Liquid petroleum products - Determination of the ignition quality of diesel fuels - BASF engine method

This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of cetane numbers ("CN") in diesel fuel in the range from CN 45 to CN 63, using a standard single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, indirect injection engine. The cetane number provides a measure of the ignition characteristics of diesel fuels in compression ignition engines. The cetane number is determined at constant speed in a compression ignition test engine equipped with a swirl chamber.
This European Standard is applicable to distillate as well as paraffinic diesel fuels intended for use in diesel engines, including those containing and fatty-acid methyl esters (FAME), ignition-improvers or other additives. The cetane number scale comprises a range from zero to 100, but typical testing is currently performed in the range from about 40 CN to about 75 CN.
This engine test procedure may be used for other fuels such as synthetics and vegetable oils. However, samples with fuel properties that interfere with the gravity-based pre-supply pressure to the fuel pump e.g. due to high viscosity can only be used to a limited extent. Precision data for such fuels are not available at this stage. Precision data for paraffinic diesel fuels are currently under development.
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this European Standard the expressions "%(m/m)" and "%(V/V)" are used to represent the mass faction and volume fraction respectively of a material.
NOTE 2   The test method is also suitable for determining cetane numbers outside the range of the scope, however, the precision statement only applies for fuels in the specified range.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

Flüssige Mineralölerzeugnisse - Bestimmung der Zündwilligkeit von Dieselkraftstoffen - Verfahren mit BASF-Prüfmotor

Diese Europäische Norm legt ein Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung von Cetanzahlen ("CZ") in Dieselkraftstoffen im Bereich von 45 CZ bis 63 CZ unter Verwendung eines genormten Viertakt-Einzylindermotors mit indirekter Einspritzung fest. Die Cetanzahl gibt das Maß der Zündwilligkeit von Dieselkraftstoffen in Dieselmotoren an. Die Cetanzahl wird bei konstanter Drehzahl in einem mit einer Wirbelkammer ausgestatteten Prüfmotor mit Kompressionszündung bestimmt.
Diese Europäische Norm ist anwendbar für Destillatkraftstoffe sowie für paraffinische Dieselkraftstoffe, die zur Verwendung in Dieselmotoren vorgesehen sind, einschließlich solcher, die Fettsäure-Methylester (FAME), Zündverbesserer oder andere Additive enthalten. Der Skalenbereich der Cetanzahl reicht von Null bis 100, derzeit wird die Prüfung jedoch üblicherweise im Bereich von etwa 40 CZ bis etwa 75 CZ durchgeführt.
Dieses motorische Prüfverfahren darf auch für andere Kraftstoffe, wie synthetische Produkte und Pflanzenöle, angewendet werden. Proben mit Brennstoffeigenschaften, die den Schwerkraft-Vorförderdruck zur Kraftstoffpumpe z. B. aufgrund einer hohen Viskosität stören, können jedoch nur bedingt verwendet werden. Präzisionsdaten für derartige Kraftstoffe stehen zu diesem Zeitpunkt nicht zur Verfügung. Präzisionsdaten für paraffinische Dieselkraftstoffe werden derzeit erarbeitet.
ANMERKUNG 1   Für die Zwecke dieser Europäischen Norm wird zur Angabe des Massenanteils einer Substanz der Ausdruck "% (m/m)" und für den Volumenanteil einer Substanz der Ausdruck "% (V/V)" verwendet.
ANMERKUNG 2   Das Prüfverfahren ist auch zur Bestimmung von Cetanzahlen außerhalb der Reichweite des Geltungsbereichs geeignet, allerdings gilt die Präzisionsaussage nur für Kraftstoffe innerhalb des angegebenen Bereichs.
WARNUNG - Die Anwendung dieser Norm kann die Anwendung gefährlicher Stoffe, Arbeitsgänge und Geräte mit sich bringen. Diese Norm beansprucht nicht, alle damit verbundenen Sicherheitsprobleme zu behandeln. Es liegt in der Verantwortung des Anwenders dieser Norm, vor ihrer Anwendung geeignete Maßnahmen für die Sicherheit und den Gesundheitsschutz des Personals zu ergreifen, und dafür Sorge zu tragen, dass behördliche und gesetzliche Maßnahmen eingehalten werden.

Produits pétroliers liquides — Détermination de la qualité d'allumage des carburants Diesel — Méthode avec le moteur BASF

Tekoči naftni proizvodi - Ugotavljanje kakovosti vžiga dizelskih goriv - Motorna metoda BASF

Ta evropski standard določa preskusno metodo za določanje cetanskega števila (»CN«) pri dizelskih kurilnih oljih z uporabo z standardnega enovaljnega štiritaktnega motorja s posrednim vbrizgom. Cetansko število ponuja merilo za lastnosti vžiga dizelskega kurilnega olja v motorjih s kompresijskim vžigom. Cetansko število se določi pri enakomerni hitrosti v preskusnem motorju s kompresijskim vžigom, ki je opremljen z vrtinčno komoro.
Ta evropski standard se uporablja za destilatna goriva in metilne estre maščobnih kislin (FAME) ter parafinska dizelska goriva, vključno s tistimi, ki vsebujejo metilne estre maščobnih kislin, dodatke za izboljšanje vžiga in druge dodatke, namenjene za uporabo v dizelskih motorjih. Lestvica cetanskega števila (CN) obsega razpon 0–100, vendar običajno preskušanje trenutno poteka v razponu od približno 40 do približno 75 CN.
Ta postopek preskušanja motorja se lahko uporablja za druga goriva, kot so sintetična in rastlinska olja. Vendar pa se vzorci z lastnostmi goriva, ki vplivajo na gravitacijski tlak pred dovodom do črpalke za gorivo, npr. zaradi visoke viskoznosti, lahko uporabljajo le v omejenem obsegu. Podatki o natančnosti za taka goriva v tej fazi niso na voljo. Podatki o natančnosti za parafinska dizelska goriva so trenutno v izdelavi.
OPOMBA   Za namene tega evropskega standarda izraza »%(m/m)« in »%(V/V)« predstavljata masni oziroma prostorninski delež materiala.
OPOZORILO – Pri uporabi tega standarda so lahko prisotni nevarni materiali, postopki in oprema. Ta standard ne obravnava vseh varnostnih težav, ki se nanašajo na njegovo uporabo. Za vzpostavitev ustreznih varnostnih in zdravstvenih praks ter za določitev uporabnosti regulativnih omejitev pred uporabo je odgovoren uporabnik tega standarda.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Aug-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
23-Aug-2017
Completion Date
23-Aug-2017

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Flüssige Petroleumprodukte - Bestimmung der Zündwilligkeit von Dieselkraftstoffen - BASF-Prüfmotor MethodeProduits pétroliers liquides - Détermination de la qualité d'allumage des combustibles Diesel - Méthode avec le BASF-moteurLiquid petroleum products - Determination of the ignition quality of diesel fuels - BASF engine method75.160.20Liquid fuels13.220.40Sposobnost vžiga in obnašanje materialov in proizvodov pri gorenjuIgnitability and burning behaviour of materials and productsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16906:2017SIST EN 16906:2017en,fr,de01-oktober-2017SIST EN 16906:2017SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16906:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16906
August
t r s y ICS
y wä s x rä t r English Version

Liquid petroleum products æ Determination of the ignition quality of diesel fuels æ BASF engine method Produits pétroliers liquides æ Détermination de la qualité d 5allumage des combustibles Diesel æ Méthode avec le BASFæmoteur

Flüssige Mineralölerzeugnisse æ Bestimmung der Zündwilligkeit von Dieselkraftstoffen æ Verfahren mit BASFæPrüfmotor This European Standard was approved by CEN on

s t June
t r s yä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s y CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x { r xã t r s y ESIST EN 16906:2017
EN 16906:2017 (E) 2 Contents

Page European foreword ................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4 1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................................. 5 3 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................................................................ 5 4 Principle ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6 5 Reagents and materials .......................................................................................................................................... 6 6 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................... 7 6.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 7 Sampling ................................................................................................................................................................... 10 8 Standard operating and test conditions ....................................................................................................... 10 9 Calibration, verification and quality control............................................................................................... 11 10 Procedure................................................................................................................................................................. 11 10.1 Engine check and warm-up ............................................................................................................................... 11 10.2 Bracketing procedure .......................................................................................................................................... 11 10.2.1 Unknown sample ................................................................................................................................................... 11 10.2.2 First primary reference fuel .............................................................................................................................. 12 10.2.3 Second primary reference fuel ......................................................................................................................... 12 10.2.4 Repeat readings ..................................................................................................................................................... 12 10.3 Procedure using a calibration graph.............................................................................................................. 13 10.4 Shut-down of the engine ..................................................................................................................................... 13 11 Calculation ............................................................................................................................................................... 13 11.1 Calculation for the bracketing procedure .................................................................................................... 13 11.2 Calculation for the calibration graph ............................................................................................................. 14 12 Expression of results ............................................................................................................................................ 14 13 Precision ................................................................................................................................................................... 14 13.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 14 13.2 Repeatability ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 13.3 Reproducibility ...................................................................................................................................................... 14 Annex A (informative)

Evaluation example of the cetane number using a calibration graph ................. 16 Annex B (normative)

Auxiliary digital equipment ................................................................................................... 17 B.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 17 B.2 Apparatus ................................................................................................................................................................. 17 B.3 Set-up ......................................................................................................................................................................... 17 B.4 Calibration ............................................................................................................................................................... 18 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................................................... 19

SIST EN 16906:2017

EN 16906:2017 (E) 3 European foreword This document (EN 16906:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 19 “Gaseous and liquid fuels, lubricants and related products of petroleum, synthetic and biological origin”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2018. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16906:2017

EN 16906:2017 (E) 4 Introduction The test method is based on DIN 51773 [1], which has been developed in DIN NA 062-06-43 AA “Engine testing of liquid fuels” and which is being used very successfully since more than 30 years. The described method is an alternative quantitative determination of the cetane number of middle distillate fuels intended for use in compression ignition engines. A correlation study between this method and EN ISO 5165:1998 [2] has been done and the results of this are incorporated in the precision report issued in 2014 [3]. The testing of pure FAME (which is in the scope of EN ISO 5165) has been excluded from the scope for the time being as there seem to be sample specific biases for such product. CEN will initiate appropriate causal studies. SIST EN 16906:2017

EN 16906:2017 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of cetane numbers (“CN”) in diesel fuel in the range from CN 45 to CN 63, using a standard single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, indirect injection engine. The cetane number provides a measure of the ignition characteristics of diesel fuels in compression ignition engines. The cetane number is determined at constant speed in a compression ignition test engine equipped with a swirl chamber. This European Standard is applicable to distillate as well as paraffinic diesel fuels intended for use in diesel engines, including those containing fatty-acid methyl esters (FAME), ignition-improvers or other additives. The cetane number scale comprises a range from zero to 100, but typical testing is currently performed in the range from about 40 CN to about 75 CN. This engine test procedure may be used for other fuels such as synthetics and vegetable oils. However, samples with fuel properties that interfere with the gravity-based pre-supply pressure to the fuel pump e.g. due to high viscosity can only be used to a limited extent. Precision data for such fuels are not available at this stage. Precision data for paraffinic diesel fuels are currently under development. NOTE 1 For the purpose of this European Standard the expressions “%(m/m)” and “%(V/V)” are used to represent the mass faction and volume fraction respectively of a material. NOTE 2 The test method is also suitable for determining cetane numbers outside the range of the scope, however, the precision statement only applies for fuels in the specified range. WARNING — The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN ISO 3170, Petroleum liquids - Manual sampling (ISO 3170) EN ISO 3171, Petroleum liquids - Automatic pipeline sampling (ISO 3171) 3 Terms and definitions 3.1 ignition quality property of a fuel which causes a self-ignition under standard operating conditions in a diesel engine 3.2 ignition delay ID period of time between the start of fuel injection and the start of combustion expressed in degrees of crank angle rotation SIST EN 16906:2017

EN 16906:2017 (E) 6 3.3 cetane number CN measure of an ignition quality of a diesel fuel obtained by comparing it with reference fuel blends of known cetane numbers and the fuel to be measured in a standardized test engine under controlled conditions 3.4 accepted reference value ARV value agreed upon as a reference for comparison Note 1 to entry: The value is derived as (1) a theoretical or established value, based in scientific principles, (2) an assigned value, based on experimental work of some national or international organization, or (3) a consensus value, based on collaborative experimental work under the auspices of a scientific or engineering group. 4 Principle The cetane number of a fuel is determined by comparing its combustion characteristics in a test engine with those for blends of reference fuels of known cetane number under standard operating conditions. This is accomplished by comparing the intake air mass at a given ignition delay. A multiple calibration procedure may also be applied for the comparison of intake air mass. 5 Reagents and materials 5.1 Reference materials 5.1.1 n-hexadecane (n-Cetane), primary reference fuel This reference material with a minimum purity of 99,0 %(m/m) shall be used as the designated cetane number of 100. The purity may be determined by a gas chromatography test method. 5.1.2 1-Methylnaphthalene (AMN), primary reference fuel This reference material with a minimum purity of 95,0 %(m/m) shall be used as the designated cetane number of zero. The purity may be determined by a gas chromatography test method. 5.1.3 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-Heptamethylnonane (HMN), primary reference fuel This reference material with a minimum purity of 98,0 %(m/m) shall be used as the designated 15 cetane number component. The purity shall be determined by a gas chromatography test method. Primary reference fuel blends are volumetrically proportioned mixtures of these materials, which define the CN scale. NOTE Store and use primary reference fuels in the dark or in amber containers at temperatures of 20 °C or higher to avoid solidification of n-Cetane which has a melting point of 18 °C. 5.2 Reference fuel dispensing equipment For preparing the required blends of reference fuels calibrated burettes or volumetric ware with a maximum of 500 ml capacity and a maximum volumetric tolerance of ± 0,2 % shall be used. The burettes shall be outfitted with a delivery valve and a delivery tip to accurately control the dispensed volumes. The delivery tip shall be of such size and design that shut-off tip discharge does not exceed 0,5 ml. The rate of delivery from the dispensing system shall not exceed 500 ml/min. The set of burettes or volumetric ware shall be installed in such a manner that all components of each batch or blend are dispensed at the same temperature. SIST EN 16906:2017

EN 16906:2017 (E) 7 Other blending systems that allow the preparation of volumetrically-defined blends or volumetrically-defined blends by gravimetric measurements based on the density of the individual components are also permitted, provided the system meets the requirement for maximum 0,2 % tolerance limits. 5.3 Check fuels Diesel fuels with known cetane number calibrated by interlaboratory studies with other test engines may be used for checking the engine qualification only. The typical cetane number range of a check fuel is from 50 CN to 65 CN. Regular testing of check fuels is highly recommended as the use of standard quality control charting provides a means to evaluate and document the overall performance of the engine and operators. Using quality control charts and regular interpretation of the control charts is strongly advised by accreditation authorities (see [3]). 6 Apparatus 6.1 General The 4-stroke single cylinder engine developed by BASF SE on the basis of a MWM/KHD model KD12E engine as shown in Figure 1 and comprises a standard crankcase with fuel pump assembly and a cylinder head assembly of the pre-combustion type, a thermal-siphon recirculating jacket coolant system, double fuel tank system with selector valving, injector assembly with specific injector nozzle, electrical controls and a suitable exhaust pipe. The engine shall be connected to a special electric power-absorption motor, which acts as a motor driver to start the engine and as a means to absorb power at constant speed when combustion is occurring. SIST EN 16906:2017

EN 16906:2017 (E) 8

Key 1 air flow meter 4 assembly for fuel flow measurement 2 control device for start of injection and fuel amount 5 display for ignition delay 3 display for start of injection

Figure 1 — BASF test engine assembly 6.2 Mechanical equipment: 6.2.1 Fuel injection pump and nozzle. The fuel injection pump including leakage oil stop (BOSCH Type PE 1A M50), nozzle holding assembly (BOSCH KB 42 SDAV) and the injection nozzle BOSCH DLOS 103. NOTE The [BOSCH Type PE 1A M50, BOSCH KB 42 SDAV, BOSCH DLOS 103] are trade names of a product supplied by BOSCH. This information is given for the convenience of users of this European Standard and does not constitute an endorsement by CEN or CENELEC of the product

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