Plastics - Methods of test for the determination of the effects of immersion in liquid chemicals (ISO 175:2010)

ISO 175:2010 specifies a method of exposing test specimens of plastic materials, free from all external restraint, to liquid chemicals, and methods for determining the changes in properties resulting from such immersion. It does not cover environmental stress cracking (ESC) which is dealt with by the various parts of ISO 22088.
It only considers testing by immersion of the entire surface of the test specimen.
It is applicable to all solid plastics that are available in the form of moulding or extrusion materials, plates, tubes, rods or sheets having a thickness greater than 0,1 mm. It is not applicable to cellular materials.

Kunststoffe - Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung des Verhaltens gegen flüssige Chemikalien (ISO 175:2010)

Diese Internationale Norm legt ein Verfahren zur Lagerung von Probekörpern aus Kunststoffen ohne
äußere Beanspruchungen in flüssigen Chemikalien fest sowie Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Änderungen
von Eigenschaften, die sich aus dieser Lagerung ergeben. Nicht erfasst wird die umweltbedingte
Spannungsrissbildung, die in den unterschiedlichen Teilen der ISO 22088 beschrieben wird.
1.2 Diese Norm berücksichtigt nur die Prüfung durch Eintauchen der gesamten Oberfläche des
Probekörpers.0F
1) 31H1F
ANMERKUNG Zur Veranschaulichung einer nur teilweisen oder selten auftretenden Feuchtigkeitseinwirkung auf
Kunststoffe ist dieses Verfahren möglicherweise ungeeignet.
1.3 Die vorliegende Norm ist auf alle festen Kunststoffe anwendbar, die aus Form- oder
Strangpressmaterialien bestehen oder in Form von Platten, Rohren, Stäben oder Folien vorliegen und dicker
als 0,1 mm sind. Auf Schaumstoffmaterialien ist sie nicht anwendbar.

Plastiques - Méthodes d'essai pour la détermination des effets de l'immersion dans des produits chimiques liquides (ISO 175:2010)

L'ISO 175:2010 spécifie une méthode d'exposition d'éprouvettes en plastique exemptes de toute contrainte extérieure à des produits chimiques liquides, ainsi que des méthodes de détermination des variations des caractéristiques résultant d'une telle exposition. Elle ne concerne pas la fissuration sous contrainte dans un environnement donné (ESC) qui est traitée dans les différentes parties de l'ISO 22088.
Elle n'envisage que l'essai par immersion sur toute la surface de l'éprouvette.
Elle est applicable à tous les plastiques compacts se présentant sous forme de matières à mouler ou à extruder, de plaques, tubes, joncs ou feuilles ayant une épaisseur supérieure à 0,1 mm. Elle n'est pas applicable aux matériaux alvéolaires.

Polimerni materiali - Preskusne metode za ugotavljanje učinkov pri potapljanju v tekoče kemikalije (ISO 175:2010)

Ta mednarodni standard določa metodo izpostavljanja preskusnih vzorcev polimernih materialov brez zunanjih omejitev tekočim kemikalijam in metode za določevanje sprememb v lastnostih zaradi takega potapljanja. Ne zajema razpokanja zaradi okoljskih vplivov (ESC), ki ga obravnavajo različni deli ISO 22088. Obravnava le preskušanje s potapljanjem celotne površine preskušanca.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Oct-2010
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
15-Oct-2010
Completion Date
15-Oct-2010

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 175:2011
01-november-2011
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 175:2000
3ROLPHUQLPDWHULDOL3UHVNXVQHPHWRGH]DXJRWDYOMDQMHXþLQNRYSULSRWDSOMDQMXY
WHNRþHNHPLNDOLMH ,62

Plastics - Methods of test for the determination of the effects of immersion in liquid

chemicals (ISO 175:2010)

Kunststoffe - Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung des Verhaltens gegen flüssige Chemikalien

(ISO 175:2010)

Plastiques - Méthodes d'essai pour la détermination des effets de l'immersion dans des

produits chimiques liquides (ISO 175:2010)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 175:2010
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
SIST EN ISO 175:2011 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 175:2011
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 175:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 175
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2010
ICS 83.080.01 Supersedes EN ISO 175:2000
English Version
Plastics - Methods of test for the determination of the effects of
immersion in liquid chemicals (ISO 175:2010)

Plastiques - Méthodes d'essai pour la détermination des Kunststoffe - Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung des Verhaltens

effets de l'immersion dans des produits chimiques liquides gegen flüssige Chemikalien (ISO 175:2010)

(ISO 175:2010)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 October 2010.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 175:2010: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 175:2011
EN ISO 175:2010 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
EN ISO 175:2010 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 175:2010) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61 "Plastics" in

collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics” the secretariat of which is held by NBN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2011, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the

latest by April 2011.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 175:2000.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 175:2010 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 175:2010 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 175
Third edition
2010-10-15
Plastics — Methods of test for the
determination of the effects of immersion
in liquid chemicals
Plastiques — Méthodes d'essai pour la détermination des effets de
l'immersion dans des produits chimiques liquides
Reference number
ISO 175:2010(E)
ISO 2010
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 175:2011
ISO 175:2010(E)
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All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
ISO 175:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Principle .................................................................................................................................................2

4 General requirements and procedure .................................................................................................2

4.1 Test liquids.............................................................................................................................................2

4.2 Test conditions ......................................................................................................................................2

4.3 Immersion time ......................................................................................................................................3

4.4 Test specimens......................................................................................................................................3

4.5 Conditioning ..........................................................................................................................................4

4.6 Procedure...............................................................................................................................................4

4.7 Expression of results............................................................................................................................5

5 Determination of changes in mass, dimensions and appearance ...................................................6

5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................6

5.2 Apparatus...............................................................................................................................................6

5.3 Test specimens......................................................................................................................................7

5.4 Determination of changes in mass......................................................................................................8

5.5 Determination of changes in dimensions.........................................................................................10

5.6 Determination of changes in colour or other appearance attributes.............................................12

6 Determination of changes in other physical properties..................................................................13

6.1 General .................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Apparatus.............................................................................................................................................13

6.3 Test specimens....................................................................................................................................13

6.4 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Calculation and expression of results ..............................................................................................14

7 Precision ..............................................................................................................................................14

8 Test report............................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (normative) Types of test liquid.......................................................................................................16

Annex B (informative) Notes on the absorption of moisture by plastic specimens in equilibrium

with a conditioning atmosphere ........................................................................................................19

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
ISO 175:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 175 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 6, Ageing, chemical

and environmental resistance.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 175:1999), of which it constitutes a minor

revision.
iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
ISO 175:2010(E)
Introduction

Because of their varied applications, plastics are frequently brought into contact with liquids such as chemical

products, motor fuels, lubricants, etc., and, possibly, with their vapours.

Under the action of a liquid, a plastic material may be subjected to several phenomena which may occur

simultaneously. On the one hand, absorption of liquid and extraction of constituents soluble in the liquid may

occur. On the other hand, a chemical reaction, often resulting in a significant change in the properties of the

plastic, may occur. The equilibrium swelling ratio for a crosslinked polymer in a liquid that is a solvent for the

same but non-crosslinked polymer is a measure of the degree of crosslinking.

The behaviour of plastics in the presence of liquids can be determined only under arbitrarily fixed conditions

aimed at making comparisons between different materials. The choice of test conditions (nature of the liquid,

immersion temperature and immersion time), as well as the choice of the properties in which changes are to

be measured, depends on the eventual application of the plastic under test.

It is not possible, however, to establish any direct correlation between the experimental results and the

behaviour of the plastic in service. These tests do, nevertheless, permit a comparison to be made of the

behaviour of different plastic materials under specified conditions, thus allowing an initial evaluation of their

behaviour in relation to certain groups of liquids.

NOTE In view of its special importance, the particular case of the determination of the quantity of water absorbed is

dealt with in ISO 62. ISO 175 is concerned with the effects of water only where changes in the dimensions and physical

properties of the plastic occur as a result of the action of the water.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 175:2010(E)
Plastics — Methods of test for the determination of the effects
of immersion in liquid chemicals
1 Scope

1.1 This International Standard specifies a method of exposing test specimens of plastic materials, free

from all external restraint, to liquid chemicals, and methods for determining the changes in properties resulting

from such immersion. It does not cover environmental stress cracking (ESC) which is dealt with by the various

parts of ISO 22088.

1.2 It only considers testing by immersion of the entire surface of the test specimen .

NOTE This method may not be appropriate for simulating partial or infrequent wetting of plastics.

1.3 It is applicable to all solid plastics that are available in the form of moulding or extrusion materials,

plates, tubes, rods or sheets having a thickness greater than 0,1 mm. It is not applicable to cellular materials.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 291:2008, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

ISO 294-3, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials — Part 3: Small plates

ISO 2818, Plastics — Preparation of test specimens by machining

ISO 3126, Plastics piping systems — Plastics components — Determination of dimensions

ISO 4582, Plastics — Determination of changes in colour and variations in properties after exposure to

daylight under glass, natural weathering or laboratory light sources

IEC 60296, Fluids for electrotechnical applications — Unused mineral insulating oils for transformers and

switchgear

1) Although it is not within the scope of this International Standard, it may also be of interest, when dealing with volatile

liquids or those which give off vapours, to subject the specimen to only the gaseous phase above the liquid. In this event,

it is advisable to proceed exactly as indicated, but to suspend the specimen above the liquid, seal the container and

maintain it at the test temperature throughout.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
ISO 175:2010(E)
3 Principle

Test specimens are completely immersed in a test liquid for a specified time and at a specified temperature.

Their properties are determined before immersion and after removal from the liquid, as well as after drying, if

applicable. In the last-mentioned case, the determinations are made, if possible, one after the other on the

same specimens.

NOTE The comparison of different plastics by means of this test is valid only if the specimens used are of the same

shape, of the same dimensions (in particular of the same thickness) and in as nearly as possible the same state (of

internal stress, surface, etc.).
Methods are specified for determining the following:

a) changes in mass, dimensions and appearance immediately after removal from the liquid and after

removal and drying;

b) changes in physical properties (mechanical, thermal, optical, etc.) immediately after removal from the

liquid and after removal and drying;
c) the amount of liquid absorbed.

Measurements are made immediately after removal when it is necessary to ascertain the state of the material

while it is still being acted on by the liquid. Measurements are made after removal and drying when it is

necessary to ascertain the state of the material after the liquid, provided it is volatile, has been eliminated. It

also allows the influence of a soluble constituent to be determined.
4 General requirements and procedure
4.1 Test liquids
4.1.1 Choice of test liquid

If information is required about the behaviour of a plastic in contact with a specific liquid, that liquid shall be

used. The test liquid shall be of analytical quality.

Industrial liquid chemicals are not generally of absolutely constant composition. The tests shall be carried out

using defined chemical products, either on their own or as a mixture, which are as representative as possible

of the products under consideration in their effect on the plastic material concerned. When technical-grade

chemicals are used, they shall be of agreed origin and quality, and care shall be taken that only one

manufacturing batch is used for all measurements in any one series.

If conducting a series of tests in a liquid of doubtful composition, it is important to take all the samples of the

liquid from the same container.
4.1.2 Types of test liquid
Types of test liquid are given in Annex A.
4.2 Test conditions
4.2.1 Test temperatures
The preferred test temperatures are:
a) (23± 2) °C;
b) (70± 2) °C.
2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
ISO 175:2010(E)

If a different temperature has to be used in order to correspond to the temperature at which the plastic is to be

used, it shall be selected from one of the following temperatures:

−269 °C; −196 °C; −161 °C; −70 °C; −55 °C; −40 °C; −25 °C; −10 °C; 0 °C; 5 °C; 25 °C; 40 °C; 55 °C;

70 °C; 85 °C; 100 °C; 105 °C; 125 °C; 150 °C; 175 °C; 200 °C; 225 °C; 250 °C; 275 °C; 300 °C; 350 °C;

400 °C; 450 °C; 500 °C; 600 °C; 700 °C; 800 °C; 900 °C; 1 000 °C
NOTE These temperatures originate from ISO 3205:1976.
The following temperatures are recommended:
0 °C; 20 °C; 27 °C; 40 °C; 55 °C; 85 °C; 95 °C; 100 °C; 125 °C; 150 °C

with a tolerance of ± 2 °C on temperatures up to and including 100 °C and ± 3 °C on temperatures greater

than 105 °C up to and including 200 °C. In the special case of testing plastic pipes, the temperature of 60 °C

given in the annex to ISO 3205:1976 may be used.

In the event that the test is to be carried out at a temperature above normal ambient conditions, it may be

desirable to condition another series of specimens at this temperature for a period equal to that of the test,

and to measure their properties after this conditioning in order to be able to distinguish the effect of

temperature from that of the liquid.

In the case of long-duration tests, specimens stored in air at 23 °C may undergo a change in properties.

Preparation of an additional series of test specimens is recommended for comparison purposes.

4.2.2 Measurement temperature

The temperature for the determination of changes in mass, dimensions or physical properties is 23 °C ± 2 °C.

If the immersion temperature is different, bring the specimen to 23 °C by the procedure described in 4.6.3.

4.3 Immersion time
The preferred immersion times are:
a) 24 h for a short-duration test;
b) 1 week for a standard test (particularly at 23 °C);
c) 16 weeks for a long-duration test.

If other immersion times need to be used, for example if it is desired to perform tests as a function of time or to

plot the curve until equilibrium is reached, it is recommended that the immersion times be chosen from the

following standard scale:
d) 1 h — 2 h — 4 h — 8 h — 16 h — 24 h — 48 h — 96 h — 168 h;

e) 2 weeks — 4 weeks — 8 weeks — 16 weeks — 26 weeks — 52 weeks — 78 weeks;

f) 1,5 years — 2 years — 3 years — 4 years — 5 years.
4.4 Test specimens

Depending upon the measurements to be made after immersion (mass, dimensions, physical properties) and

the nature and form of the plastic material (sheet, film, rod, etc.), the specimens will be of very diverse shapes

and dimensions.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
ISO 175:2010(E)

They may be obtained directly by moulding, or by machining. In the latter case, cut surfaces shall be

machined to a fine finish and shall show no trace of carbonization that could be attributed to the method of

preparation.

For the specimens specified in 5.3.1 and 5.3.2, the preferred specimen size is 60 mm ¥ 60 mm with a

thickness depending on the type of plastic material:
⎯ for thermoplastics, the preferred thickness is 1,0 mm to 1,1 mm;

⎯ for moulding compounds, the specimen is identical to that specified in ISO 294-3;

⎯ for semi-finished materials, the specimen should preferably be prepared by machining in accordance with

ISO 2818, leaving at least one original surface intact;
⎯ for composites, the preferred thickness is at least 2 mm.

NOTE Tests using specimens thinner or thicker than the recommended 1 mm can be conducted to determine whether

specimen thickness effects changes in mass, dimensions, appearance or amount of liquid absorbed.

The number of specimens to be used will be specified in the International Standards relevant to the tests to be

carried out after treatment. In the absence of specific International Standards, at least three specimens shall

be tested.
4.5 Conditioning

Condition the specimens in atmosphere 23/50, class 2, as defined in ISO 291:2008.

NOTE For certain plastics which are known to approach temperature equilibrium and, in particular, humidity

equilibrium rapidly or very slowly, shorter or longer conditioning periods can be specified in the appropriate product

specifications (see Annex B).
4.6 Procedure
4.6.1 Quantity of test liquid

The quantity of test liquid used shall be at least 8 ml per square centimetre of the total surface area of the

specimen in order to avoid too high a concentration of any extracted products in the liquid during the course of

the test. The test liquid shall cover the specimen completely.

NOTE A different quantity of liquid might, however, be specified in particular International Standards; for example, for

rigid PVC and polyolefin pipes, where the amount of extractable substances is known to be very small, a smaller quantity

of liquid is specified in the relevant International Standards.
4.6.2 Positioning of specimens

Place each set of test specimens in a suitable container (see 5.2) and completely immerse them in the test

liquid (using a weight if necessary). When several materials of the same composition are to be tested, it is

permissible to put several sets of specimens in the same container.

Ensure that, for every specimen, only an insignificant proportion of the surface of the specimen makes contact

with the surfaces of other specimens, with the walls of the container or with any weight that is used.

During the test, stir the liquid, for example by swirling it in the container, at least once per day.

If the test lasts longer than seven days, replace the liquid with an equal amount of the original liquid every

seventh day (see Note 2 to 4.6.3).

If the liquid is unstable (for example in the case of sodium hypochlorite), replace the liquid more frequently.

4 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 175:2011
ISO 175:2010(E)

If light is likely to affect the action of the test liquid, it is recommended that the test be carried out either in

darkness or under defined illumination conditions.

It may be necessary in certain cases to specify the height of the liquid level above the specimens (for example

if there is a risk of oxidation) or to measure the volume of the liquid absorbed. The volume absorbed by the

specimen is the difference between the initial volume of the liquid and the volume of the remaining liquid.

Where it is necessary to calculate this, the apparatus shall allow the measurement of the volume of the liquid

alone.
4.6.3 Rinsing and wiping

At the end of the period of immersion, bring the temperature of the specimens back to ambient temperature if

necessary by transferring them quickly into a fresh quantity of test liquid at room temperature and leaving

them for a period of 15 min to 30 min.

Use one of the following procedures for rinsing the specimens after they have been removed from the test

liquid:

a) For specimens which have been immersed in acid, alkali or other aqueous solutions, rinse thoroughly

with clean water. Hygroscopic reagents such as concentrated sulfuric acid may remain adsorbed on the

surface of the specimens even after rinsing, requiring immediate special treatment to avoid moisture

pickup before and during weighing.

b) For specimens removed from non-volatile, non-water-soluble organic liquids, rinse with a non-aggressive

but volatile solvent such as light naphtha.

NOTE 1 In the case of specimens immersed in volatile liquids such as acetone or alcohol at ambient temperature,

rinsing and wiping may not be necessary.
Wipe the specimens dry with filter paper or a lint-free cloth.

NOTE 2 It may be necessary to examine the test liquid at the end of the test. This examination could be a simple visual

examination, a measurement of the volume or mass of the liquid not absorbed, or a more rigorous examination, including,

for example, a titration.

This examination may not be meaningful if the liquid has been replaced during the test.

4.7 Expression of results
4.7.1 Numerical expression

In addition to giving the measurements made before and after immersion, the value of the property after

immersion (X ) may be expressed (except in special cases of changes in mass) as a percentage of the value

before immersion (X ), using the following formula:
×100
4.7.2 Graphical expression

In every case where measurements are made as a function of time, it is recommended that graphs be plotted.

Plot the values obtained (including the original value), or the differences in value, as the ordinates and the

0,5

immersion times t as the abscissae. If it is necessary to shorten the immersion-time scale, either a t scale

or a log t scale may be used.

The double-logarithmic plot as recommended in ISO 62 of, for example, the mass or volume of liquid

absorbed versus the immersion time allows the determination of the concentration at saturation and the

diffusion coefficient over short immersion times if the absorption follows Fick's laws.

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 175:2011
ISO 175:2010(E)
5 Determination of changes in mass, dimensions and appearance
5.1 General
These determinations may, if necessary, be carried out on the same specimens.
At least three specimens shall be used.
5.2 Apparatus
5.2.1 For all tests
5.2.1.1 Beakers, of suitable dimensions,
...

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Kunststoffe - Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung des Verhaltens gegen flüssige Chemikalien (ISO/FDIS 175:2010)Plastiques - Méthodes d'essai pour la détermination des effets de l'immersion dans des produits chimiques liquides (ISO/FDIS 175:2010)Plastics - Methods of test for the determination of the effects of immersion in liquid chemicals (ISO/FDIS 175:2010)83.080.01Polimerni materiali na splošnoPlastics in generalICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:FprEN ISO 175kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010en,fr01-september-2010kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
FINAL DRAFT
FprEN ISO 175
June 2010 ICS 83.080.01 Will supersede EN ISO 175:2000English Version

Plastics - Methods of test for the determination of the effects of immersion in liquid chemicals (ISO/FDIS 175:2010)

Plastiques - Méthodes d'essai pour la détermination des effets de l'immersion dans des produits chimiques liquides (ISO/FDIS 175:2010)

Kunststoffe -Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung des Verhaltens gegen flüssige Chemikalien (ISO/FDIS 175:2010) This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for unique acceptance procedure. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 249.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.

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Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. FprEN ISO 175:2010: EkSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

FprEN ISO 175:2010 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3 kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

FprEN ISO 175:2010 (E) 3 Foreword This document (FprEN ISO 175:2010) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61 "Plastics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics” the secretariat of which is held by NBN. This document is currently submitted to the Unique Acceptance Procedure. This document will supersede EN ISO 175:2000. Endorsement notice The text of ISO/FDIS 175:2010 has been approved by CEN as a FprEN ISO 175:2010 without any modification.

kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010
kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010
Please see the administrative notes on page iii

RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TOSUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICHTHEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORT-ING DOCUMENTATION. IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ONOCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THELIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE INNATIONAL REGULATIONS.

Reference numberISO/FDIS 175:2010(E)© ISO 2010 FINAL DRAFT ISO/TC 61/SC 6 Secretariat: DIN Voting begins on: 2010-06-24 Voting terminates on: 2010-08-24

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS175Plastics — Methods of test for the determination of the effects of immersion in liquid chemicals Plastiques — Méthodes d'essai pour la détermination des effets de l'immersion dans des produits chimiques liquides

kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) PDF disclaimer This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this area. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

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ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING This Minor Revision has been developed within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and processed under the ISO-lead mode of collaboration as defined in the Vienna Agreement. This final draft is hereby submitted to a parallel two-month approval vote in ISO and three-month UAP vote in CEN. Positive votes shall not be accompanied by comments. Negative votes shall be accompanied by the relevant technical reasons.

kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved Contents Page Foreword.............................................................................................................................................................v Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................vi 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1 3 Principle..................................................................................................................................................2 4 General requirements and procedure.................................................................................................2 4.1 Test liquids.............................................................................................................................................2 4.2 Test conditions......................................................................................................................................2 4.3 Immersion time......................................................................................................................................3 4.4 Test specimens......................................................................................................................................3 4.5 Conditioning...........................................................................................................................................4 4.6 Procedure...............................................................................................................................................4 4.7 Expression of results............................................................................................................................5 5 Determination of changes in mass, dimensions and appearance...................................................6 5.1 General....................................................................................................................................................6 5.2 Apparatus...............................................................................................................................................6 5.3 Test specimens......................................................................................................................................7 5.4 Determination of changes in mass......................................................................................................8 5.5 Determination of changes in dimensions.........................................................................................10 5.6 Determination of changes in colour or other appearance attributes.............................................12 6 Determination of changes in other physical properties..................................................................13 6.1 General..................................................................................................................................................13 6.2 Apparatus.............................................................................................................................................13 6.3 Test specimens....................................................................................................................................13 6.4 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................13 6.5 Calculation and expression of results...............................................................................................14 7 Precision...............................................................................................................................................14 8 Test report............................................................................................................................................15 Annex A (normative)

Types of test liquid.......................................................................................................16 Annex B (informative)

Notes on the absorption of moisture by plastic specimens in equilibrium with a conditioning atmosphere.........................................................................................................19 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................20

kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO 175 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 6, Ageing, chemical and environmental resistance. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 175:1999), of which it constitutes a minor revision. kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) vi © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved Introduction Because of their varied applications, plastics are frequently brought into contact with liquids such as chemical products, motor fuels, lubricants, etc., and, possibly, with their vapours. Under the action of a liquid, a plastic material may be subjected to several phenomena which may occur simultaneously. On the one hand, absorption of liquid and extraction of constituents soluble in the liquid may occur. On the other hand, a chemical reaction, often resulting in a significant change in the properties of the plastic, may occur. The equilibrium swelling ratio for a crosslinked polymer in a liquid that is a solvent for the same but non-crosslinked polymer is a measure of the degree of crosslinking. The behaviour of plastics in the presence of liquids can be determined only under arbitrarily fixed conditions aimed at making comparisons between different materials. The choice of test conditions (nature of the liquid, immersion temperature and immersion time), as well as the choice of the properties in which changes are to be measured, depends on the eventual application of the plastic under test. It is not possible, however, to establish any direct correlation between the experimental results and the behaviour of the plastic in service. These tests do, nevertheless, permit a comparison to be made of the behaviour of different plastic materials under specified conditions, thus allowing an initial evaluation of their behaviour in relation to certain groups of liquids. NOTE In view of its special importance, the particular case of the determination of the quantity of water absorbed is dealt with in ISO 62. ISO 175 is concerned with the effects of water only where changes in the dimensions and physical properties of the plastic occur as a result of the action of the water.

kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1 Plastics — Methods of test for the determination of the effects of immersion in liquid chemicals 1 Scope 1.1 This International Standard specifies a method of exposing test specimens of plastic materials, free from all external restraint, to liquid chemicals, and methods for determining the changes in properties resulting from such immersion. It does not cover environmental stress cracking (ESC) which is dealt with by the various parts of ISO 22088. 1.2 It only considers testing by immersion of the entire surface of the test specimen1). NOTE This method may not be appropriate for simulating partial or infrequent wetting of plastics. 1.3 It is applicable to all solid plastics that are available in the form of moulding or extrusion materials, plates, tubes, rods or sheets having a thickness greater than 0,1 mm. It is not applicable to cellular materials. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ISO 291:2008, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing ISO 294-3, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials — Part 3: Small plates ISO 2818, Plastics — Preparation of test specimens by machining ISO 3126, Plastics piping systems — Plastics components — Determination of dimensions ISO 4582, Plastics — Determination of changes in colour and variations in properties after exposure to daylight under glass, natural weathering or laboratory light sources IEC 60296, Fluids for electrotechnical applications — Unused mineral insulating oils for transformers and switchgear

1) Although it is not within the scope of this International Standard, it may also be of interest, when dealing with volatile liquids or those which give off vapours, to subject the specimen to only the gaseous phase above the liquid. In this event, it is advisable to proceed exactly as indicated, but to suspend the specimen above the liquid, seal the container and maintain it at the test temperature throughout. kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) 2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 3 Principle Test specimens are completely immersed in a test liquid for a specified time and at a specified temperature. Their properties are determined before immersion and after removal from the liquid, as well as after drying, if applicable. In the last-mentioned case, the determinations are made, if possible, one after the other on the same specimens. NOTE

The comparison of different plastics by means of this test is valid only if the specimens used are of the same shape, of the same dimensions (in particular of the same thickness) and in as nearly as possible the same state (of internal stress, surface, etc.). Methods are specified for determining the following: a) changes in mass, dimensions and appearance immediately after removal from the liquid and after removal and drying; b) changes in physical properties (mechanical, thermal, optical, etc.) immediately after removal from the liquid and after removal and drying; c) the amount of liquid absorbed. Measurements are made immediately after removal when it is necessary to ascertain the state of the material while it is still being acted on by the liquid. Measurements are made after removal and drying when it is necessary to ascertain the state of the material after the liquid, provided it is volatile, has been eliminated. It also allows the influence of a soluble constituent to be determined. 4 General requirements and procedure 4.1 Test liquids 4.1.1 Choice of test liquid If information is required about the behaviour of a plastic in contact with a specific liquid, that liquid shall be used. The test liquid shall be of analytical quality. Industrial liquid chemicals are not generally of absolutely constant composition. The tests shall be carried out using defined chemical products, either on their own or as a mixture, which are as representative as possible of the products under consideration in their effect on the plastic material concerned. When technical-grade chemicals are used, they shall be of agreed origin and quality, and care shall be taken that only one manufacturing batch is used for all measurements in any one series. If conducting a series of tests in a liquid of doubtful composition, it is important to take all the samples of the liquid from the same container. 4.1.2 Types of test liquid Types of test liquid are given in Annex A. 4.2 Test conditions 4.2.1 Test temperatures The preferred test temperatures are: a) (23± 2) °C; b) (70± 2) °C. kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 3 If a different temperature has to be used in order to correspond to the temperature at which the plastic is to be used, it shall be selected from one of the following temperatures: −269 °C; −196 °C; −161 °C;

−70 °C;
−55 °C;
−40 °C;
−25 °C;

−10 °C; 0 °C; 5 °C; 25 °C; 40 °C; 55 °C; 70 °C; 85 °C; 100 °C; 105 °C; 125 °C; 150 °C; 175 °C; 200 °C; 225 °C; 250 °C; 275 °C; 300 °C; 350 °C; 400 °C; 450 °C; 500 °C; 600 °C; 700 °C; 800 °C; 900 °C; 1 000 °C NOTE These temperatures originate from ISO 3205:1976. The following temperatures are recommended:

0 °C; 20 °C; 27 °C; 40 °C; 55 °C; 85 °C; 95 °C; 100 °C; 125 °C; 150 °C with a tolerance of ± 2 °C on temperatures up to and including 100 °C and ± 3 °C on temperatures greater than 105 °C up to and including 200 °C. In the special case of testing plastic pipes, the temperature of 60 °C given in the annex to ISO 3205:1976 may be used. In the event that the test is to be carried out at a temperature above normal ambient conditions, it may be desirable to condition another series of specimens at this temperature for a period equal to that of the test, and to measure their properties after this conditioning in order to be able to distinguish the effect of temperature from that of the liquid. In the case of long-duration tests, specimens stored in air at 23 °C may undergo a change in properties. Preparation of an additional series of test specimens is recommended for comparison purposes. 4.2.2 Measurement temperature The temperature for the determination of changes in mass, dimensions or physical properties is 23 °C ± 2 °C. If the immersion temperature is different, bring the specimen to 23 °C by the procedure described in 4.6.3. 4.3 Immersion time The preferred immersion times are: a) 24 h for a short-duration test; b) 1 week for a standard test (particularly at 23 °C); c) 16 weeks for a long-duration test. If other immersion times need to be used, for example if it is desired to perform tests as a function of time or to plot the curve until equilibrium is reached, it is recommended that the immersion times be chosen from the following standard scale: d) 1 h

— 2 h
4 h
8 h
16 h
24 h
48 h
96 h
168 h; e) 2 weeks
4 weeks
8 weeks
16 weeks
26 weeks
52 weeks
78 weeks; f) 1,5 years
2 years
3 years
4 years

5 years. 4.4 Test specimens Depending upon the measurements to be made after immersion (mass, dimensions, physical properties) and the nature and form of the plastic material (sheet, film, rod, etc.), the specimens will be of very diverse shapes and dimensions. kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) 4 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved They may be obtained directly by moulding, or by machining. In the latter case, cut surfaces shall be machined to a fine finish and shall show no trace of carbonization that could be attributed to the method of preparation. For the specimens specified in 5.3.1 and 5.3.2, the preferred specimen size is 60 mm ¥ 60 mm with a thickness depending on the type of plastic material: ⎯ for thermoplastics, the preferred thickness is 1,0 mm to 1,1 mm; ⎯ for moulding compounds, the specimen is identical to that specified in ISO 294-3; ⎯ for semi-finished materials, the specimen should preferably be prepared by machining in accordance with ISO 2818, leaving at least one original surface intact; ⎯ for composites, the preferred thickness is at least 2 mm. NOTE Tests using specimens thinner or thicker than the recommended 1 mm can be conducted to determine whether specimen thickness effects changes in mass, dimensions, appearance or amount of liquid absorbed. The number of specimens to be used will be specified in the International Standards relevant to the tests to be carried out after treatment. In the absence of specific International Standards, at least three specimens shall be tested. 4.5 Conditioning Condition the specimens in atmosphere 23/50, class 2, as defined in ISO 291:2008. NOTE

For certain plastics which are known to approach temperature equilibrium and, in particular, humidity equilibrium rapidly or very slowly, shorter or longer conditioning periods can be specified in the appropriate product specifications (see Annex B). 4.6 Procedure 4.6.1 Quantity of test liquid The quantity of test liquid used shall be at least 8 ml per square centimetre of the total surface area of the specimen in order to avoid too high a concentration of any extracted products in the liquid during the course of the test. The test liquid shall cover the specimen completely. NOTE A different quantity of liquid might, however, be specified in particular International Standards; for example, for rigid PVC and polyolefin pipes, where the amount of extractable substances is known to be very small, a smaller quantity of liquid is specified in the relevant International Standards. 4.6.2 Positioning of specimens Place each set of test specimens in a suitable container (see 5.2) and completely immerse them in the test liquid (using a weight if necessary). When several materials of the same composition are to be tested, it is permissible to put several sets of specimens in the same container. Ensure that, for every specimen, only an insignificant proportion of the surface of the specimen makes contact with the surfaces of other specimens, with the walls of the container or with any weight that is used. During the test, stir the liquid, for example by swirling it in the container, at least once per day. If the test lasts longer than seven days, replace the liquid with an equal amount of the original liquid every seventh day (see Note 2 to 4.6.3). If the liquid is unstable (for example in the case of sodium hypochlorite), replace the liquid more frequently. kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 5 If light is likely to affect the action of the test liquid, it is recommended that the test be carried out either in darkness or under defined illumination conditions. It may be necessary in certain cases to specify the height of the liquid level above the specimens (for example if there is a risk of oxidation) or to measure the volume of the liquid absorbed. The volume absorbed by the specimen is the difference between the initial volume of the liquid and the volume of the remaining liquid. Where it is necessary to calculate this, the apparatus shall allow the measurement of the volume of the liquid alone. 4.6.3 Rinsing and wiping At the end of the period of immersion, bring the temperature of the specimens back to ambient temperature if necessary by transferring them quickly into a fresh quantity of test liquid at room temperature and leaving them for a period of 15 min to 30 min. Use one of the following procedures for rinsing the specimens after they have been removed from the test liquid: a) For specimens which have been immersed in acid, alkali or other aqueous solutions, rinse thoroughly with clean water. Hygroscopic reagents such as concentrated sulfuric acid may remain adsorbed on the surface of the specimens even after rinsing, requiring immediate special treatment to avoid moisture pickup before and during weighing. b) For specimens removed from non-volatile, non-water-soluble organic liquids, rinse with a non-aggressive but volatile solvent such as light naphtha. NOTE 1 In the case of specimens immersed in volatile liquids such as acetone or alcohol at ambient temperature, rinsing and wiping may not be necessary. Wipe the specimens dry with filter paper or a lint-free cloth. NOTE 2 It may be necessary to examine the test liquid at the end of the test. This examination could be a simple visual examination, a measurement of the volume or mass of the liquid not absorbed, or a more rigorous examination, including, for example, a titration. This examination may not be meaningful if the liquid has been replaced during the test. 4.7 Expression of results 4.7.1 Numerical expression In addition to giving the measurements made before and after immersion, the value of the property after immersion (X2) may be expressed (except in special cases of changes in mass) as a percentage of the value before immersion (X1), using the following formula: 21100XX× 4.7.2 Graphical expression In every case where measurements are made as a function of time, it is recommended that graphs be plotted. Plot the values obtained (including the original value), or the differences in value, as the ordinates and the immersion times t as the abscissae. If it is necessary to shorten the immersion-time scale, either a t0,5 scale or a log t scale may be used. The double-logarithmic plot as recommended in ISO 62 of, for example, the mass or volume of liquid absorbed versus the immersion time allows the determination of the concentration at saturation and the diffusion coefficient over short immersion times if the absorption follows Fick's laws. kSIST FprEN ISO 175:2010

ISO/FDIS 175:2010(E) 6 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 5 Determination of changes in mass, dimensions and appearance 5.1 General These determinations may, if necessary, be carried out on the same specimens. At least three specimens shall be used. 5.2 Apparatus 5.2.1 For all tests 5.2.1.1 Beakers, of suitable dimensions, fitted with lids (airtight, if necessary) and fitted with condensers in the case of volatile liquids or those which give off vapours. The apparatus shall be resistant to the corrosive effects of the liquids being used. Beakers that can be tightly sealed shall be used when conducting tests above room temperature, in order to minimize loss of the liquid by evaporation. 5.2.1.2 Enclosure, thermostatically maintained at the test temperature. Venting shall be provided when tests are conducted at elevated temperatures with volatile liquids. 5.2.1.3 Thermometer, of suitable range and accuracy. 5.2.1.4 Ventilated oven, if required, capable of being maintained at the chosen drying temperature. In the absence of any special instructions, use an oven maintained at

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