Electronic Fee Collection - Value added services based on EFC on-board equipment

1.1 Definition of VAS
Value Added Services, VAS, is a term that was coined in the telecommunications industry for services that go
beyond core service, such as mobile voice communications. Such additional services are intended to add
value for the consumers in order to encourage them to use the telecommunications service more often and to
add an additional revenue stream for the Service Provider.
In the context of EFC, a VAS in this strict sense is a telematics service offered to the Service User by means
of an EFC OBE. This service might directly be consumed by the driver in the vehicle, or might, particularly in
the case of heavy vehicles, be targeted at the freight operator and be consumed in a back office. Such
services can be fleet management services like track-and-trace, payment services such as paying petrol
automatically at the pump, or regulatory applications such as Electronic Licence Plate or access control. Such
additional services and applications create additional value to the user, either by the value the new service
creates to him, or in the case of regulatory services, by combining several functionalities in a single device,
thus removing the need to install and maintain several pieces of equipment simultaneously.
In a wider sense, the operator of the EFC service can draw additional benefit from the data collected by the
EFC system. Data from EFC OBE gives a good account of the traffic situation on the charged network, and
may be utilised for statistical purposes, for traffic planning or even in real-time for traffic information purposes.
The scope of this TR covers both the original meaning of VAS, namely both additional services to the user of
the core EFC service and additional value created for the operator of the charging system.
1.2 Coverage
The TR analyses all telematics applications that have the potential to be delivered as a VAS to EFC. The
analysis covers the requirements of the VAS applications and the fit to the resources offered by the EFC
system. It also analyses prerequisites in terms of business and technical system architecture in order to
enable VAS to be delivered, including questions of control and governance, security aspects and privacy
issues.
The TR does not analyse commercial viability. Cost to benefit ratio and market potential for VAS are
considered to be out of scope.
The TR analyses the potential and pre-conditions for EFC equipment to serve as platforms for a diverse range
of VAS. The VAS are considered to be add-ons to EFC equipment. The TR does not analyse the reverse
situation, namely the situation where an EFC application is added to a telematics platform that has been
deployed for another core service, such as the suitability of navigation systems to serve as platforms for EFC.

Elektronische Gebührenerfassung - Zusätzliche Funktionen basierend auf den fahrzeugbasierenden Gebührenerfassungssystemen

Perception du télépéage - Services à valeur ajoutée basé sur l’équipement embarqué de télépéage

Elektronsko pobiranje pristojbin - Storitve z dodano vrednostjo, izvajane z opremo EFC na vozilu

Storitve z dodano vrednostjo VAS je izraz, ki ga uporablja telekomunikacijska industrija za storitve, ki presegajo osnovne storitve, kot so mobilne glasovne komunikacije. Take dodatne storitve uporabnikom pomenijo dodano vrednost in jih spodbujajo k pogostejši uporabi telekomunikacijskih storitev, kar izvajalcu storitve prinese dodaten dohodek.
V kontekstu elektronskega pobiranja pristojbin VAS v ožjem smislu pomeni telematično storitev, ki jo uporabnik storitve lahko dobi z opremo EFC na vozilu. To storitev lahko neposredno uporabi voznik vozila, lahko pa je, še zlasti pri tovornjakih, namenjena upravljavcu tovora in se izvaja v pisarni. Take storitve so lahko storitve upravljanja voznega parka, kot so sledenje, plačilne storitve, na primer avtomatsko plačevanje goriva na črpalkah ali regulativne aplikacije, kot sta elektronska registrska tablica ali nadzor dostopa. Take dodatne storitve in aplikacije ustvarjajo dodano vrednost za uporabnika bodisi z vrednostjo, ki jo zanj pomeni nova storitev, ali pri regulativnih storitvah s kombiniranjem različnih funkcij v eni napravi, kar pomeni, da ni več treba nameščati in vzdrževati več kosov opreme hkrati. V širšem smislu lahko upravljavec storitve EFC iz podatkov, ki jih zbere sistem EFC, pridobi dodatne ugodnosti. Podatki iz opreme EFC na vozilu omogočajo pregled nad prometno situacijo v omrežju, kjer se zaračunavajo pristojbine, in se lahko uporabijo za statistične namene, za načrtovanje prometa ali celo v realnem času za obveščanje o prometu. Obseg uporabe tega tehničnega poročila zajema izvorni pomen VAS, torej dodatne storitve za uporabnika glavnih storitev EFC, in dodatno vrednost, ki nastane za upravljavca sistema pristojbin.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Jul-2011
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
27-Jul-2011
Completion Date
27-Jul-2011

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16219:2011
01-september-2011

Elektronsko pobiranje pristojbin - Storitve z dodano vrednostjo, izvajane z opremo

EFC na vozilu
Electronic Fee Collection - Value added services based on EFC on-board equipment
Elektronische Gebührenerfassung - Zusätzliche Funktionen basierend auf den
fahrzeugbasierenden Gebührenerfassungssystemen
Perception du télépéage - Services à valeur ajoutée sur la base de l’équipement
embarqué du télépéage
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16219:2011
ICS:
35.240.60 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in transport
transportu in trgovini and trade
43.040.15 $YWRPRELOVNDLQIRUPDWLND Car informatics. On board
9JUDMHQLUDþXQDOQLãNLVLVWHPL computer systems
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16219:2011 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16219:2011
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16219:2011
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 16219
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
July 2011
ICS 35.240.60
English Version
Electronic Fee Collection - Value added services based on EFC
on-board equipment

Perception du télépéage - Services à valeur ajoutée basé Elektronische Gebührenerfassung - Zusätzliche Funktionen

sur l'équipement embarqué de télépéage basierend auf den fahrzeugbasierenden
Gebührenerfassungssystemen

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 24 April 2011. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 278.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16219:2011: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN/TR 16219:2011 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................7

1.1 Definition of VAS....................................................................................................................................7

1.2 Coverage .................................................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................8

4 Abbreviations .........................................................................................................................................9

5 Background and Context ................................................................................................................... 10

5.1 Starting Point and Aims ..................................................................................................................... 10

5.2 EFC Context ........................................................................................................................................ 12

5.3 ITS Applications Context ................................................................................................................... 15

5.4 European Projects .............................................................................................................................. 19

5.5 ITS Standardisation ............................................................................................................................ 26

6 ITS Applications .................................................................................................................................. 28

7 Architecture ......................................................................................................................................... 33

7.1 Different view points .......................................................................................................................... 33

7.2 Business Architecture ........................................................................................................................ 34

7.3 Technical Architecture ....................................................................................................................... 36

8 Requirements of Applications ........................................................................................................... 38

8.1 Requirements of VAS applications ................................................................................................... 38

8.2 Requirements of EFC application ..................................................................................................... 48

8.3 Applications for VAS .......................................................................................................................... 52

9 Integration of VAS with EFC .............................................................................................................. 58

9.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 58

9.2 Fleet management .............................................................................................................................. 58

9.3 Payment ............................................................................................................................................... 58

9.4 Traffic Data Collection ........................................................................................................................ 59

9.5 Vehicle usage recording .................................................................................................................... 59

9.6 Regulatory applications ..................................................................................................................... 60

10 Prerequisites for supporting VAS ..................................................................................................... 62

10.1 Key design drivers .............................................................................................................................. 62

10.2 Uncompromised tolling functionality ............................................................................................... 63

10.3 Platform architecture .......................................................................................................................... 64

10.4 Conclusions for supporting VAS on an EFC platform .................................................................... 65

11 Opportunities for improving the environment for VAS................................................................... 66

11.1 Business environment ....................................................................................................................... 66

11.2 Regulatory environment .................................................................................................................... 67

11.3 Support by standardisation ............................................................................................................... 67

Annex A (informative) Examples of approaches to VAS based on EFC ..................................................... 69

A.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 69

A.2 Czech Republic ................................................................................................................................... 69

A.3 France .................................................................................................................................................. 71

A.4 Germany .............................................................................................................................................. 72

A.5 Italy ....................................................................................................................................................... 74

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A.6 Japan .................................................................................................................................................... 75

A.7 Korea ..................................................................................................................................................... 76

A.8 Norway .................................................................................................................................................. 77

A.9 Switzerland ........................................................................................................................................... 77

Annex B (informative) Example for a regulatory framework architecture .................................................. 78

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 80

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16219:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 278 “Road

Transport and Traffic Telematics”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

A CEN Technical Report is a document adopted by CEN/CENELEC containing informative material not

suitable for publication as a European Standard or a Technical Specification.

This document has been prepared by CEN/TC 278 WG1 Project Team 31 on Value Added Services. The

work done by the project team has been governed by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 278 “Road Transport

and traffic telematics”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN and by CEN/TC 278 Working Group 1:

Electronic Fee Collection.
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Introduction

This Technical Report (TR) analyses the technical feasibility of using EFC OBE for delivering additional

services, commonly called value added services (VAS). These VAS may either be delivered on board to the

driver of the vehicle, or off board to the road operator, to a freight company or to the general public. The report

only analyses the situation where EFC is considered to be the core application, with VAS applications as add-

ons, not the reverse situation, namely whether an EFC application can be added to telematics platforms with

other core applications, such as EFC that might be delivered as an add-on to a navigation device.

Currently, the interaction between services based on EFC OBE without any additional equipment and comfort

service platforms is not clearly visible. Therefore, the scope of this TR includes investigation of the suitability

of the available sensor information, data elements, communication media and HMI features for supporting the

envisaged mass services such as; fleet management, hazardous goods / livestock management and eCall.

This relates to the expectations mentioned in the interoperability directive, Directive 2004/52/EC. It is expected

that with the advent of the European Electronic Tolling Service EETS as mandated by Directive 2004/52/EC,

VAS will benefit from widespread deployment of capable multi-technology telematics platforms. Commercial

transport might achieve efficiency improvements and competitive advantages through a wider take-up of fleet

management and related applications that might be offered as VAS to EFC equipment.

The TR identifies potential applications and groups them into application classes for the purpose of a more

compact analysis. The application classes are
 Fleet management;
 Entertainment;
 Payment;
 Cooperative road safety;
 Driver assistance;
 Communications;
 Navigation & traffic information;
 Traffic data collection;
 Vehicle usage recording;
 Regulatory applications.

The methodology in this TR is firstly to compile the specific requirements of the applications in each class,

then to establish the requirements of EFC applications, and finally to analyse potential synergies and

prerequisites for joint delivery. The analysis strives to encompass two viewpoints, namely the business and

the technical perspectives.

The TR also analyses how these services can be implemented without jeopardising the security requirements

of the EFC Service Provider responsible for the OBE and the charging process. The possibilities and

constraints, including privacy requirements as defined in Directive 2006/24/EC and Commission Decision

2008/597/EC, related to the integration of the OBE into a wider open platform for delivery of other public or

private added value services form part of the investigation, as well as the required standards and anticipated

road map.
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The analysis results in a set of recommendations as to how the preconditions for a joint delivery of VAS with

EFC might be improved. The analysis in the report shows that certain preconditions required for VAS are not

available in current EFC standards and might need to be taken into account for future work.

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1 Scope
1.1 Definition of VAS

Value Added Services, VAS, is a term that was coined in the telecommunications industry for services that go

beyond core service, such as mobile voice communications. Such additional services are intended to add

value for the consumers in order to encourage them to use the telecommunications service more often and to

add an additional revenue stream for the Service Provider.

In the context of EFC, a VAS in this strict sense is a telematics service offered to the Service User by means

of an EFC OBE. This service might directly be consumed by the driver in the vehicle, or might, particularly in

the case of heavy vehicles, be targeted at the freight operator and be consumed in a back office. Such

services can be fleet management services like track-and-trace, payment services such as paying petrol

automatically at the pump, or regulatory applications such as Electronic Licence Plate or access control. Such

additional services and applications create additional value to the user, either by the value the new service

creates to him, or in the case of regulatory services, by combining several functionalities in a single device,

thus removing the need to install and maintain several pieces of equipment simultaneously.

In a wider sense, the operator of the EFC service can draw additional benefit from the data collected by the

EFC system. Data from EFC OBE gives a good account of the traffic situation on the charged network, and

may be utilised for statistical purposes, for traffic planning or even in real-time for traffic information purposes.

The scope of this TR covers both the original meaning of VAS, namely both additional services to the user of

the core EFC service and additional value created for the operator of the charging system.

1.2 Coverage

The TR analyses all telematics applications that have the potential to be delivered as a VAS to EFC. The

analysis covers the requirements of the VAS applications and the fit to the resources offered by the EFC

system. It also analyses prerequisites in terms of business and technical system architecture in order to

enable VAS to be delivered, including questions of control and governance, security aspects and privacy

issues.

The TR does not analyse commercial viability. Cost to benefit ratio and market potential for VAS are

considered to be out of scope.

The TR analyses the potential and pre-conditions for EFC equipment to serve as platforms for a diverse range

of VAS. The VAS are considered to be add-ons to EFC equipment. The TR does not analyse the reverse

situation, namely the situation where an EFC application is added to a telematics platform that has been

deployed for another core service, such as the suitability of navigation systems to serve as platforms for EFC.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 15509, Road transport and traffic telematics — Electronic fee collection — Interoperability application

profile for DSRC

CEN ISO/TS 12813, Electronic fee collection — Compliance check communication for autonomous systems

(ISO/TS 12813:2009)

CEN ISO/TS 13141, Electronic fee collection — Localisation augmentation communication for autonomous

systems (ISO/TS 13141:2010)
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EN ISO 14906, Road transport and traffic telematics — Electronic fee collection — Application interface

definition for dedicated short-range communication (ISO 14906:2004)

ISO 17573:2010, Electronic fee collection — Systems architecture for vehicle related-tolling

CEN ISO/TS 17575-1, Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for autonomous systems —

Part 1: Charging (ISO/TS 17575-1:2010)

CEN ISO/TS 17575-3, Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for autonomous systems —

Part 3: Context data (ISO/DTS 17575-3:2010)

ISO 14813-1, Intelligent transport systems — Reference model architecture(s) for the ITS sector — Part 1:

ITS service domains, service groups and services
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 17573:2010 and the following terms

and conditions all apply.
3.1
business architecture

the structure of the relationship between the actors involved in the VAS and EFC services, including the roles

of the actors, their contractual relationship, the allocation of responsibilities, and system control and

governance
3.2
EFC platform for VAS

an EFC platform for telematics service delivery comprises a set of one or more in-vehicle components,

commonly termed OBE, potentially roadside and central equipment, but also a set of business rules and a

legal framework. Business rules include an institutional setup, with defined responsibilities, ownership,

governance, certification, and contractual relationships
3.3
technical architecture

the concept of the technical delivery platform in terms of technical components, their interfaces and

interactions
3.4
Value Added Service

an additional value that is created in an EFC system to Service Users or the system operator beyond the core

service, payment for road use
3.5
On-road Service Integrator

the On-road Service Integrator provides to the Service User both tolling services and VAS offers and as such

incorporates the role and responsibilities of the EFC Service Provider as defined in ISO 17573 plus the

additional responsibilities as provider of VAS
3.6
vehicle-related data

any kind of data related to the vehicle’s characteristics (including any trailer), its movements, the vehicle driver

or the vehicle’s cargo
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4 Abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply throughout the document unless

otherwise specified.
AEI Automatic Equipment Identification
AVI Automatic Vehicle Identification

CALM Communications Access for Land Mobiles (a set of ISO communications standards)

CESARE Common Electronic Fee Collection System for a Road Tolling European Service (acronym of a

European research project)
CN Cellular Network communications

COOPERS COperative SystEms for Intelligent Road Safety (acronym of a European research project)

CVIS Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure Systems (acronym of a European research project)

DSRC Dedicated Short Range Communications
EC European Commission
EFC Electronic Fee Collection
EETS European Electronic Toll Service
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute

EURIDICE EURopean Inter-Disciplinary research on Intelligent Cargo for Efficient, safe and environment-

friendly logistics (acronym of a European research project)
FCD Floating Card Data
GALILEO Name of the European satellite localisation system

GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems (a generic term used for satellite localisation system such as

GPS and GALILEO)

GPS Global Position System (acronym for the satellite localisation system operated by the United

States of America)
GST Global System for Telematics (acronym of a European research project)
GSC GNSS enabled Services Convergence (acronym of a European research project)
HMI Human to Machine Interface
IAP Intelligent Access Programme
ICT Information and Communication Technologies
ISO International Standards Organisation
ITS Intelligent Transport Systems
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NCR Non-Compliance Report
OBE On-Board Equipment
ORSI On-road Service Integrator
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PSAP Public Safety Answering Point
RCI Road Charging Interoperability (acronym of a European research project)
SMS Short Message Service
SP Service Provider
TC Toll Charger
TCA Transport Certification Australia
UOBU Universal On-Board Unit (acronym of a European research project)
VAS Value Added Service
V2I Vehicle to Infrastructure (communication)
V2V Vehicle to Vehicle (communication)
WG Working Group (of a CEN or ISO Technical Committee)
WI Work Item
5 Background and Context
5.1 Starting Point and Aims
5.1.1 Motivation for VAS

Tolling systems are becoming increasingly automated and EFC is becoming a pervasive service. EFC is the

ITS application with the widest deployment. Since payment for road use is mandatory and imposed upon the

user, EFC is not perceived by the user as a service.

EFC equipment is also becoming more capable. Since modern approaches to road financing and demand

management require more accurate assessment of individual road use, involving more differentiation

according to vehicle characteristics, road type and time of day, EFC systems have developed from single

purpose object tolling into sophisticated charging systems employing a wide range of technologies, including

on-board processing, satellite-based localisation, mobile communications, DSRC, digital maps and

cryptographic security services. This technical report focuses mainly on interoperable EFC OBE, which

support both DSRC and autonomous tolling, and could therefore, in principle, deliver a wide range of ITS

applications. However, more dedicated CEN DSRC OBEs may also provide platforms for delivering selected

VAS applications.

These core facts, namely wide deployment, unfavourable user perception and availability of capable ITS

platforms, have motivated the services industry to investigate the potential for delivering additional value

through EFC equipment.
Motivation for developing a VAS offer can stem from several areas:
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 For toll chargers, based on the desire to increase take up of EFC equipment: Toll chargers have an

interest in automating processes and increasing the number of equipped users. The availability of VAS

might be an additional motivation for users to equip themselves.

 For toll chargers to create value out of the available user movement data: EFC systems collect

information about vehicle movements that can be made anonymous and then become a valuable

resource beyond the mere tolling purposes. Movement data is especially valuable for planning purposes,

for traffic management and even for providing real time traffic information.

 For Service Providers to create an additional revenue stream: Especially in the discussions around the

development of the EETS legal background (Directive 2004/52/EC and Commission Decision

2009/750/EC) it has been found that the business case for Service Providers to deliver interoperable EFC

services is marginal at best and additional revenue streams will probably be necessary to justify the

required investments.

 For the Service Users from the request to have all services delivered through a single channel: Especially

for heavy vehicles, the numbers of different EFC OBE, equipment for regulated applications such as

Tachograph, eCall and hazardous goods tracking, plus commercial ITS devices for fleet management

and navigation are becoming a nuisance. All devices and applications require attention and maintenance,

require different hardware, installation, contracts and operation. Owing to the pervasiveness and

capability of EFC OBE, these might become the ideal platform for delivering many telematics services

through a single channel.

 For policy makers to develop the telematics market in general: For several years it has been the policy of

the European Commission and of the Member States to modernise road transport and manage traffic

efficiently through the widespread deployment of telematics or ITS technologies. This has recently been

underlined in the ITS Action Plan of the Commission which promotes deployment of a universal ITS

platform in the vehicle (see ITS Action Plan in the Bibliography). EFC OBE may provide an ideal platform

for delivering multiple telematics services through a single channel, based on their increasing capability

and growing prevalence across Europe.
5.1.2 Experiences with VAS

For a long time toll chargers have been making use of the rich data provided by EFC systems. For examples

see the descriptions provided in Annex A involving national VAS implementation. In EFC systems, road usage

data is essentially free for additional use and requires only minimal investment in processing and analysis to

create large incremental value. Early uses of this data have been for statistical purposes, e.g. for predicting

the revenue flow and for planning investments into road infrastructure renewal. More sophisticated systems

can produce very detailed data, including origin-destination information, which is very difficult and costly to

produce by other means. EFC OBE equipped vehicles can be considered probe vehicles for the traffic stream.

This fact is put to use in Floating Car Data (FCD) applications that use information provided by probe vehicles

to produce a picture of the traffic situation. Ideally, this information can be processed and distributed in real

time to give road users information on bottlenecks, congestion and expected travel time.

While this field of additional exploitation of EFC equipment has been thriving, VAS in their original sense,

namely additional services delivered to the Service User, have seen only limited uptake and deployment.

Annex A again gives some examples. Several reasons have been identified as to why the market for VAS to

the Service User has not developed as anticipated by many:
 Only comparatively recently have truly capable EFC platforms been deployed.

 EFC is a sensitive application in the sense that toll chargers are not prepared to take any risk in losing

revenue due to complications arising from VAS competing for on-board resources.

 EFC systems are often controlled by an operator in a monopoly situation. Delivery of VAS in such an

environment will normally put the operator at an advantage that is not allowed by European anti-

competition legislation.
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 Providers of telematics services have chosen to develop their own dedicated equipment in order to free

themselves from the constraints imposed by the toll chargers and in order to be able to serve all types of

customers, including those without EFC equipment.

 The market for ITS applications for commercial vehicles is extremely fragmented. No single application

has been found that would create significant benefits for a large segment of the market. Especially in the

freight sector, the needs of different vehicle operators differ widely, depending on the nature of the

transport task speciality they offer.
5.1.3 Ob
...

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