmospheres — Part 32-2: Electrostatics hazards — Tests (under

consideration) (IEC 60079-32-2:2015)
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EN 61340-4-1, Electrostatics — Part 4-1: Standard test methods for specific applications — Electrical

resistance of floor coverings and installed floors (IEC 61340-4-1)

EN 61340-4-3, Electrostatics — Part 4-3: Standard test methods for specific applications — Footwear

(IEC 61340-4-3)

EN 61340-4-5, Electrostatics — Part 4-5: Standard test methods for specific applications — Methods

for characterizing the electrostatic protection of footwear and flooring in combination with a person

(IEC 61340-4-5)

EN ISO 11611, Protective clothing for use in welding and allied processes (ISO 11611)

EN ISO 13688, Protective clothing — General requirements (ISO 13688)

CEN ISO/TR 18690, Guidance for the selection, use and maintenance of safety and occupational

footwear and other personal protective equipment offering foot and leg protection (ISO/TR 18690)

EN ISO 20344, Personal protective equipment — Test methods for footwear (ISO 20344)

EN ISO 20345, Personal protective equipment — Safety footwear (ISO 20345)
EN ISO 20346, Personal protective equipment — Protective footwear (ISO 20346)
EN ISO 20347, Personal protective equipment — Occupational footwear (ISO 20347)
ISO 7000, Graphical symbols for use on equipment — Registered symbols
ISO 10965, Textile floor coverings — Determination of electrical resistance
3 Term and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
hazard

situation which can be the cause of harm or damage to the health of the human body

[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15321:2006, 2.1]

Note 1 to entry: The effects of static electricity can be a nuisance. Electrostatic attraction of dirt and

electrostatic shocks to personnel, for example, are not directly harmful, but they are nonetheless undesirable.

Nuisance effects may cause hazards indirectly. For example, a person working on a ladder may fall off the ladder

because of an involuntary reflex after receiving an electrostatic shock. If nuisance shocks are felt, it is an

indication that there is an electrostatic ignition risk, if the person concerned is in a hazardous area.

3.2
risk

combination of the frequency, or probability, of occurrence and the consequence of a specified

hazardous event
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15321:2006, 2.2]
3.3
selection

process of determining the type of protective equipment (garments) that is necessary for the required

protection
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[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15321:2006, 2.3]
3.4
use
application of protective clothing including its limitations
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15321:2006, 2.4]
3.5
care

to keep in good working order, including procedures for cleaning, decontamination and storage

[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15321:2006, 2.5]
3.6
maintenance

to preserve from loss or deterioration, to include procedures for inspection, repair and ultimate removal

from service
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15321:2006, 2.6]
3.7
explosive atmosphere

mixture with air, under atmospheric conditions, of flammable substances in the form of gas, vapour,

dust, fibres, or flyings which, after ignition, permits self-sustaining propagation

[SOURCE: IEV 426-01-06]
3.8
hazardous area

area in which an explosive material, pyrotechnic article or explosive atmosphere is present, or may be

expected to be present, in quantities such as to require special precautions for construction and use of

personal protective equipment

[SOURCE: IEV 426-03-01, modified — The definition has been modified and the original Notes to the

definition are not reproduced here.]
3.9
hazardous zone

hazardous area classified based on the frequency of the occurrence and duration of an explosive

atmosphere
Note 1 to entry: See Annex B.
3.10
electricity
set of the phenomena associated with electric charges and electric currents
[SOURCE: IEV 121-11-76]
3.11
electric current

electric charges that continuously move through a conductor under the influence of a potential gradient

3.12
electric field
electrostatic field
vector field that surrounds electric charge
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3.13
electric induction
electrostatic induction

phenomenon in which the electric charge distribution in a body is modified by an electric field

[SOURCE: IEV 121-11-68]
3.14
static electricity
accumulation of electric charge on an object or surface
3.15
electrostatic
associated with static electricity
3.16
electrostatic discharge
ESD

transfer of electric charge between bodies of different electrostatic potential in proximity or through

direct contact

[SOURCE: IEV 161-01-22, modified — "Electric" is here replaced with "electrostatic" and the original

Note to the definition is not reproduced here.]
3.17
brush discharge

type of electrostatic discharge that occurs when rounded (as opposed to sharp) earthed conductors

are moved towards charged insulating objects or surfaces; characterized by branching discharge

channels
3.18
spark discharge
spark

type of electrostatic discharge that occurs between two conductors; characterized by a well-defined

luminous discharge channel carrying a high density current
3.19
corona discharge
corona

type of electrostatic discharge with slight luminosity produced in the neighbourhood of a pointed, or

small radius conductor and limited to the region surrounding the conductor in which the electric field

exceeds a certain value

Note 1 to entry: Other types of electrostatic discharge exist (e.g. propagating brush discharge, cone

discharge, lightning, etc.), but they are not normally associated with PPE in the context of this document.

3.20
electrostatic shock

physiological effect resulting from an electrostatic discharge passing through a human body

3.21
tribocharging
triboelectric charging
triboelectrification

electrical charging process in which net charge is generated by the contact and separation of two

surfaces which may be solid, liquid or particle-carrying gases
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3.22
triboelectric series

list of materials ranked in order of how they charge when in contact with one another

Note 1 to entry: See Annex A.
3.23
antistatic
antielectrostatic

property of a material or object that reduces its tendency to acquire charge by contact or rubbing, or

that reduces the time taken for charge to dissipate to an acceptable level

Note 1 to entry: Although “antistatic” is a commonly used term, it is deprecated in some standards documents

because it has many different meanings, depending on the context in which it is used, and this can lead to

confusion.
3.24
low charging
a-static

property of a material or object that reduces its tendency to acquire charge by contact or rubbing

3.25
conductive

describing materials or objects that allow charge to be dissipated rapidly by conduction to earth

3.26
insulating

describing materials or objects that retain charge for long periods of time even when connected to

earth

Note 1 to entry: Conductive and insulating materials and objects are commonly defined quantitatively by their

resistance or resistivity. The range of acceptable values of resistance or resistivity can vary significantly

depending on the material or object and its application.
3.27
electrostatic dissipative (used in EN 1149 (all parts))
static dissipative
dissipative

describing materials or objects that dissipate charge to an acceptable level within an acceptable period

of time

Note 1 to entry: Electrostatic dissipative materials and objects may be defined quantitatively by their

resistance or resistivity, or by other parameters such as decay time, shielding factor, etc. If resistance or resistivity

is used to define electrostatic dissipative materials or objects, the acceptable range of values is between that of

conductive materials and objects and insulating materials and objects.
3.28
oxygen-enriched atmosphere
atmosphere in which the oxygen content exceeds 21,5 % volume fraction of air

Note 1 to entry: Minimum ignition energy values are commonly specified for mixtures with air containing

normal levels of oxygen, i.e. (21,0 ± 0,5) % volume fraction.

Note 2 to entry: In normal industrial situations, it is unlikely that people will be working in an oxygen-enriched

atmosphere. Nevertheless, an oxygen-enriched atmosphere can occur inadvertently, for example when gas

welding is carried out. Oxygen-enriched atmospheres can also occur in medical applications.

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3.29
earth (verb)
ground

to connect a conductor to the main body of the Earth to ensure that it is at earth potential

3.30
earth (noun)
ground

part of the Earth which is in electric contact with an earth electrode and the electric potential of which

is not necessarily equal to zero
[SOURCE: IEV 195-01-03]

NOTE In some contexts, earth can have a different meaning to ground, but for the purposes of this

document earth and ground are synonyms.
3.31
equipotential bonding

to electrically connect all conductors and static dissipative materials and objects within a system

together to ensure that no hazardous potential differences exist within the system

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, and unless otherwise stated, equipotential bonding may

be used in cases where earthing is impossible or impractical.
3.32
resistance to earth
leakage resistance

total electrical resistance through a system between a person or item or component of PPE and earth

3.33
capacitance

relationship between charge on a conductor ( Q ) and its electrical potential (V ) given by C=

Note 1 to entry: Capacitance is variable and is dependent on the proximity of the conductor relative to other

large bodies or earth planes
3.34
minimum ignition energy
MIE (abbreviation)

minimum energy that can ignite a mixture of a specified flammable material with air or oxygen,

measured by a standard procedure

Note 1 to entry: ASTM E582 defines standard procedures for determining MIE of gas and vapours;

IEC 61241–2-3, EN 13821 and ASTM E2019 define standard procedures for determining MIE of dusts.

Note 2 to entry: Annex A of this Technical Report and CLC/TR 60079–32–1:2015, C.6 give additional

information on minimum ignition energy.
3.35
probability of charging
probability of a charge mechanism occurring

Note 1 to entry: Probability of charging is only concerned with the occurrence of a charging mechanism, not

the quantity of charge generated.
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4 Selection
4.1 General

The primary defence against hazardous electrostatic discharges from personnel is to ensure that they

are properly earthed (see 5.1). When people are earthed there is no p
...

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