Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 8: Glossary

The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 8: Glossar

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 8 : Glossaire

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 8. del: Slovar

Priročnik o strukturnih materialih, SMH, združuje informacije o materialih in oblikovanju uveljavljenih polimernih matričnih kompozitov z začasnimi informacijami o nastajajočih skupinah novejših naprednih materialov in njihovih kompozitov. Opisani so vidiki oblikovanja, skupaj z dejavniki združevanja in proizvodnje. Kjer je mogoče, so podani primeri ali študije primerov.
Priročnik o strukturnih materialih vsebuje 8 delov.
Slovar izrazov, opredelitve in okrajšave izrazov za te priročnike so v 8. delu.
Deli so:
1. del: Pregled in lastnosti materialov ter aplikacije                    Točke 1–9
2. del: Metode za izračun zasnove in splošni vidiki zasnove    Točke 10–22
3. del: Prenos obremenitve ter projektiranje spojev in konstrukcij    Točke 23–32
4. del: Nadzor integritete, smernice za preverjanje in proizvodnja    Točke 33–45
5. del: Novi napredni materiali, napredni kovinski materiali, splošni konstrukcijski vidiki ter prenos obremenitve in oblikovanje sklepov    Točke 46–63
6. del: Modeliranje zlomov in materialov, študije primerov, načrtovanje in nadzor integritete ter inšpekcijski pregled    Točke 64–81
7. del: Toplotna in okoljska celovitost, proizvodni vidiki, spremljanje stanja materialov v orbiti, mehki materiali, hibridni materiali in nanotehnologije   Točke 82–107
8. del: Slovar   
OPOMBA: Teh 8 delov je označenih s številkami od TR17603-32-01 do TR 17603-32-08.

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
19-Jan-2022
Completion Date
19-Jan-2022

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-08:2022
01-marec-2022
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 8. del: Slovar
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 8: Glossary
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 8: Glossar
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 8 : Glossaire
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-08:2022
ICS:
01.040.49 Letalska in vesoljska tehnika Aircraft and space vehicle
(Slovarji) engineering (Vocabularies)
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-08:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-08
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2022
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
8: Glossary

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der

- Partie 8 : Glossaire Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 8: Glossar

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 29 November 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-08:2022 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 3

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 4

1 Glossary ................................................................................................................. 5

2 References ......................................................................................................... 116

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European Foreword
This document (CEN/TR 17603-32-08:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee
CEN/CLC/JTC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

It is highlighted that this technical report does not contain any requirement but only collection of data

or descriptions and guidelines about how to organize and perform the work in support of EN 16603-

32.

This Technical report (CEN/TR 17603-32-08:2022) originates from ECSS-E-HB-32-20 Part 8A.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has therefore precedence

over any TR covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g.: aerospace).

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Introduction
The Structural materials handbook is published in 8 Parts.

A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.

The parts are as follows:

TR 17603-32-01 Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications Clauses 1 - 9

TR 17603-32-02 Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design Clauses 10 - 22

aspects

TR 17603-32-03 Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of Clauses 23 - 32

structures

TR 17603-32-04 Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and Clauses 33 - 45

manufacturing
TR 17603-32-05 Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic Clauses 46 - 63
materials, general design aspects and load transfer
and design of joints

TR 17603-32-06 Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and Clauses 64 - 81

design and integrity control and inspection
TR 17603-32-07 Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, Clauses 82 - 107
manufacturing aspects, in-orbit and health
monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and
nanotechnoligies
TR 17603-32-08 Part 8 Glossary
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1 Glossary
Aluminium Association, USA
A-BASIS DESIGN ALLOWABLE

A value which at least 99% of the population of values is expected to fall with a confidence of

95%, Ref. [9]; also known as ‘A’ value and ‘A’ basis.
A-SCAN

A single point signal describing the ultrasonic response of material immediately beneath the

transducer
A-stage

An early stage in the polymerisation reaction of certain thermo-setting resins (especially

phenolic) in which the material, after application to the reinforcement, is still soluble in some

liquids and is fusible; sometimes called resole. [See also: B STAGE, C STAGE]
'A' value

An 'A' value is one above which at least 99% of the population of values is expected to fall with

a confidence of 95%. [See also: ALLOWABLES]
ABLATIVE

Sacrificial material which protects a structure from high-velocity, high-temperature gas

streams. It is typically used on leading surfaces for planetary re-entry to protect against

frictional atmospheric heating. The surface of the ablative is consumed by reaction, abrasion

and evaporation or sublimation and the lost material carries heat away from the underlying

structure
AblaDor DO-31-F
Lightweight phenolic ablative
ABM
Apogee Boost Motor
ABS
1 Alumino-boro-silicate ceramic
2 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer
ACC
Advanced Carbon-Carbon (NASA) replaced RCC
ACCELERATOR

A material mixed with a catalysed resin to increase the rate of chemical reaction between the

catalyst and resin, used in polymerising resins, also known as promoter or curing agent

ACCELEROMETER
A device for measuring acceleration, often used in vibration analysis
ACCEPTANCE
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Verification phase with the objective to demonstrate that the flight items are free of

workmanship defects and integration errors and ready for operational use, Ref. [1]

ACESA

Advanced composites with embedded sensors and actuator. An American smart technology

programme.
ACG
Advanced Composites Group, UK
ACK analysis

Aveston-Cooper-Kelly analysis for modelling the onset of matrix cracking in composite

materials (with particular regard to CMC ceramic matrix composites)
ACOUSTIC EMISSION (AE)

An inspection technique where the sound generated by damage formation and propagation

(under test stressing or in-service) is monitored using sensitive, high-frequency microphones.

Triangulation techniques can be used to locate the damage events within a three dimensional

structure. Frequently used to measure the integrity of composite laminates
ACRV

Assured Crew Return Vehicle (NASA/ESA) for emergency return of astronauts from orbiting

space stations to earth
ACS
Attitude Control System
ACTEX
Advanced control technology experiment. An American smart technology programme.
ACTIVE COMPENSATION

A device able to change its characteristics in response to an externally triggered signal, e.g.

stiffness in response to vibration
ACUSIL I

An ablative foam composed of silicone resin, quartz microballoons, phenolic microballoons and

quartz fibre
ACUSIL II

Lower density ablative foam composed of silicone resin, quartz microballoons, phenolic

microballoons and quartz fibre. Remains RF transparent during re-entry
ADHEREND
Plate adhesively bonded to another plate, Ref. [10].
ADHESION

The state in which two surfaces are held together at an interface by forces or the interlocking

action of an adhesive or both
ADHESIVE
A substance capable of holding two surfaces together
ADVANCED COMPOSITES

Composite materials with structural properties comparable to or better than those of

aluminium; e.g. boron, graphite and aramid composites
See: Acoustic Emission
AECMA

Association Européen des Constructeurs Matériel Aérospatiale; European Association of

Aerospace Industries
AEFIS
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Acoustic emission flight instrumentation system. A structural health monitoring system,

developed by Boeing.
Aerotiss® 2.5D

Aerospatiale reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material with multidirectional fibre architecture

Austenite finish temperature
AFNOR
Association Français de Normalisation; French national standards organisation
AFRSI
Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (Shuttle orbiter)
AFWAL
Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, USA
AGC
Attitude Gain Control
AGE HARDENING

A thermal treatment used to improve the strength of some metal alloys, e.g. certain

aluminium alloys, [See also: Precipitation Hardening].
AGED STRUCTURE

A structure which can have structural degradation or damage as a result of being exposed to

the combined effects of the environment
AGEING

General: The process or the effect on materials of exposure to an environment (elevated

temperature, ultraviolet radiation, moisture or other hostile environment) for a period of time;

also known as ‘aging’

1 Material or sample: usually undertaken before testing and applied to simulate the expected

service environmental conditions, e.g. exposure to heat and humidity

2 Structure: the progressive change in characteristics owing to exposure to the service

conditions, e.g. corrosion, outgassing

3 Processing: a thermal process used to obtain the desired microstructure and properties of

metal alloys, e.g. some aluminium alloys
AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENT

Any combination of liquid or gaseous media and temperature that alters static or fatigue

crack-growth characteristics from ‘normal’ behaviour associated with an ambient temperature

and laboratory air environment, Ref. [5]
AGING
[See: Ageing].
Artificial intelligence
AIAA
American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics, USA
AISI
American Iron and Steel Institute
AIT
Assembly, Integration and Test
AIV
Assembly, Integration and Verification
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AKM
Apogee Kick Motor
ALFLEX
Automatic Landing Experimental Vehicle
Al-Li
Aluminium-lithium alloy
ALLOTROPY

Existence of a chemical element in two or more physical forms, e.g. carbon as graphite or

diamond
ALLOWABLE LOAD
The load that induces the allowable stress in a material, Ref. [5]
ALLOWABLE STRESS

The maximum stress that can be permitted in a material for a given operating environment to

prevent rupture, collapse, detrimental deformation or unacceptable crack growth, Ref. [5]

ALLOWABLES

Material values that are determined from test data at the laminate or lamina level on a

probability basis (e.g. 'A' or 'B' values), following ASTM or other test standards accepted by the

final customer. [See also: A-BASIS DESIGN ALLOWABLE; B-BASIS DESIGN ALLOWABLE;
'A' VALUE, 'B' VALUE]
ALLOY

Mixture of a base metallic element with one or more other metallic or non-metallic elements

AlN
Aluminium nitride
ALS051
Medium-density, silicone-based ablative
ALSCAP
Alternative Low-cost, Short Manufacturing Cycle Assessment Programme
ALUMINA
Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3.
ALUMINIDE

Intermetallic compound of another metallic element, or elements, with aluminium, e.g. NiAl,

TiAl or FeAl
ALUMINIUM (Al)

Metallic element, melting point 660°C, density 2700 kg m . Uses: ubiquitous aerospace alloy

base, important component in oxidation resistant alloys and coatings and as part of basic

strengthening mechanism for nickel-based superalloys
ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM

An aluminium alloy containing typically between 1% and 3% Li, with the objective of

increasing mechanical properties over base alloy alone.

Note: Because Li is a low-level alloy addition, Al-Li alloys are classified within the 2XXX,

7XXX and 8XXX wrought alloy designations, plus 2XX casting alloys
ALUMINIUM NITRIDE (AlN)

Ceramic with high thermal conductivity (140 W/mK to 177 W/mK), but is effectively an

electrical insulator (volume resistivity 1010 ohm cm). Can suffer surface oxidation above

700°C, density 3320 kg m .
ALUMINO-SILICATE
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Compound of aluminium and silicon oxides used in ceramics and some types of glasses for

composite matrix materials
AMBIENT

1 The surrounding environmental conditions, e.g. pressure, temperature or relative humidity

2 usual work place temperature and humidity environmental conditions, e.g. room
temperature
ANALYSIS

A verification method performing theoretical or empirical analysis by accepted analytical

methods. The selected techniques can typically include systematics, statistics, qualitative

design analysis, modelling and computer simulation, Ref. [1]
ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

This document lists all the requirements to be verified by Analysis, grouping them in

categories detailing the Verification Plan activity sheets, with planning of the execution and a

definition of the associated procedures, Ref. [1]
ANALYSIS REPORT

A document that describes, for each analysis, assumptions, utilised methods, software and

results and contains proper evidence that the relevant requirements are satisfied, Ref.[1]

ANALYTICAL LIFE

Life evaluated analytically, i.e. by crack-growth analysis or fatigue analysis, Ref. [5]

ANALYTICAL MODEL

A representation of an item based on mathematical modelling. The modelling is performed on

the basis of known mathematical techniques, providing a representation of the item features

under investigation, Ref. [1]
ANGLE INTERLOCKED

A triaxial fabric in which all reinforcement fibres are woven at the same time; also known as

‘integrally woven’
ANGLE-PLY LAMINATE

Possessing equal plies with positive and negative angles. This bidirectional laminate is simple

because it is orthotropic
ANISOTROPIC

Having mechanical or physical properties which vary in direction relative to natural reference

axes in the material
ANNEALING
A heat treatment process:
1 Metals: used to reduce residual stresses.
2 Composites: ineffective at reducing residual stresses
ANOXIC
The resistance of a material to thermo-oxidative attack by atomic oxygen
ANTISYMMETRY

Special symmetry with sign change between off-diagonal components, e.g. an unsymmetrical

angle-ply laminate

Atomic oxygen; experiments conducted on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

AOCS
Attitude and Orbit Control System, or subsystem
APC
Aromatic polymer composite
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AQUEOUS CORROSION

Corrosion by ionic species in water, e.g. chlorides, hydroxides. Includes moisture or humidity

trapped or condensed within structures.
Acceptance Review
ARA
Advanced rigid array; a type of ultrasonic transducer assembly
ARALDITE™

A range of epoxy-based structural adhesives; developed by Ciba Geigy, now Vantico

ARALL™
Aramid fibre-reinforced aluminium laminate. [See: FIBRE METAL LAMINATE]
ARAMID

A type of highly oriented aromatic polymer material. Used primarily as a high-strength

reinforcing fibre, of which Kevlar™ 49 and Twaron™ HM are most commonly used in
aerospace applications
ARAMID/EPOXY

A composite material comprising of an aramid fibre reinforcement in an epoxy matrix

ARC
Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf
ARD
Atmospheric Re-entry Demonstrator
AREAL WEIGHT

A measurement of the weight per unit area of a fabric or fabric prepreg; expressed as g/m²

ARIANE
Family of European launch vehicles
ARP
Aramid fibre-reinforced plastic, Ref. [10]
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)

The property of a machine capable of reason by which it can learn functions normally

associated with human intelligence
Austenite start temperature
ASIFS
Aerial spacecraft interface structure; part of SILEX
ASIP
Aircraft Structural Integrity Program
ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASSEMBLED ARTICLE

Any component ‘black box’ or assembly of components which represents the article to be used

in a spacecraft, Ref. [7].
ASSEMBLY

An accumulation of subassemblies and/or equipment that performs specific functions within a

subsystem, e.g. water pump package. (Verification level typical of US standard), Ref.[1]

ASTM
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American Society for Testing and Materials; USA standards organisation
ASTP
Advanced Systems and Technology Programme; ESA programme
ASTREX

Advanced space structure technology research experiments; an American smart technology

programme
ATC
1 Active Thermal Control
2 Advanced Technical Ceramic
ATOMISATION
Spray technique for producing metal alloy powders with or without a particulate

reinforcement. Molten metal is forced through a nozzle into a stream of high-velocity, inert

gas. The semi-solid droplets are collected on a substrate. Proprietary processes are OSPREY

(un-reinforced alloys) and COSPRAY (particulate reinforced alloys)
ATOX
Atomic Oxygen
AUTOCLAVE

A closed vessel for conducting a chemical reaction or other operation under pressure and heat

AUTOCLAVE MOULDING

After composite lay-up, the entire assembly is placed in steam autoclave at 7 bar to 14 bar and

180°C; additional pressure achieves higher reinforcement loading and improved removal of air

AVCO 5026-39 HCG
Epoxy-novalac, glass fibre honeycomb reinforced material
AVERAGE STRESS CRITERION

A failure criterion in which it is assumed that failure occurs when the average stress over

some distance equals the unnotched laminate strength
AWG
American Wire Gauge
AXIAL WINDING

In filament-wound reinforced plastics, a winding with the filaments parallel to the axis

AXISYMMETRY

Symmetry about an axis (in the case of a laminated material it is isotropic in the plane normal

to the axis, and this material is called transversely isotropic)
B-BASIS DESIGN ALLOWABLE

A value which at least 90 % of the population of values is expected to fall with a confi-dence of

95 %, Ref. [9]; also known as ‘B’ value
B-SCAN

A scanned line response showing features at identifiable depths; nondestructive testing

B-STAGE

An intermediate stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins, Ref. [10], in which the

material swells when in contact with certain liquids and softens when heated, but cannot

dissolve or fuse entirely; sometimes referred to as ‘resistol’. The resin in an uncured prepreg or

premix is usually in this stage. [See also: A-STAGE, C-STAGE]
'B' VALUE
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A 'B' value is that above which at least 90% of the population of values is expected to fall with

a confidence of 95%. [See also: ALLOWABLES]
BACKING SHEET

A thin polymer sheet used to protect prepreg and film adhesive surfaces from contamination

and damage prior to use. These have to be completely removed during lay-up and are usually

coloured to aid this.
BAe
British Aerospace, UK
BAGGING

Process: the enclosing of an uncured composite lay-up in a heat-resistant bag prior removal of

the air and subsequent curing
BAKEOUT

Activity of increasing the temperature of hardware to accelerate its outgassing rates with the

intent of reducing the content of molecular contaminants within the hardware. Note: Bakeout

is usually performed in a vacuum environment but may be done in a controlled atmosphere,

Ref. [8].
BALANCED DESIGN

In filament-wound reinforced plastics, a winding pattern so designed that the stresses in all

filaments are equal
BALANCED LAMINATE

Where plies with positive angles are balanced by equal plies with negative angles. While

angle-ply laminates have only one pair of matched angles, balanced laminates can have many

pairs, plus 0 and 90 degrees. A balanced laminate is orthotropic in in-plane behaviour, but

anisotropic in flexural behaviour
BAM

Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und prüfung, Federal Institute for Materials Research

and Testing, Germany
BATCH
Materials produced during a unique sequence:

1. Fibre: The amount which is produced by the conversion of a number of precursor tows under

standard, controlled, processing-plant conditions in one continuous operation, including any

surface treatment and sizing of the fibre

2. Prepreg: A quantity, irrespective of width, that is produced under 'no-change conditions' in

one continuous operation of the impregnating plant from one batch of resin mix and one batch

of fibre. A batch is expected to conform to a fixed manufacturing process and to have

homogeneous properties within prescribed tolerances over its whole width and length. A

maximum allowable length for a prepreg batch is sometimes specified

3. Resin: A quantity of resin in either film or liquid form produced from one mix of resins, resin

modifiers and curing agents
BERYLLIUM (Be)

Metallic element, melting point 1289°C, density 1850 kg m . Uses: aerospace structural

material, with good dimensional stability and moderately high service temperatures.

BIAS
A type of weave for a fabric, [See: BIAS WEAVE]
BIAS WEAVE
The weft picks cross the warp ends at 45° or 60° instead of the normal 90°.
BIAXIAL WINDING

In filament winding, a type of winding in which the helical band is laid in sequence, side by

side, with no crossover of fibres
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BIDIRECTIONAL LAMINATE

A reinforced plastic laminate with the fibres oriented in two directions in the plane of the

laminate; a cross laminate. [See also: UNIDIRECTIONAL LAMINATE]
BIG FOOT™

Types of mechanical fasteners that provide a larger footprint, i.e. contact area, than

conventional types of fasteners; developed by Monogram
BIOMIMETICS

Synthetic materials which function like natural ones, e.g. artificial tendons and Velcro™

BIOPAN

A multi-user exposure facility, designed for exobiology, radiation biology, radiation dosimetry

and material science investigations in space; ESA mission
BIPROPELLANT

Rocket fuel consisting of two chemical components which react on contact in the combustion

chamber, e.g. mono-methyl-hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)
BISFA
International Bureau for Standardisation of Man-made Fibres
BISMALEIMIDE (BMI)

A type of polyimide that cures by an addition rather than a condensation reaction, thus

avoiding problems with volatiles, and which is produced by a vinyl-type polymerisation of a

polymer terminated with two maleimide groups. It has intermediate temperature capability

between epoxy and polyimide (about 200°C)
BLEED

The removal of excess resin from a prepreg during processing, [See also: CONTROLLED

BLEED and ZERO-BLEED]
BLEEDER CLOTH

Non-structural, fibre glass cloth placed adjacent to the composite material part to absorb

excess resin during cure, and removed from the part after cure
BLIND
Fasteners: Installed from one side of a component only
BLISK

Turbine disk where the blades and hub are formed as a single piece (Integrally-bladed disk).

BLISTER
Delamination in a distinct local area or areas
BLOX
Laser enhanced oxidation test facility at ONERA, France.
BMI
Bismaleimide. [See: BISMALEIMIDE]
BOND LINE

The area between two materials that have been adhesively bonded; includes the layer of

adhesive between the adherends
BOND STRENGTH

The amount of adhesion between bonded surfaces; a measure of the stress required to separate

a layer of material from the base to which it is bonded. [See also: PEEL STRENGTH]

BONDED JOINT

The general area of contact for a bonded structure. This includes composite to composite and

composite to metal adherends and all forms of adhesives including co- and post-cured joints.

[See also: ADHEREND, ADHESIVE, CO-CURE, POSTCURE]
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BOR-4
A re-entry test vehicle
BORON (B)

Metallic element, melting point 2092°C, density 2340 kg m . Uses: alloying additions, doping

in aluminides to induce ductility. Reinforcing filaments for polymer or metal matrix

composites. Mainly within the USA
BORON CARBIDE (B C)
Extremely hard ceramic material with a density of 2520 kg m
BORSIC

Boron filaments for reinforcement made by deposition onto a fine tungsten wire and coated

with silicon carbide (SiC)
BPS
Backpack subsystem; part of an extra-vehicular activity space suit
BRAGG GRATING

A diffraction grating constructed by creating a systematic spatial variation of the structure of

a material, such as the molecular structure of a crystal or the refractive index of glass, Ref.[4].

BRAIDING

Process: A mechanical weaving of fibres that enables three or more continuous yarns to be

progressively crossed in a predetermined pattern and angle to produce a complex network to

form a structural shape, such as a tube, square box or U-shaped channel
BRAZING

Joining technique involving the melting of a material with a lower temperature (braze) placed

between parts to be joined. The parent metal(s) remain(s) solid during brazing
BREADBOARD
[See: DEVELOPMENT MODEL]
BREATHER

Porous material, such as fabric or mat, placed inside the vacuum bag to facilitate removal of

air, moisture and volatiles during cure
BRIDGING

A build-up of solder or conformal coating between parts, component leads and/or base

substrate forming an elevated path
BROOMING

The appearance of the end of a failed composite material where the reinforcing fibres are

clearly visible, such that it resembles a brush or broom
British standard, controlled by the British Standards Institute (BSI).
BSI
British Standards Institute, UK
BUCKLING

1 Unstable displacement of a structural part, such as a panel, caused by excessive compression

or shear. Micro-buckling of fibres in a composite material can also occur under axial

compression

2 Fibre: a failure mechanism which occurs under compressive loads where the reinforcing

fibres in a composite are displaced transversly; fibre buckling modes are known as ‘extension

mode’ and ‘shear mode’.
BUNDLE
A number of parallel filaments, normally without organic matrix
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BUNDLE STRENGTH

Strength obtained from a test on parallel filaments, with or without organic matrix. The

bundle test is often used instead of the monofilament test
BURAN
Russian reusable manned spacecraft: resembling the USA STS Space Shuttle Orbiter
BURST PRESSURE
The pressure at which a pressurized system ruptures or collapses, Ref. [5]
BURST STRENGTH

Hydraulic pressure required to burst a vessel of given thickness; commonly used in testing

filament-wound composite structures
BVID
Barely visible impact damage
C-C
Carbon-carbon. Carbon fibre reinforced, carbon matrix composite
C/SiC
Carbon fibre-reinforced silicon carbide; a ceramic matrix composite (CMC)
C-STAGE

The final stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material is

relatively insoluble and infusible; sometimes referred to as resite. The resin in a fully cured

thermoset moulding is in this stage. [See also: A-STAGE, B-STAGE]
CABLE

Two or more insulated conductors, solid or stranded, of equal length, contained in a common

covering; or two or more insulated conductors, of equal length, twisted or moulded together

without common covering; or one insulated conductor with a metallic covering shield or outer

conductor (shielded cable or coaxial cable)
CABLED YARN
[Technical textiles] Two or more folded yarns twisted together
CADMIUM (Cd)

Metallic element, melting point 321°C, density 8650 kg m , Uses: alloying additions,

protective coatings: NOT FOR SPACE USE
C/Al
Carbon fibre reinforced aluminium
CAI
Compression after impact
CALIBRATION

The comparison of two instruments or measuring devices, one of which is a standard of known

accuracy traceable to national standards, to detect, correlate, report, or eliminate by

adjustment any discrepancy in accuracy of the instrument or measuring device being

compared with the standard
CANOPY

The fabric portion of a parachute which provides drag, or drag and lift, when inflated

CAPSA
Alenia Spazio ablative TPS design tool computer program
CARBIDE
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...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-08:2021
01-oktober-2021
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 8. del: Slovar
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 8: Glossary
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 8: Glossar
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 8 : Glossaire
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17603-32-08
ICS:
01.040.49 Letalska in vesoljska tehnika Aircraft and space vehicle
(Slovarji) engineering (Vocabularies)
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-08:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-08:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 17603-32-08
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
August 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
8: Glossary

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der

- Partie 8 : Glossaire Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 8: Glossar

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17603-32-08:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 3

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 4

1 Glossary ................................................................................................................. 5

2 References ......................................................................................................... 116

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European Foreword

This document (FprCEN/TR 17603-32-08:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

It is highlighted that this technical report does not contain any requirement but only collection of data

or descriptions and guidelines about how to organize and perform the work in support of EN 16603-

32.

This Technical report (FprCEN/TR 17603-32-08:2021) originates from ECSS-E-HB-32-20 Part 8A.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has therefore precedence

over any TR covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g.: aerospace).

This document is currently submitted to the CEN CONSULTATION.
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Introduction
The Structural materials handbook is published in 8 Parts.

A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.

The parts are as follows:

TR 17603-32-01 Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications Clauses 1 - 9

TR 17603-32-02 Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design Clauses 10 - 22

aspects

TR 17603-32-03 Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of Clauses 23 - 32

structures

TR 17603-32-04 Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and Clauses 33 - 45

manufacturing
TR 17603-32-05 Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic Clauses 46 - 63
materials, general design aspects and load transfer
and design of joints

TR 17603-32-06 Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and Clauses 64 - 81

design and integrity control and inspection
TR 17603-32-07 Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, Clauses 82 - 107
manufacturing aspects, in-orbit and health
monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and
nanotechnoligies
TR 17603-32-08 Part 8 Glossary
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1 Glossary
Aluminium Association, USA
A-BASIS DESIGN ALLOWABLE

A value which at least 99% of the population of values is expected to fall with a confidence of

95%, Ref. [9]; also known as ‘A’ value and ‘A’ basis.
A-SCAN

A single point signal describing the ultrasonic response of material immediately beneath the

transducer
A-stage

An early stage in the polymerisation reaction of certain thermo-setting resins (especially

phenolic) in which the material, after application to the reinforcement, is still soluble in some

liquids and is fusible; sometimes called resole. [See also: B STAGE, C STAGE]
'A' value

An 'A' value is one above which at least 99% of the population of values is expected to fall with

a confidence of 95%. [See also: ALLOWABLES]
ABLATIVE

Sacrificial material which protects a structure from high-velocity, high-temperature gas

streams. It is typically used on leading surfaces for planetary re-entry to protect against

frictional atmospheric heating. The surface of the ablative is consumed by reaction, abrasion

and evaporation or sublimation and the lost material carries heat away from the underlying

structure
AblaDor DO-31-F
Lightweight phenolic ablative
ABM
Apogee Boost Motor
ABS
1 Alumino-boro-silicate ceramic
2 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer
ACC
Advanced Carbon-Carbon (NASA) replaced RCC
ACCELERATOR

A material mixed with a catalysed resin to increase the rate of chemical reaction between the

catalyst and resin, used in polymerising resins, also known as promoter or curing agent

ACCELEROMETER
A device for measuring acceleration, often used in vibration analysis
ACCEPTANCE
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Verification phase with the objective to demonstrate that the flight items are free of

workmanship defects and integration errors and ready for operational use, Ref. [1]

ACESA

Advanced composites with embedded sensors and actuator. An American smart technology

programme.
ACG
Advanced Composites Group, UK
ACK analysis

Aveston-Cooper-Kelly analysis for modelling the onset of matrix cracking in composite

materials (with particular regard to CMC ceramic matrix composites)
ACOUSTIC EMISSION (AE)

An inspection technique where the sound generated by damage formation and propagation

(under test stressing or in-service) is monitored using sensitive, high-frequency microphones.

Triangulation techniques can be used to locate the damage events within a three dimensional

structure. Frequently used to measure the integrity of composite laminates
ACRV

Assured Crew Return Vehicle (NASA/ESA) for emergency return of astronauts from orbiting

space stations to earth
ACS
Attitude Control System
ACTEX
Advanced control technology experiment. An American smart technology programme.
ACTIVE COMPENSATION

A device able to change its characteristics in response to an externally triggered signal, e.g.

stiffness in response to vibration
ACUSIL I

An ablative foam composed of silicone resin, quartz microballoons, phenolic microballoons and

quartz fibre
ACUSIL II

Lower density ablative foam composed of silicone resin, quartz microballoons, phenolic

microballoons and quartz fibre. Remains RF transparent during re-entry
ADHEREND
Plate adhesively bonded to another plate, Ref. [10].
ADHESION

The state in which two surfaces are held together at an interface by forces or the interlocking

action of an adhesive or both
ADHESIVE
A substance capable of holding two surfaces together
ADVANCED COMPOSITES

Composite materials with structural properties comparable to or better than those of

aluminium; e.g. boron, graphite and aramid composites
See: Acoustic Emission
AECMA

Association Européen des Constructeurs Matériel Aérospatiale; European Association of

Aerospace Industries
AEFIS
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Acoustic emission flight instrumentation system. A structural health monitoring system,

developed by Boeing.
Aerotiss® 2.5D

Aerospatiale reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material with multidirectional fibre architecture

Austenite finish temperature
AFNOR
Association Français de Normalisation; French national standards organisation
AFRSI
Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (Shuttle orbiter)
AFWAL
Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, USA
AGC
Attitude Gain Control
AGE HARDENING

A thermal treatment used to improve the strength of some metal alloys, e.g. certain

aluminium alloys, [See also: Precipitation Hardening].
AGED STRUCTURE

A structure which can have structural degradation or damage as a result of being exposed to

the combined effects of the environment
AGEING

General: The process or the effect on materials of exposure to an environment (elevated

temperature, ultraviolet radiation, moisture or other hostile environment) for a period of time;

also known as ‘aging’

1 Material or sample: usually undertaken before testing and applied to simulate the expected

service environmental conditions, e.g. exposure to heat and humidity

2 Structure: the progressive change in characteristics owing to exposure to the service

conditions, e.g. corrosion, outgassing

3 Processing: a thermal process used to obtain the desired microstructure and properties of

metal alloys, e.g. some aluminium alloys
AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENT

Any combination of liquid or gaseous media and temperature that alters static or fatigue

crack-growth characteristics from ‘normal’ behaviour associated with an ambient temperature

and laboratory air environment, Ref. [5]
AGING
[See: Ageing].
Artificial intelligence
AIAA
American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics, USA
AISI
American Iron and Steel Institute
AIT
Assembly, Integration and Test
AIV
Assembly, Integration and Verification
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AKM
Apogee Kick Motor
ALFLEX
Automatic Landing Experimental Vehicle
Al-Li
Aluminium-lithium alloy
ALLOTROPY

Existence of a chemical element in two or more physical forms, e.g. carbon as graphite or

diamond
ALLOWABLE LOAD
The load that induces the allowable stress in a material, Ref. [5]
ALLOWABLE STRESS

The maximum stress that can be permitted in a material for a given operating environment to

prevent rupture, collapse, detrimental deformation or unacceptable crack growth, Ref. [5]

ALLOWABLES

Material values that are determined from test data at the laminate or lamina level on a

probability basis (e.g. 'A' or 'B' values), following ASTM or other test standards accepted by the

final customer. [See also: A-BASIS DESIGN ALLOWABLE; B-BASIS DESIGN ALLOWABLE;
'A' VALUE, 'B' VALUE]
ALLOY

Mixture of a base metallic element with one or more other metallic or non-metallic elements

AlN
Aluminium nitride
ALS051
Medium-density, silicone-based ablative
ALSCAP
Alternative Low-cost, Short Manufacturing Cycle Assessment Programme
ALUMINA
Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3.
ALUMINIDE

Intermetallic compound of another metallic element, or elements, with aluminium, e.g. NiAl,

TiAl or FeAl
ALUMINIUM (Al)

Metallic element, melting point 660°C, density 2700 kg m . Uses: ubiquitous aerospace alloy

base, important component in oxidation resistant alloys and coatings and as part of basic

strengthening mechanism for nickel-based superalloys
ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM

An aluminium alloy containing typically between 1% and 3% Li, with the objective of

increasing mechanical properties over base alloy alone.

Note: Because Li is a low-level alloy addition, Al-Li alloys are classified within the 2XXX,

7XXX and 8XXX wrought alloy designations, plus 2XX casting alloys
ALUMINIUM NITRIDE (AlN)

Ceramic with high thermal conductivity (140 W/mK to 177 W/mK), but is effectively an

electrical insulator (volume resistivity 1010 ohm cm). Can suffer surface oxidation above

700°C, density 3320 kg m .
ALUMINO-SILICATE
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Compound of aluminium and silicon oxides used in ceramics and some types of glasses for

composite matrix materials
AMBIENT

1 The surrounding environmental conditions, e.g. pressure, temperature or relative humidity

2 usual work place temperature and humidity environmental conditions, e.g. room
temperature
ANALYSIS

A verification method performing theoretical or empirical analysis by accepted analytical

methods. The selected techniques can typically include systematics, statistics, qualitative

design analysis, modelling and computer simulation, Ref. [1]
ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

This document lists all the requirements to be verified by Analysis, grouping them in

categories detailing the Verification Plan activity sheets, with planning of the execution and a

definition of the associated procedures, Ref. [1]
ANALYSIS REPORT

A document that describes, for each analysis, assumptions, utilised methods, software and

results and contains proper evidence that the relevant requirements are satisfied, Ref.[1]

ANALYTICAL LIFE

Life evaluated analytically, i.e. by crack-growth analysis or fatigue analysis, Ref. [5]

ANALYTICAL MODEL

A representation of an item based on mathematical modelling. The modelling is performed on

the basis of known mathematical techniques, providing a representation of the item features

under investigation, Ref. [1]
ANGLE INTERLOCKED

A triaxial fabric in which all reinforcement fibres are woven at the same time; also known as

‘integrally woven’
ANGLE-PLY LAMINATE

Possessing equal plies with positive and negative angles. This bidirectional laminate is simple

because it is orthotropic
ANISOTROPIC

Having mechanical or physical properties which vary in direction relative to natural reference

axes in the material
ANNEALING
A heat treatment process:
1 Metals: used to reduce residual stresses.
2 Composites: ineffective at reducing residual stresses
ANOXIC
The resistance of a material to thermo-oxidative attack by atomic oxygen
ANTISYMMETRY

Special symmetry with sign change between off-diagonal components, e.g. an unsymmetrical

angle-ply laminate

Atomic oxygen; experiments conducted on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

AOCS
Attitude and Orbit Control System, or subsystem
APC
Aromatic polymer composite
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AQUEOUS CORROSION

Corrosion by ionic species in water, e.g. chlorides, hydroxides. Includes moisture or humidity

trapped or condensed within structures.
Acceptance Review
ARA
Advanced rigid array; a type of ultrasonic transducer assembly
ARALDITE™

A range of epoxy-based structural adhesives; developed by Ciba Geigy, now Vantico

ARALL™
Aramid fibre-reinforced aluminium laminate. [See: FIBRE METAL LAMINATE]
ARAMID

A type of highly oriented aromatic polymer material. Used primarily as a high-strength

reinforcing fibre, of which Kevlar™ 49 and Twaron™ HM are most commonly used in
aerospace applications
ARAMID/EPOXY

A composite material comprising of an aramid fibre reinforcement in an epoxy matrix

ARC
Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf
ARD
Atmospheric Re-entry Demonstrator
AREAL WEIGHT

A measurement of the weight per unit area of a fabric or fabric prepreg; expressed as g/m²

ARIANE
Family of European launch vehicles
ARP
Aramid fibre-reinforced plastic, Ref. [10]
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)

The property of a machine capable of reason by which it can learn functions normally

associated with human intelligence
Austenite start temperature
ASIFS
Aerial spacecraft interface structure; part of SILEX
ASIP
Aircraft Structural Integrity Program
ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASSEMBLED ARTICLE

Any component ‘black box’ or assembly of components which represents the article to be used

in a spacecraft, Ref. [7].
ASSEMBLY

An accumulation of subassemblies and/or equipment that performs specific functions within a

subsystem, e.g. water pump package. (Verification level typical of US standard), Ref.[1]

ASTM
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American Society for Testing and Materials; USA standards organisation
ASTP
Advanced Systems and Technology Programme; ESA programme
ASTREX

Advanced space structure technology research experiments; an American smart technology

programme
ATC
1 Active Thermal Control
2 Advanced Technical Ceramic
ATOMISATION
Spray technique for producing metal alloy powders with or without a particulate

reinforcement. Molten metal is forced through a nozzle into a stream of high-velocity, inert

gas. The semi-solid droplets are collected on a substrate. Proprietary processes are OSPREY

(un-reinforced alloys) and COSPRAY (particulate reinforced alloys)
ATOX
Atomic Oxygen
AUTOCLAVE

A closed vessel for conducting a chemical reaction or other operation under pressure and heat

AUTOCLAVE MOULDING

After composite lay-up, the entire assembly is placed in steam autoclave at 7 bar to 14 bar and

180°C; additional pressure achieves higher reinforcement loading and improved removal of air

AVCO 5026-39 HCG
Epoxy-novalac, glass fibre honeycomb reinforced material
AVERAGE STRESS CRITERION

A failure criterion in which it is assumed that failure occurs when the average stress over

some distance equals the unnotched laminate strength
AWG
American Wire Gauge
AXIAL WINDING

In filament-wound reinforced plastics, a winding with the filaments parallel to the axis

AXISYMMETRY

Symmetry about an axis (in the case of a laminated material it is isotropic in the plane normal

to the axis, and this material is called transversely isotropic)
B-BASIS DESIGN ALLOWABLE

A value which at least 90 % of the population of values is expected to fall with a confi-dence of

95 %, Ref. [9]; also known as ‘B’ value
B-SCAN

A scanned line response showing features at identifiable depths; nondestructive testing

B-STAGE

An intermediate stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins, Ref. [10], in which the

material swells when in contact with certain liquids and softens when heated, but cannot

dissolve or fuse entirely; sometimes referred to as ‘resistol’. The resin in an uncured prepreg or

premix is usually in this stage. [See also: A-STAGE, C-STAGE]
'B' VALUE
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A 'B' value is that above which at least 90% of the population of values is expected to fall with

a confidence of 95%. [See also: ALLOWABLES]
BACKING SHEET

A thin polymer sheet used to protect prepreg and film adhesive surfaces from contamination

and damage prior to use. These have to be completely removed during lay-up and are usually

coloured to aid this.
BAe
British Aerospace, UK
BAGGING

Process: the enclosing of an uncured composite lay-up in a heat-resistant bag prior removal of

the air and subsequent curing
BAKEOUT

Activity of increasing the temperature of hardware to accelerate its outgassing rates with the

intent of reducing the content of molecular contaminants within the hardware. Note: Bakeout

is usually performed in a vacuum environment but may be done in a controlled atmosphere,

Ref. [8].
BALANCED DESIGN

In filament-wound reinforced plastics, a winding pattern so designed that the stresses in all

filaments are equal
BALANCED LAMINATE

Where plies with positive angles are balanced by equal plies with negative angles. While

angle-ply laminates have only one pair of matched angles, balanced laminates can have many

pairs, plus 0 and 90 degrees. A balanced laminate is orthotropic in in-plane behaviour, but

anisotropic in flexural behaviour
BAM

Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und prüfung, Federal Institute for Materials Research

and Testing, Germany
BATCH
Materials produced during a unique sequence:

1. Fibre: The amount which is produced by the conversion of a number of precursor tows under

standard, controlled, processing-plant conditions in one continuous operation, including any

surface treatment and sizing of the fibre

2. Prepreg: A quantity, irrespective of width, that is produced under 'no-change conditions' in

one continuous operation of the impregnating plant from one batch of resin mix and one batch

of fibre. A batch is expected to conform to a fixed manufacturing process and to have

homogeneous properties within prescribed tolerances over its whole width and length. A

maximum allowable length for a prepreg batch is sometimes specified

3. Resin: A quantity of resin in either film or liquid form produced from one mix of resins, resin

modifiers and curing agents
BERYLLIUM (Be)

Metallic element, melting point 1289°C, density 1850 kg m . Uses: aerospace structural

material, with good dimensional stability and moderately high service temperatures.

BIAS
A type of weave for a fabric, [See: BIAS WEAVE]
BIAS WEAVE
The weft picks cross the warp ends at 45° or 60° instead of the normal 90°.
BIAXIAL WINDING

In filament winding, a type of winding in which the helical band is laid in sequence, side by

side, with no crossover of fibres
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BIDIRECTIONAL LAMINATE

A reinforced plastic laminate with the fibres oriented in two directions in the plane of the

laminate; a cross laminate. [See also: UNIDIRECTIONAL LAMINATE]
BIG FOOT™

Types of mechanical fasteners that provide a larger footprint, i.e. contact area, than

conventional types of fasteners; developed by Monogram
BIOMIMETICS

Synthetic materials which function like natural ones, e.g. artificial tendons and Velcro™

BIOPAN

A multi-user exposure facility, designed for exobiology, radiation biology, radiation dosimetry

and material science investigations in space; ESA mission
BIPROPELLANT

Rocket fuel consisting of two chemical components which react on contact in the combustion

chamber, e.g. mono-methyl-hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)
BISFA
International Bureau for Standardisation of Man-made Fibres
BISMALEIMIDE (BMI)

A type of polyimide that cures by an addition rather than a condensation reaction, thus

avoiding problems with volatiles, and which is produced by a vinyl-type polymerisation of a

polymer terminated with two maleimide groups. It has intermediate temperature capability

between epoxy and polyimide (about 200°C)
BLEED

The removal of excess resin from a prepreg during processing, [See also: CONTROLLED

BLEED and ZERO-BLEED]
BLEEDER CLOTH

Non-structural, fibre glass cloth placed adjacent to the composite material part to absorb

excess resin during cure, and removed from the part after cure
BLIND
Fasteners: Installed from one side of a component only
BLISK

Turbine disk where the blades and hub are formed as a single piece (Integrally-bladed disk).

BLISTER
Delamination in a distinct local area or areas
BLOX
Laser enhanced oxidation test facility at ONERA, France.
BMI
Bismaleimide. [See: BISMALEIMIDE]
BOND LINE

The area between two materials that have been adhesively bonded; includes the layer of

adhesive between the adherends
BOND STRENGTH

The amount of adhesion between bonded surfaces; a measure of the stress required to separate

a layer of material from the base to which it is bonded. [See also: PEEL STRENGTH]

BONDED JOINT

The general area of contact for a bonded structure. This includes composite to composite and

composite to metal adherends and all forms of adhesives including co- and post-cured joints.

[See also: ADHEREND, ADHESIVE, CO-CURE, POSTCURE]
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BOR-4
A re-entry test vehicle
BORON (B)

Metallic element, melting point 2092°C, density 2340 kg m . Uses: alloying additions, doping

in aluminides to induce ductility. Reinforcing filaments for polymer or metal matrix

composites. Mainly within the USA
BORON CARBIDE (B C)
Extremely hard ceramic material with a density of 2520 kg m
BORSIC

Boron filaments for reinforcement made by deposition onto a fine tungsten wire and coated

with silicon carbide (SiC)
BPS
Backpack subsystem; part of an extra-vehicular activity space suit
BRAGG GRATING

A diffraction grating constructed by creating a systematic spatial variation of the structure of

a material, such as the molecular structure of a crystal or the refractive index of glass, Ref.[4].

BRAIDING

Process: A mechanical weaving of fibres that enables three or more continuous yarns to be

progressively crossed in a predetermined pattern and angle to produce a complex network to

form a structural shape, such as a tube, square box or U-shaped channel
BRAZING

Joining technique involving the melting of a material with a lower temperature (braze) placed

between parts to be joined. The parent metal(s) remain(s) solid during brazing
BREADBOARD
[See: DEVELOPMENT MODEL]
BREATHER

Porous material, such as fabric or mat, placed inside the vacuum bag to facilitate removal of

air, moisture and volatiles during cure
BRIDGING

A build-up of solder or conformal coating between parts, component leads and/or base

substrate forming an elevated path
BROOMING

The appearance of the end of a failed composite material where the reinforcing fibres are

clearly visible, such that it resembles a brush or broom
British standard, controlled by the British Standards Institute (BSI).
BSI
British Standards Institute, UK
BUCKLING

1 Unstable displacement of a structural part, such as a panel, caused by excessive compression

or shear. Micro-buckling of fibres in a composite material can also occur under axial

compression

2 Fibre: a failure mechanism which occurs under compressive loads where the reinforcing

fibres in a composite are displaced transversly; fibre buckling modes are known as ‘extension

mode’ and ‘shear mode’.
BUNDLE
A number of parallel filaments, normally without organic matrix
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BUNDLE STRENGTH

Strength obtained from a test on parallel filaments, with or without organic matrix. The

bundle test is often used instead of the monofilament test
BURAN
Russian reusable manned spacecraft: resembling the USA STS Space Shuttle Orbiter
BURST PRESSURE
The pressure at which a pressurized system ruptures or collapses, Ref. [5]
BURST STRENGTH

Hydraulic pressure required to burst a vessel of given thickness; commonly used in testing

filament-wound composite structures
BVID
Barely visible impact damage
C-C
Carbon-carbon. Carbon fibre reinforced, carbon matrix composite
C/SiC
Carbon fibre-reinforced silicon carbide; a ceramic matrix composite (CMC)
C-STAGE

The final stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material is

relatively insoluble and infusible; sometimes referred to as resite. The resin in a fully cured

thermoset moulding is in this stage. [See also: A-STAGE, B-STAGE]
CABLE

Two or more insulated conductors, solid or stranded, of equal length, contained in a common

covering; or two or more insulated conductors, of equal length, twisted or moulded together

without common covering; or one insulated conductor with a metallic covering shield or outer

conductor (shielded cable or coaxial cable)
CABLED YARN
[Technical textiles] Two or more folded yarns twisted together
CADMIUM (Cd)

Metallic element, melting point 321°C, density 8650 kg m , Uses: alloying additions,

protective coatings: NOT FOR SPACE USE
C/Al
Carbon fibre reinforced alu
...

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