Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Areal - Part 700: Calibration, adjustment and verification of areal topography measuring instruments (ISO 25178-700:2022)

This document specifies generic procedures for the calibration, adjustment and verification of metrological characteristics that areal topography measuring instruments have in common, as stated in ISO 25178-600.
Because surface profiles can be extracted from surface topography images, most of the methods described in this document can be adapted to profiling instruments.
Instrument-specific issues are not covered by this document. For example, for instruments based on mechanical probing where the probe follows an additional arcuate motion, additional measures are specified in ISO 25178-701.
This document does not include procedures for area-integrating methods, although those are also stated in ISO 25178-6. For example, light scattering belongs to a class of techniques known as area-integrating methods for measuring surface topography.

Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) - Oberflächenbeschaffenheit: Fläche - Teil 700: Kalibrierung, Justierung und Verifizierung von flächenhaften Topographiemessgeräten (ISO 25178-700:2022)

Dieses Dokument legt allgemeine Verfahren für die Kalibrierung, Justierung und Verifizierung von messtechnischen Merkmalen fest, die flächenhafte Topographiemessgeräte gemeinsam haben, wie in ISO 25178 600 angegeben.
Da Oberflächenprofile aus Bildern von Oberflächentopographien extrahiert werden können, lassen sich die meisten der in diesem Dokument beschriebenen Verfahren an Profilmessgeräte anpassen.
Messgerätespezifische Fragen werden in diesem Dokument nicht behandelt. Für Geräte, die auf mechanischer Abtastung beruhen und bei denen die Sonde einer zusätzlichen bogenförmigen Bewegung folgt, sind beispielsweise in ISO 25178 701 zusätzliche Maßnahmen festgelegt.
Dieses Dokument schließt keine Verfahren für flächenhaft integrierende Methoden ein, obwohl diese ebenfalls in ISO 25178 6 angegeben sind. Lichtstreuung gehört beispielsweise zu einer Klasse von Techni¬ken, die als flächenhaft integrierende Methoden zur Messung der Oberflächentopographie bekannt sind.
Dieses Dokument legt allgemeine Verfahren für die Kalibrierung, Justierung und Verifizierung von messtechnischen Merkmalen fest, die flächenhafte Topographiemessgeräte gemeinsam haben, wie in ISO 25178 600 angegeben.
Da Oberflächenprofile aus Bildern von Oberflächentopographien extrahiert werden können, lassen sich die meisten der in diesem Dokument beschriebenen Verfahren an Profilmessgeräte anpassen.
Messgerätespezifische Fragen werden in diesem Dokument nicht behandelt. Für Geräte, die auf mechanischer Abtastung beruhen und bei denen die Sonde einer zusätzlichen bogenförmigen Bewegung folgt, sind beispielsweise in ISO 25178 701 zusätzliche Maßnahmen festgelegt.
Dieses Dokument schließt keine Verfahren für flächenhaft integrierende Methoden ein, obwohl diese ebenfalls in ISO 25178 6 angegeben sind. Lichtstreuung gehört beispielsweise zu einer Klasse von Techni¬ken, die als flächenhaft integrierende Methoden zur Messung der Oberflächentopographie bekannt sind.

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - État de surface: Surfacique - Partie 700: Étalonnage, ajustage et vérification d'instruments de mesure de la topographie des surfaces (ISO 25178-700:2022)

Le présent document spécifie des modes opératoires génériques pour l’étalonnage, l’ajustage et la vérification des caractéristiques métrologiques que les instruments de mesure de la topographie des surfaces ont en commun, comme indiqué dans l’ISO 25178‑600.
Comme les profils peuvent être extraits des images par topographie de surface, la plupart des méthodes décrites dans le présent document peuvent être adaptées aux instruments de profilométrie.
Les problèmes spécifiques des instruments ne sont pas couverts dans le présent document. Par exemple, pour les instruments basés sur un palpage mécanique, lorsque le palpeur suit un mouvement arqué additionnel, des mesures additionnelles sont spécifiées dans l’ISO 25178‑701.
Le présent document n’inclut pas de modes opératoires pour les méthodes d’intégration des surfaces, bien que celles-ci soient aussi mentionnées dans l’ISO 25178‑6. Par exemple, la diffusion de la lumière appartient à une classe de techniques connue sous le nom de méthodes d’intégration des surfaces servant à mesurer la topographie des surfaces.

Specifikacija geometrijskih veličin izdelka (GPS) - Tekstura površine: ploskovna - 700. del: Umerjanje, nastavitev in preverjanje merilnih instrumentov za površinsko topografijo (ISO 25178-700:2022)

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Publication Date
10-Jan-2023
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021
01-januar-2021

Specifikacija geometrijskih veličin izdelka (GPS) - Tekstura površine: ploskovna -

700. del: Umerjanje, nastavitev in preverjanje merilnih instrumentov za površinsko

topografijo (ISO/DIS 25178-700:2020)

Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Areal - Part 700: Calibration,

adjustment and verification of areal topography measuring instruments (ISO/DIS 25178-

700:2020)
Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) - Oberflächenbeschaffenheit - Teil 700:

Kalibrierung, Justierung und Verifizierung von flächenhaften Topographiemessgeräten

(ISO/DIS 25178-700:2020)

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - État de surface: Surfacique - Partie 700:

Étalonnage, ajustage et vérification d'instruments de mesure de la topographie des

surfaces (ISO/DIS 25178-700:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 25178-700
ICS:
17.040.20 Lastnosti površin Properties of surfaces
17.040.40 Specifikacija geometrijskih Geometrical Product
veličin izdelka (GPS) Specification (GPS)
oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021
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oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 25178-700
ISO/TC 213 Secretariat: BSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-10-26 2021-01-18
Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface
texture: Areal —
Part 700:
Calibration, adjustment and verification of areal
topography measuring instruments
Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) — État de surface: Surfacique —

Partie 700: Étalonnage, réglage et vérification d'instruments de mesure de topographie de surface

ICS: 17.040.40; 17.040.20
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oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021
ISO/DIS 25178-700:2020(E)
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All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021
ISO/DIS 25178-700:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 General metrological definitions ............................................................................................................................................. 3

3.2 Measurement related terms and definitions ................................................................................................................. 4

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Calibration, adjustment and verification of an instrument ..................................................................................... 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Use of the methods for calibration, adjustment and verification ................................................................ 5

5.3 Instrument calibration procedure ......................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.1 Calibration by measurement standards ...................................................................................................... 6

5.3.2 Measurement procedures for calibration with measurement standards ....................... 6

5.3.3 Calibration by other methods ............................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Calibration conditions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.5 Adjustment and Verification........................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.2 Adjustment of systematic deviations ............................................................................................................. 7

5.5.3 Verification (Calibration after adjustment) .............................................................................................. 7

5.5.4 Validation ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Determination of the metrological characteristics of an instrument ...........................................................7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Reporting of the measurement conditions ..................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Handling of non-measured points ......... ................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4 Handling of spurious points and outliers ........................................................................................................................ 8

6.5 Metrological characteristics ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.5.1 Measurement noise and instrument noise ................................................................................................ 8

6.5.2 Flatness deviation ........................................................................................................................................................12

6.5.3 Amplification coefficient (α ) of the z-axis ............................................................................................14

6.5.4 Determination of z-linearity deviation l ...................................................................................................

z 19
6.5.5 Determination of the amplification coefficient α and α in x- and y-
x y

direction and mapping deviation Δ (x,y) and Δ (x,y) ................................................................21

x y
6.5.6 Perpendicularity of the instrument z-axis with respect to the x-y areal

reference ..............................................................................................................................................................................25

6.6 Topography induced influences on measurement uncertainty .................................................................25

6.6.1 Topographic spatial resolution .........................................................................................................................25

6.6.2 Topography fidelity.....................................................................................................................................................26

6.6.3 Instrument transfer function (ITF) curve f ........................................................................................

ITF 27

6.7 Slope-dependent effects ...............................................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Relation to the GPS matrix model ...........................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021
ISO/DIS 25178-700:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

ISO 25178-700 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 213, Dimensional and geometrical product

specifications and verification.
A list of all parts in the ISO 25178 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021
ISO/DIS 25178-700:2020(E)
Introduction

This document is a geometrical product specification (GPS) standard and is to be regarded as a general

GPS standard (see ISO 14638). It influences the chain link F of the chains of standards on areal surface

texture and profile surface texture.

The ISO/GPS matrix model given in ISO 14638 gives an overview of the ISO/GPS system of which this

document is a part. The fundamental rules of ISO/GPS given in ISO 8015 apply to this document and

the default decision rules given in ISO 14253-1 apply to the specifications made in accordance with this

document, unless otherwise indicated.

For more detailed information of the relation of this document to other standards and the GPS matrix

model, see Annex A.

In the GPS concept the design values of geometric parameters on workpieces and their tolerances are

compared with the measurement of those parameters on the corresponding manufactured workpieces

and their associated measurement uncertainties. For a reliable result it is therefore necessary to

calibrate the measurement instrument involved in this process. Calibration realizes an unbroken

traceability chain of the concerned values to worldwide accepted common reference unit values. In this

standard calibration strictly means the determination of the measurement deviation from the reference

value. In common language calibration is often used for the combination of the operations "calibration"

and "adjustment".

This standard describes the calibration, see ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.39, adjustment, see

ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 3.11 and verification, see ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.44, in general for topography

measuring instruments.

Metrological characteristics defined in ISO 25178-600 are connected with results of measurement

executed with topography measuring instruments. So, it is necessary to have the instrument in a

calibrated state, which guarantees the traceability of the measurement results. The calibration is the

basis for possible correction by adjustment of the instrument and the verification after the adjustment.

The residual deviation after verification can be used as a contribution to the measurement uncertainty,

which enables one to quantify the characteristics in a traceable way.

The metrological characteristics capture all of the factors that can influence a measurement result

(influence quantities) and can be propagated appropriately through a specific measurement model to

estimate measurement uncertainty. Also, in ISO 25178 parts 60X, influence quantities are defined for

each instrument type. These influence quantities are given to show how they affect the metrological

characteristics and are not needed for uncertainty estimation if the metrological characteristics are

properly used in the measurement model.

This document describes default procedures for instrument calibration, adjustment, and verification

when using material measures traceable to the meter through a national metrology institute or

qualified laboratory, see ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.41. Default methods are recommended when no

other calibration procedures have been clearly defined.

Alternative calibration techniques with clear traceability path are equally acceptable, depending on the

capabilities of the instrumentation, see 5.1 and 5.3.3. Example techniques include those based on an

independent realization of the meter using a natural emission wavelength, the value for which has been

established with a known uncertainty.

Specific influences caused for example by environmental conditions are not considered. However, these

must be considered by the user working under such environmental conditions.
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oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021
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oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 25178-700:2020(E)
Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface
texture: Areal —
Part 700:
Calibration, adjustment and verification of areal
topography measuring instruments
1 Scope

This part of ISO 25178 specifies generic procedures for the calibration, adjustment and verification

of areal topography measuring instruments defined in ISO 25178-6, and for the determination of

their metrological characteristics. This part of ISO 25178 considers metrological characteristics that

topography measuring instruments have in common, notably those described in ISO 25178, Parts 601

to 607. Collectively, those standards encompass both microscope based instruments and point sensing

instruments with lateral scanning devices.

This document presents a method to estimate uncertainty for a large range of surfaces, but not all. The

range of surfaces will be dependent on the instrument used, see Clause 6.6.2 describing the topography

fidelity.

For instrument specific principles, other parts may be developed in the 700 series of ISO 25178.

For example, this document covers only instruments without additional arcuate motion, which may be

described in a future revision of the ISO 25178-701.

This document does not include procedures for area-integrating methods, although those are also

defined in ISO 25178-6. For example, light scattering belongs to a class of techniques known as area-

integrating methods for measuring surface topography.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 230-10, Test code for machine tools — Part 10: Determination of the measuring performance of probing

systems of numerically controlled machine tools

ISO 3274:1996, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Nominal

characteristics of contact (stylus) instruments

ISO 4287:1997, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Terms,

definitions and surface texture parameters

ISO 5436-1, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method; Measurement

standards — Part 1: Material measures

ISO 5436-2, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method; Measurement

standards — Part 2: Software measurement standards

ISO 8015, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Fundamentals — Concepts, principles and rules

ISO 10360-7, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Acceptance and reverification tests for coordinate

measuring machines (CMM) — Part 7: CMMs equipped with imaging probing systems
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oSIST prEN ISO 25178-700:2021
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ISO 10360-8, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Acceptance and reverification tests for coordinate

measuring systems (CMS) — Part 8: CMMs with optical distance sensors

ISO 11952, Surface chemical analysis — Scanning-probe microscopy — Determination of geometric

quantities using SPM: Calibration of measuring systems

ISO 14253-1, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces and

measuring equipment — Part 1: Decision rules for verifying conformity or nonconformity with specifications

ISO 14253-5, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces and

measuring equipment — Part 5: Uncertainty in verification testing of indicating measuring instruments

ISO 14406:2010, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Extraction
ISO 14638, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Matrix model

ISO 14978:2006, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — General concepts and requirements for GPS

measuring equipment

ISO 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 17450-1:2011, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — General concepts — Part 1: Model for

geometrical specification and verification

ISO 25178-2:2012, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 2: Terms,

definitions and surface texture parameters

ISO 25178-3:2012, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 3:

Specification operators

ISO 25178-6:2010, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 6:

Classification of methods for measuring surface texture

ISO 25178-70:2013, Geometrical product specification (GPS) -- Surface texture: Areal -- Material measures

ISO 25178-71, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 71: Software

measurement standards

ISO 25178-72, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 72: XML file

format x3p

ISO 25178-73:2020, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 73: Terms

and definitions for surface defects on material measures

ISO 25178-600:2020, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 600:

Metrological characteristics for areal topography measuring methods

ISO 25178-601:2010, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 601:

Nominal characteristics of contact (stylus) instruments

ISO 25178-603, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 603: Nominal

characteristics of non-contact (phase-shifting interferometric microscopy) instruments

ISO 25178-604:2013, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 604:

Nominal characteristics of non-contact (coherence scanning interferometry) instruments

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 3274, ISO 4287, ISO 5436-2,

ISO 10360-1, ISO 14406, ISO 14638, ISO 14978, ISO 17450-1, ISO 25178-2, ISO 25178-6, ISO 25178-70,

ISO 25178-71, ISO 25178-72, ISO 25178-73 and ISO 25178-600, ISO 25178-601, ISO 25178-603,

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 25178-604 and the following terms and definitions related to the calibration, verification and

uncertainty calculation of all areal surface topography measurement principles apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org
3.1 General metrological definitions
3.1.1
calibration

operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation between the quantity

values with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standards and corresponding

indications with associated measurement uncertainties and, in a second step, uses this information to

establish a relation for obtaining a measurement result from an indication

Note 1 to entry: A calibration may be expressed by a statement, calibration function, calibration diagram,

calibration curve, or calibration table. In some cases, it may consist of an additive or multiplicative correction of

the indication with associated measurement uncertainty.

Note 2 to entry: Calibration is not to be confused with adjustment of a measuring system, often mistakenly called

“self-calibration”, nor with verification of calibration.

Note 3 to entry: For the overall calibration of a topography measuring instrument, individual evaluations of the

individual metrological characteristics, each with a result and an assigned uncertainty, are needed.

Note 4 to entry: Calibration is performed to establish traceability of a measurement.

3.1.2
adjustment

set of operations carried out on a measuring system so that it provides prescribed indications

corresponding to given values of a quantity to be measured

Note 1 to entry: Adjustment of a measuring system is not to be confused with calibration, which is a prerequisite

for adjustment.

Note 2 to entry: Adjustment is principle specific and typically performed by the instrument manufacturers and

therefore no binding rules are given in ISO 25178-700.

Note 3 to entry: After an adjustment of a measuring system, the measuring system is usually recalibrated.

3.1.3
verification

provision of objective evidence that a metrological characteristic

fulfils stated specifications

Note 1 to entry: Verification procedures are used to demonstrate the validity of the calibration after adjustment.

Note 2 to entry: However, in ISO 17450 (GPS-General Concepts) verification is associated with the measurement

results of a manufactured part in relation to its requirement.
3.1.4
performance specification

explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a topography

measuring instruments

Note 1 to entry: The emphasis here is on a set of characteristics that describe the requested, agreed or claimed

behaviour of a topography measuring instrument. Each characteristic is associated with a measurand.

Note 2 to entry: However, in other GPS-documents (e.g. ISO 17450-1, ISO 14638) specifications are associated

with requirements on manufactured work-pieces.
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3.1.5
validation

provision of objective evidence that instruments with specified

requirements are adequate for an intended use

EXAMPLE 1 Validation may refer to a modified measurement process to demonstrate that one type of

instrument can be used in place of another type of instrument for a particular type of topography measurement.

EXAMPLE 2 Repeatability and reproducibility tests are often used as elements of a validation test.

Note 1 to entry: See also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general

[1]
concepts and associated terms (VIM), 2.45 .
3.2 Measurement related terms and definitions
3.2.1
correction factor
factor used to correct the scaling of a measurement axis

Note 1 to entry: The correction factor is the inverse of the amplification coefficient (see ISO 25178-600, 2020) .

3.2.2
non-measured points
data for which no measured values exist
3.2.3
spurious data

points that have been qualified as measurable by the measurement principle, but deviate significantly

from the value, which is the most likely value based on a priori knowledge. Spurious data maybe

single points or a small group of points that have been classified as measurable by the measurement

instrument. They are identified as spurious data by a priori knowledge about the expected surface with

their difference between the expected surface and the measured surface
Note 1 to entry: For example, spurious data can be outliers or spikes.

Note 2 to entry: Spurious data can be caused by environmental conditions, for example by vibration, sun light, or

by interaction of surface and instrument.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms

The metrological characteristics are defined in ISO 25178-600. The metrological characteristics may

show interdependencies.
5 Calibration, adjustment and verification of an instrument
5.1 General

In practice calibration of the instrument refers to a series of operations required to establish the

contribution of the metrological characteristics to the measurement uncertainty associated with the

instrument measurements. Table 1 contains the full list of metrological characteristics.

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Table 1 — List of metrological characteristics for surface topography measurement principles

Main potential
Metrological characteristic Symbol Reference in ISO 25178-600:2018
error along
Amplification coefficient α , α , α 3.1.10 (see Figure 2) x, y, z
x y z
Linearity deviation l , l , l 3.1.11 (see Figure 2) x, y, z
x y z
Flatness deviation z 3.1.12 z
FLT
Measurement noise N 3.1.15 z
Topographic spatial resolution W 3.1.20 z
x-y mapping deviations Δ (x,y), Δ (x,y) 3.1.13 x, y
x y
Topography fidelity T 3.1.26 x, y, z

NOTE The maximum measurable slope is an important limitation to be specified for a topography measuring

instruments. However, a user does not need to measure this parameter unless it is part of a measurement model according

ISO/IEC Gui
...

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