Information processing - Volume and file structure of CD-ROM for information interchange (ISO 9660:1988, ed. 1)

Informationsverarbeitung - Datenträger und Dateistruktur von CD-ROM für den Informationsaustausch (ISO 9660:1988, Ausg. 1)

Traitement de l'information - Structure de volume et de fichier des disques optiques compact mémoire fixe (CD-ROM) destinés à l'échange de l'information (ISO 9660:1988, éd. 1)

Information processing - Volume and file structure of CD-ROM for information interchange (ISO 9660:1988)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
13-Mar-1989
Withdrawal Date
27-Oct-1998
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Due Date
28-Oct-1998
Completion Date
28-Oct-1998

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Information processing - Volume and file structure of CD-ROM for information interchange (ISO 9660:1988)Informationsverarbeitung - Datenträger und Dateistruktur von CD-ROM für den Informationsaustausch (ISO 9660:1988, Ausg. 1)Traitement de l'information - Structure de volume et de fichier des disques optiques compact mémoire fixe (CD-ROM) destinés a l'échange de l'information (ISO 9660:1988, éd. 1)Information processing - Volume and file structure of CD-ROM for information interchange (ISO 9660:1988, ed. 1)35.220.30QDSUDYHOptical storage devicesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 29660:1989SIST EN 29660:1997en01-december-1997SIST EN 29660:1997SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 29660:1997
SIST EN 29660:1997
SIST EN 29660:1997

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION MEXAYHAPOAHAFI OPrAHM3A~Mfi I-IO CTAH~APTM3A~MM Information processing - Volume and file structure of CD-ROM for information interchange Traitemen t de l’informa tion - Structure de volume et de fichier des disques optiques compacts Ei m&moire fixe (CD-ROM) destinks ;i l%change d’information IS0 9660 First edition 19884445 Corrected and reprinted 1988-09-01 Reference number IS0 9660 : 1988 (E) SIST EN 29660:1997

ISO9660:1988 (E) Foreword IS0 (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of . national standards bodies (IS0 member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through IS0 technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, govern- mental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. IS0 collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for approval before their acceptance as International Standards by the IS0 Council. They are approved in accordance with IS0 procedures requiring at least 75 % approval by the member bodies voting. International Standard IS0 9666 was prepared by the European Computer Manufac- turers Association (as Standard ECMA-119) and was adopted, under a special “fast- track procedure”, by Technical Committee ISO/TC 97, information processing systems in parallel with its approval by the IS0 member bodies. Users should note that all International Standards undergo revision from time to time and that any reference made herein to any other International Standard implies its latest edition, unless otherwise stated. 0 International Organization for Standardization, 1988 Printed in Switzerland ii SIST EN 29660:1997

IS0 9660 : 1988 (El Contents Section one : General 1 Scope and field of application .......................................... 2 Conformance ........................................................ 2.1 Conformance of a CD-ROM ...................................... 2.2 Conformance of an information processing system .................. 3 References .......................................................... 4 Definitions .......................................................... 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 application program ............................................ byte .......................................................... Data Field of a sector. ........................................... datapreparer .................................................. descriptor ..................................................... Extent ........................................................ file ........................................................... FileSection .................................................... implementation ................................................ LogicalBlock.. ................................................ originating system .............................................. receivingsystem ............................................... record ........................................................ sector ........................................................ standard for recording. .......................................... user .......................................................... volume ....................................................... VolumeSet .................................................... 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 . . . III SIST EN 29660:1997

IS0 9660 : 1988 (El Page 5 Notation............................................................ 2 5.1 Decimal and hexadecimal notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5.2 Other notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Section two : Requirements for the medium 6 Volume structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 iv Arrangement of data on a CD-ROM ................................ 3 6.1.1 Physical Addresses ........................................ 3 6.1.2 Logical Sector ............................................ 3 6.1.3 Volume Space. ........................................... 3 Arrangement of the Volume Space. ................................ 3 6.2.1 System Area and Data Area ................................ 3 6.2.2 Logical Block ............................................. 3 Arrangement of the Data Area. .................................... 3 Arrangement of Extents .......................................... 4 6.4.1 Extent ................................................... 4 6.4.2 Mode of recording a File Section ............................ 4 6.4.3 Interleaved mode ......................................... 4 6.4.4 Non-interleaved mode ..................................... 4 6.4.5 Data length of a File Section ................................ 5 6.4.6 Relation of Extended Attribute Record to File Section .......... 5 6.4.7 Recording of a Volume Partition ............................. 5 File structure. ................................................... 5 6.5.1 Relation to File Sections ................................... 5 6.5.2 Numbering of bytes in a file ................................. 5 6.5.3 Contents of a file. ......................................... 5 6.5.4 Associated File ........................................... 6 VolumeSet ..................................................... 6 Volume Descriptors. ............................................. 6 6.7.1 Volume Descriptor Set. .................................... 6 Directory structure .............................................. 6 6.8.1 Directory ................................................ 6 6.8.2 Directory Hierarchy. ....................................... 7 6.8.3 Relation of Directory Hierarchies ............................ 7 SIST EN 29660:1997

IS0 9660 : 1988 (E) Page 6.9 PathTable ..................................................... 8 6.9.1 Order of Path Table Records .............................. 8 6.9.2 Path Table Group ....................................... 8 6.9.3 Recorded Occurrences of the Path Table ................... 8 6.9.4 Consistency of Path Tables between volumes of a Volume Group ................................................. 8 6.10 Record structure ............................................... 8 6.10.1 Characteristics. ......................................... 8 6.10.2 Measured Data Units (MDU) .............................. 9 6.10.3 Fixed-length records. .................................... 9 6.10.4 Variable-length records .................................. 9 7 Recording of descriptor fields .......................................... 9 7.1 8-bit numerical values ........................................... 9 7.1.1 8-bit unsigned numerical values ........................... 9 7.1.2 8-bit signed numerical values ............................. 9 7.2 16-bit numerical value ........................................... 9 7.2.1 Least significant byte first ................................ 9 7.2.2 Most significant byte first ................................ 9 7.2.3 Both-byte orders ........................................ 9 7.3 32-bit numerical values .......................................... 9 7.3.1 Least significant byte first ................................ 10 7.3.2 Most significant byte first ................................ 10 7.3.3 Both-byte orders. ....................................... 10 7.4 Character sets and coding ....................................... IO 7.4.1 d-characters and a-characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.4.2 c-characters ............................................ 10 7.4.2.1 al-characters ......................................... 10 7.4.2.2 dl-characters ......................................... 10 7.4.3 Separators ............................................. 10 7.4.4 Use of characters in descriptor fields ....................... 10 7.4.5 Justification of characters ................................ 10 7.5 File Identifier ................................................... 10 7.5.1 File Identifier format ..................................... 10 7.5.2 File Identifier length ..................................... 11 V SIST EN 29660:1997

IS0 9660 : 1988 (El Page 7.6 Directory Identifier. .............................................. 11 7.6.1 Directory Identifier format ................................. 11 7.6.2 Reserved Directory Identifiers .............................. 11 7.6.3 Directory Identifier length ................................. 11 8 VolumeDescriptors .................................................. 11 8.1 Format of a Volume Descriptor .................................... 11 8.1.1 Volume DescriptorType (BP 1). ............................ 11 8.1.2 Standardldentifier(BP2to6). ............................. 11 8.1.3 Volume Descriptor Version (BP 7) .......................... 11 8.1.4 Depends on Volume Descriptor Type (BP 8 to 2 048) .......... 11 8.2 BootRecord .................................................... 12 8.2.1 VolumeDescriptorType(BP1). ............................ 12 8.2.2 Standard Identifier (BP 2 to 6) .............................. 12 8.2.3 Volume Descriptor Version (BP 7) .......................... 12 8.2.4 Boot System Identifier (BP 8 to 39) ......................... 12 8.2.5 Boot Identifier (BP40 to71) ............................... 12 8.2.6 BootSystemUse(BP72to2048). ......................... 12 8.3 Volume Descriptor Set Terminator ................................. 12 8.3.1 Volume Descriptor Type (BP 1). ............................ 12 8.3.2 Standard Identifier (BP 2 to 6) .............................. 12 8.3.3 Volume Descriptor Version (BP 7) .......................... 12 8.3.4 Reserved for future standardization (BP 8 to 2 048) ............ 12 8.4 Primary Volume Descriptor ....................................... 12 8.4.1 Volume Descriptor type (BP 1) ............................. 12 8.4.2 Standard Identifier (BP 2 to 6). ............................. 13 8.4.3 Volume Descriptor Version (BP 7) .......................... 13 8.4.4 Unused Field (BP8) ...................................... 13 8.4.5 System Identifier (BP 9 to 40) .............................. 13 8.4.6 Volume Identifier (BP 41 to 72) ............................. 13 8.4.7 Unused Field (BP 73 to 80). ................................ 13 8.4.8 Volume Space Size (BP 81 to 88) ........................... 13 8.4.9 Unused Field (BP89 to 120). ............................... 14 vi SIST EN 29660:1997

IS0 9660 : 1988 (El 8.4.10 8.4.11 8.4.12 8.4.13 8.4.14 8.4.15 8.4.16 8.4.17 8.4.18 8.4.19 8.4.20 8.4.21 8.4.22 8.4.23 8.4.24 8.4.25 8.4.26 8.4.27 8.4.28 8.4.29 8.4.30 8.4.31 8.4.32 8.4.33 Page Volume Set Size (BP 121 to 124). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Volume Sequence Number (BP 125 to 128). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Logical Block Size (BP 129 to 132) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 PathTableSize(BPWto140) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Location of Occurrence of Type L Path Table (BP 141 to 144) . . . 14 Location of Optional Occurrence of Type L Path Table (BP145to148) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Location of Occurrence of Type M Path Table (BP 349 to 152) . . . 14 Location of Optional Occurrence of Type M Path Table (BP153to156) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Directory Record for Root Directory (BP 157 to 190) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Volume Set Identifier (BP 191 to 318). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Publisher Identifier (BP 319 to 446). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._. . . 14 Data Preparer Identifier (BP 447 to 574) ...................... 14 Application Identifier (BP 575 to 702) ........................ 15 Copyright File Identifier (BP 703 to 739). ..................... 15 Abstract File Identifier (BP 740 to 776) ....................... 15 Bibliographic File Identifier (BP 777 to 813) ................... 15 Volume Creation Date and Time (BP 814 to 830) .............. 15 Volume Modification Date and Time (BP 831 to 847) ........... 15 Volume Expiration Date and Time (BP 848 to 864) ............. 16 Volume Effective Date and Time (BP 865 to 881) .............. 16 File Structure Version (BP 882) ............................. 16 Reserved for future standardization (BP 883) ................. 16 Application Use (BP 884 to 1 395) .......................... 16 Reserved for future standardization (BP 1 396 to 2 048) ........ 16 8.5 Supplementary Volume Descriptor. ................................ 16 8.5.1 Volume Descriptor Type (BP 1). ............................ 17 8.5.2 Volume Descriptor Version (BP 7) .......................... 17 8.5.3 Volume Flags (BP8) ...................................... 17 8.5.4 System Identifier (BP9 to40) .............................. 17 8.5.5 Volume Identifier (BP41 to72) ............................. 17 8.5.6 Escape Sequences (BP 89 to 120). .......................... 17 vii SIST EN 29660:1997

IS0 9660 : 1988 (El 8.5.7 8.5.8 8.5.9 8.5.10 8.5.11 8.5.12 8.5.13 8.5.14 8.5.15 8.5.16 8.5.17 8.5.18 8.5.19 8.520 Page PathTableSize(BPWto140). ............................ 17 Location of Occurrence of Type L Path Table (BP 141 to 144) ... 17 Location of Optional Occurrence of Type L Path Table (BP145to148) .......................................... 17 Location of Occurrence of Type M Path Table (BP 149 to 152). .. 17 Location of Optional Occurrence of Type M Path Table (BPl53to156) .......................................... 18 Directory Record for Root Directory (BP 157 to 190) ........... 18 Volume Set Identifier (BP 191 to 318). ....................... 18 Publisher Identifier (BP 319 to 446) .......................... 18 Data Preparer Identifier (BP 447 to 574) ...................... 18 Application Identifier (BP 575 to 702) ........................ 18 Copyright File Identifier (BP 703 to 739). ..................... 18 Abstract File Identifier (BP 740 to 776) ....................... 18 Bibliographic File Identifier (BP 777 to 813) ................... 18 Application Use (BP 884 to 1 395) .......................... 18 8.6 Volume Partition Descriptor. ...................................... 18 8.6.1 VolumeDescriptorType(BP1). ............................ 19 8.6.2 Standard Identifier (BP 2 to 6). ............................. 19 8.6.3 Volume Descriptor Version (BP 7) .......................... 19 8.6.4 Unused Field (BP81 ...................................... 19 8.6.5 System Identifier (BP 9 to 40) .............................. 19 8.6.6 Volume Partition Identifier (BP 41 to 72) ..................... 19 8.6.7 Volume Partition Location (BP 73 to 80) ..................... 19 8.6.8 Volume Partition Size (BP 81 to881 ......................... 19 8.6.9 SystemUse(BP89to2048). .............................. 19 9 File and Directory Descriptors .......................................... 19 9.1 Format of a Directory Record. ..................................... 19 9.1.1 Length of Directory Record (LEN-DR) (BP 1). ............... 19 9.1.2 Extended Attribute Record Length (BP 2) .................... 20 9.1.3 Location of Extent (BP3 to 10) ............................. 20 9.1.4 Data Length (BP 11 to 18) ................................. 20 $1.5 Recording DateandTime(BP 19to25) ...................... 20 9.1.6 File Flags (BP26). ........................................ 20 ... VIII SIST EN 29660:1997

IS0 9660 : 1988 E) Page 9.1.7 FileUnitSize(BP27) ..................................... 21 9.1.8 Interleave Gap Size (BP 28) ................................ 21 9.1.9 VolumeSequenceNumber(BP29to32). .................... 21 9.1.10 Length of File Identifier (LEN-Fl) (BP33) ................... 21 9.1.11 File Identifier [BP34to (33 + LEN-Fl)] ..................... 21 9.1.12 Padding Field [BP (34 + LEN-Fl)] ......................... 21 9.1.13 SystemUse[BP(LEN-DR-LEN-SU+l)toLEN-DR]. ...... 21 9.2 Consistency of File Attributes between Directory Records of a File ...... 21 9.3 Order of Directory Records. ....................................... 21 9.4 Format of a Path Table Record .................................... 22 9.4.1 Length of Directory Identifier (LEN-Dl) (BP 1) ............... 22 9.4.2 Extended Attribute Record Length (BP 2) .................... 22 9.4.3 Location of Extent (BP 3 to 6) .............................. 22 9.4.4 Parent Directory Number (BP 7 to 8) ........................ 22 9.4.5 Directory Identifier [BP 9 to (8 + LEN-Dl)l ................... 22 9.4.6 Padding Field [BP (9 + LEN-DI)] .......................... 22 9.5 Format of an Extended Attribute Record ............................ 23 9.5.1 Owner Identification (BP 1 to 4) ............................ 23 9.5.2 Group Identification (BP 5 to 8). ............................ 23 9.5.3 Permissions (BP9 to 10). .................................. 23 9.5.4 File Creation Date and Time (BP 11 to 27) .................... 24 9.5.5 File Modification Date and Time (BP 28 to 44) ................ 24 9.5.6 File Expiration Date and Time (BP 45 to 61) ................... 24 9.5.7 File Effective Date and Time (BP 62 to 78) .................... 24 9.5.8 Record Format (BP 79). ................................... 24 9.5.9 Record Attributes (BP80) ................................. 25 9.5.10 Record Length (BP81 to84) ............................... 25 9.5.11 Systemldentifier(BP85toll6) ............................ 25 9.5.12 System Use (BP 117 to 180). ............................... 25 9.5.13 Extended Attribute Record Version (BP 181) ................. 25 9.5.14 Length of Escape Sequences (BP 182). ...................... 25 9.5.15 Reserved for future standardization (BP 183 to 246) ........... 25 iX SIST EN 29660:1997

IS0 9660 : 1988 E) Page 9.5.16 Length of Application Use (BP 247 to 250) ................... 25 9.5.17 Application Use [BP251 to (250 + LEN-AU)] ............... 25 9.5.18 Escape Sequences [BP(251 + LEN AU)] to (250 + LEN ESC + LEN-AU)] .... ........ ... ... , ..... ... .... ... ... , . .. 25 9.6 Consistency of File Attributes between Extended Attribute Records ofaFile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 10 Levelsofinterchange................................................ 26 10.1 Levell....................................................... 26 10.2 Level2....................................................... 26 IO.3 LeveI3....................................................... 26 Section three : Requirements for systems 11 Requirement for the description of systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 12 Requirements for an originating system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 12.1 General...................................................... 27 12.2 Files......................................................... 27 12.3 Descriptors................................................... 27 12.4 SystemArea.................................................. 28 13 Requirements for a receiving system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 13.1 General...................................................... 28 13.2 Files......................................................... 28 13.3 Descriptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 13.4 Restrictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 13.5 Levels of implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 13.5.1 Level1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 13.5.2 Level2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Annex A : IS0 646 : International Reference Version (IRV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 SIST EN 29660:1997

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IS0 9660 : 1988 (E) Information processing - Volume and file structure of CD-ROM for information interchange Section one : General 1 Scope and field of application This International Standard specifies the volume and file struc- ture of compact read only optical disks (CD-ROM) for the inter- change of information between users of information processing systems. This International Standard specifies - the attributes of the volume and the descriptors recorded on it; - the relationship among volumes of a volume set; - the placement of files; - the attributes of the files; - record structures intended for use in the input or out- put data streams of an application program when such data streams are required to be organized as sets of records; - three nested levels of medium interchange; - two nested levels of implementation; - requirements for the processes which are provided within information processing systems, to enable infor- mation to be interchanged between different systems, utiliz- ing recorded CD-ROM as the medium of interchange; for this purpose it specifies the functions to be provided within systems which are intended to originate or receive CD-ROM which conform to this International Standard. 2 Conformance 2.1 Conformance of a CD-ROM A CD-ROM shall be in conformance with this International Standard when all information recorded on it conforms to the requirements of section two of this International Standard. A statement of conformance shall identify the lowest level of in- terchange to which the contents of the CD-ROM conform. A prerequisite to such conformance is conformance of the CD-ROM to a standard for recording (see 4.15). 2.2 Conformance of an information processing system An information processing system shall be in conformance with this International Standard if it meets the requirements specified in sections two and three of this International Stan- dard either for an originating system, or for a receiving system, or for both types of system. A statement of conformance shall identify which level of these requirements can be met by the system. 3 References IS0 646, Information processing - /SO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange. IS0 1539, Programming languages - FORTRAN. IS0 2022, information processing - IS0 7-bit and 8-bit coded character sets - Code extension techniques. IS0 2375, Data processing - Procedure for registration of escape sequences. International Register of Coded Character Sets to Be Used With Escape Sequences. Standards for recording : This International Standard assumes the existence of a standard for recording (see 4.15). 4 Definitions For the purposes of this International Standard, the following definitions apply : 4.1 application program : A program that processes the contents of a file, and may also process selected attribute data relating to the file or to the volume(s) on which the file is recorded. NOTE - An application program is a specific class of user, as defined in this International Standard. 4.2 byte : A string of eight binary digits operated upon as a unit. SIST EN 29660:1997

IS0 9660 : 1988 E) 4.3 Data sector. Field of a : A field containing the data of a The specifications of the standard for recordin evan t for this International Standard are g that are rel- - a unique Physical Address for each recorded sector; 44 the data preparer : A person or other entity which controls preparation of the da ta to be recorded on a volume group. - the location of the Data Field within each sector; NOTE - A data preparer International Standard. is a specific class of user as in this - the length of the Data Field within each sector. NOTE - The standard for recording used in conjunction with this International Standard is subject to agreement between the originator and the recipient of the volumes. 4.5 descri ptor : A structure mation abou t a volume or a file. containing descriptive infor- 4.6 Extent : A set of logical blocks, the logical block numbers of which form a continuous ascending sequence. 4.16 user : A person or other entity (for example, an appli- cation program) that causes the invocation of the services provided by an implementation. 4.7 file : A named collection of information. 4.17 volume : A dismountable CD-ROM. 4.8 File Section : That part of a file that is recorded in any one extent. 4.18 Volume Set : A collection which a set of files is recorded. of one or more volumes, on 4.9 implementation : A set of processes which enable an information processing system to behave as an originating system, or as a receiving system, or as both types of system. 5 Notation 4.10 Logical Block : A group of 2” + g bytes treated as a logical unit, where n equals 0 or a positive integer. The following notation is used in this International Standard. 5.1 Decimal and hexadecimal notations 4.11 originating system : An information processing system which can create a set of files on a volume set for the purpose of data interchange with another system. Numbers in decimal notation are represented by decimal digits, namely 0 to 9. Numbers in hexadecimal notation are represented by hexadecimal digits, namely 0 to 9 and A to F, shown in par- entheses. 4.12 receiving system : An information processing system which can read a set of files from a volume set which has been created by another system for the purpose of data interchange. 5.2 Other notation 4.13 record information. : A sequence of bytes treated as a unit of BP : Byte position within a descriptor, starting with 1 4.14 sector : The smallest addressable part of the recorded area on a CD-ROM that can be accessed independently of other addressable parts of the recorded area. RBP : Byte position within a descriptor field, starting with 1 ZERO : A single bit with the value 0 4.15 standard for recording : A standard that specifies the recording method and the addressing method for the infor- mation recorded on a CD-ROM. ONE : A single bit with the value 1 Digit(s) : Any digit from DIGIT ZERO to DIGIT NINE SIST EN 29660:1997

IS0 9660 : 1988 E) Section two : Requirements for the medium 6 Volume structure 6.1 Arrangement of data on a CD-ROM 6.1 .I Physical Addresses Each sector shall be identified by a unique Physical Address as specified in the relevant standard for recording. 6.1.2 Logical Sector The sectors of a volume shall be organized into Logical Sectors. Each Logical Sector shall consist of a number of bytes equal to 2 048 or 2”, whichever is larger, where n is the largest integer such that 2” is less than, or equal to, the number of bytes in the Data Field of any sector recorded on the volume. The number of bytes in a Logical Sector shall be referred to as the Logical Sector size. Each Logical Sector shall begin in a different sector from any other Logical Sector, and shall begin with the first byte of the Data Field of the sector in which it begins. If the number of bytes of the Data Field of each sector recorded on the volume is less than 2 048, a Logical Sector shall comprise more than one sector, and the set of the Physical Addresses of its constituent sectors shall form a con- secutive ascending sequence. The data of a Logical Sector shall be recorded in the Data Fields of its constituent sectors. Each Logical Sector shall be identified by a unique Logical Sector Number. Logical Sector Numbers shall be integers assigned in an ascending sequence, in order of ascending Physical Addresses of the constituent sectors, starting with 0 for the Logical Sector containing the sector having the lowest Physical Address which may contain recorded information. The numbering shall continue through successive Logical Sectors, each of which begins with the sector with the next higher Physical Address than that of the last sector constituting the previous Logical Sector. 6.1.3 Volume Space The information on a volume shall be recorded in the set of all Logical Sectors on the volume. This set shall be referred to as the Volume Space of the volume. The bytes in the Volume Space shall be numbered consecutively. The numbering shall start with 1, which shall be assigned to the first byte of the first Logical Sector of the Volume Space. The numbering shall continue through successive bytes of the first Logical Sector, and then through successive bytes of each successive Logical Sector, of the Volume Space. 6.2 Arrangement of the Volume Space 6.2.1 System Area and Data Area T

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