Adhesives - Terms and definitions

This European Standard defines terms used in the adhesive industry and terms relating to adhesives in those industries that use adhesives.

Klebstoffe - Benennungen und Definitionen

Diese Europäische Norm definiert Begriffe, die in der Klebstoffindustrie verwendet werden, sowie Begriffe, die
sich in der klebstoffverarbeitenden Industrie auf Klebstoffe beziehen.

Adhésifs - Termes et définitions

La présente Norme européenne définit les termes utilisés dans l’industrie des adhésifs ainsi que ceux y afférant et qui sont usités dans les industries utilisatrices d’adhésifs.

Lepila - Izrazi in definicije

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
04-Mar-2008
Withdrawal Date
22-Dec-2015
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
23-Dec-2015

RELATIONS

Effective Date
22-Dec-2008
Effective Date
15-May-2013
Effective Date
30-Dec-2015

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EN 923:2006+A1:2008
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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Adhesives - Terms and definitionsLepila - Izrazi in definicijeAdhésifs - Termes et définitionsKlebstoffe - Benennungen und DefinitionenTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 923:2005+A1:2008SIST EN 923:2006+A1:2008en,fr,de83.18001.040.83ICS:SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 923:2006+A1:200801-maj-2008
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 923:2005+A1
March 2008 ICS 83.180; 01.040.83 Supersedes EN 923:2005 English Version
Adhesives - Terms and definitions
Adhésifs - Termes et définitions

Klebstoffe - Benennungen und Definitionen This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 September 2005 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 7 January 2008.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels © 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 923:2005+A1:2008: E

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................4 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................5 2 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................5 2.1 Adhesives...............................................................................................................................................5 2.2 Functional adhesive components........................................................................................................9 2.3 Chemical base products.....................................................................................................................12 2.4 Adhesive properties............................................................................................................................20 2.5 Material and material treatment..........................................................................................................24 2.6 Bonding................................................................................................................................................26 2.7 Bond properties...................................................................................................................................32 Annex A (informative)

Adhesives....................................................................................................................36 Annex B (informative)

Adhesives joints..........................................................................................................38

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 3 Foreword This European Standard (EN 923:2005+A1:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 193 “Adhesives”, the secretariat of which is held by AENOR. This document shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2008 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2008. This document includes Amendment 1, approved by CEN on 2008-01-07. This European Standard supersedes !EN 923:2005". The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags ! ". According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 4 Introduction This European Standard comprises terms peculiar to, or in general use in, the adhesive and adhesive processing industry. The terms defined have been classified so that, as far as possible, related concepts (adhesives, functional adhesive components, chemical base products, adherents, adhesives properties, bonding, and bond properties) are grouped together. All definitions are numbered and an alphabetical index which includes all terms is provided at the end of this European Standard. The numbering of the individual definitions is the same in all three versions (English, French and German) of this European Standard. Consequently this European Standard can be used as a dictionary, combined with one or both of the other versions as an aid for translation of terms into French or German, as a source of information about related concepts in the adhesive industry or to provide a term for a concept. In order to find: a) the definition of a term; look up the term in the alphabetical index at the end of this European Standard. The index will refer to the number in this European Standard. The definition, the term and any synonyms appear by the number; b) information about related terms; look up the term in the alphabetical index to find its number in this European Standard. When the term has been located in this European Standard, the related concepts can be found in the same subdivision; c) the translation of a term into the French or German language; look up the number of this term in this European Standard and locate the translation of the term and the definition under the same number in the standard of the foreign version.

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard defines terms used in the adhesive industry and terms relating to adhesives in those industries that use adhesives. 2 Terms and definitions 2.1 Adhesives 2.1.1 adhesive non-metallic substance capable of joining materials by surface bonding (adhesion), and the bond possessing adequate internal strength (cohesion) NOTE Many adhesives names refer to their main functional components; 

the physical nature of

the adhesive. Table A.1 lists main binders, temperature and mode of setting of these adhesives and the number of parts that have to be mixed before use. Some other names refer to  the method of application, or  mode of setting. Furthermore adhesives are named according to points of less significance:  field of application (e.g. footwear adhesive, construction adhesive, packaging adhesive),  material to bond (e.g. paper adhesive, wood adhesive, wall paper adhesive, rubber adhesive),  place of application (e.g. in situ adhesive),  speed of setting (e.g. instant adhesive),  bond properties (e.g. structural adhesive),  shape (e.g. powder adhesive, pearl glue, table glue for solid glue, adhesive film for shaped adhesive, or stick adhesive for stick shaped adhesives), or  aspect (e.g. white glue). 2.1.2 water-borne adhesive; aqueous adhesive adhesive in which the solvent, or the continuous phase is water 2.1.3 glue aqueous adhesive specifically designed for bonding of wood and other porous substrates NOTE A glue can be based on a natural product like protein or synthetic resins (UF, PF or PVAC, see 2.3.51, 2.3.52 and 2.3.30 respectively) 2.1.4 paste adhesive adhesive of a non-stringy, highly viscous nature

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 6 NOTE Paste adhesives based on starch or cellulose ethers are usually applied for paper bonding (e.g. paper bags or wall paper), based on synthetic polymers for bonding floor coverings. 2.1.5 dispersion adhesive adhesive consisting of a stable dispersion of a polymer in a liquid continuous phase, usually water NOTE Dispersion adhesives containing an elastomer as polymer conventionally are often termed "latex". 2.1.6 emulsion adhesive adhesive consisting of a stable emulsion of a liquid hydrophobic resin in water 2.1.7 solvent-borne adhesive; solution adhesive, solvent-based adhesive adhesive in which the binder is dissolved in a volatile organic solvent NOTE In practice solvents used for solvent-borne adhesives have boiling points below 170 °C at 101,3 kPa and a vapour pressure greater than 50 Pa at 20 °C and, if flammable, a flash point below 55 °C. 2.1.8 solvent free adhesive adhesive that is substantially free from organic solvents (see 2.1.7) NOTE "Substantially free" means that organic solvents have neither been added in the basic elements of an adhesive nor during its process of manufacture out of these basic elements. "Low solvent adhesives" contain at most 5 % of solvents based on total weight of the adhesive. 2.1.9 plastisol adhesive adhesive material formed by the dispersion of a polymer in a plasticizer such that, when the dispersion is heated, the polymer dissolves irreversibly in the plasticizer to form a solution that solidifies on cooling 2.1.10 toughened adhesive adhesive which by virtue of its physical structure discourages propagation of cracks NOTE The toughening can be achieved, for example, by the creation of a discrete elastomeric phase within the adhesive matrix. 2.1.11 spray adhesive adhesive that is projected in small particles by means of a pressure medium 2.1.12 gap-filling adhesive adhesive designed for filling wider gaps between uneven surfaces NOTE For high strength load-bearing purposes, e.g. in the car industry, the adhesive will provide satisfactory bond strength in bond-lines up to 1 mm in thickness. For the construction industry, high solid adhesives designed for use between uneven surfaces and to bond satisfactorily in gaps up to 6 mm are used. 2.1.13 sealant adhesive material, used to fill gaps where movement can occur in service and which, when set, has elastic properties NOTE The term "sealant" is also used for a material filling a void against the ingress or egress of a fluid under pressure.

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 7 2.1.14 film adhesive adhesive in film form, with or without a carrier NOTE Film adhesives set usually by means of heat under pressure. 2.1.15 foaming adhesive adhesive designed to foam in situ, after application, in order to provide extensive gap-filling properties 2.1.16 unsupported film adhesive adhesive supplied in sheet, film or web, without an incorporated carrier 2.1.17 supported film adhesive adhesive supplied in sheet or film form with an incorporated carrier that remains in the bond when the adhesive is applied and used NOTE The carrier can be woven or non-woven material consisting of organic or inorganic fibres. 2.1.18 adhesive tape flexible backing or carrier coated with a pressure-sensitive, remoistable, or heat activatable adhesive 2.1.19 transfer tape carrier coated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive which, when detached from the substrate, permits the carrier to be removed leaving only the adhesive 2.1.20 double coated adhesive tape; double sided adhesive tape tape where the adhesive is applied on both sides of the carrier 2.1.21 multiple-layer adhesive film adhesive, usually supported with a different adhesive composition on each side NOTE Multiple-layer adhesives are designed to bond dissimilar materials. 2.1.22 encapsulated adhesive adhesive in which particles or droplets of the adhesive or an adhesive component are enclosed in a protective film (microcapsules) usually to prevent cross-linking until the film is destroyed by suitable means 2.1.23 one-way stick adhesive adhesive that is applied to only one of the adherends 2.1.24 separate application adhesive adhesive consisting of different components which are applied separately to adherends NOTE Pressing together the components initiates a chemical reaction curing the bond-line. 2.1.25 two way stick adhesive, double spread adhesive adhesive that is applied to both adherends

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 8 2.1.26 one part adhesive adhesive ready for use NOTE A one-part adhesive can require the addition of water or the presence of ambient moisture for setting. 2.1.27 two part adhesive adhesive that consist of two separate reactive components that are mixed before use 2.1.28 multi-part adhesive adhesive that consists of two or more separate reactive components that are mixed before use 2.1.29 contact adhesive adhesive that is applied to both adherends and when allowed to become apparently dry will instantly develop a firm bond when a firm but not sustained pressure is applied NOTE "apparently dry" means that the adhesive coats are "dry to touch" at some stage in the evaporation of volatile constituents. 2.1.30 hot melt adhesive adhesive that is applied in the molten state and forms a bond on cooling to a solid state 2.1.31 heat activated adhesive adhesive pre-applied to the adherends that is rendered tacky prior to use by application of heat and forms a bond on cooling under pressure 2.1.32 heat sealing adhesive adhesive pre-applied to one or both adherends that is activated by the application of heat and forms a bond on cooling NOTE Heat-sealing adhesives are commonly used in the packaging industry. 2.1.33 solvent activated adhesive adhesive pre-applied to an adherend that is rendered tacky immediately prior to use by the application of solvent 2.1.34 pressure sensitive adhesive adhesive which in a dry state is permanently tacky at room temperature and adheres readily to surfaces under light and brief pressure NOTE Pressure-sensitive adhesives are used among other things for the manufacture of pressure sensitive tapes. 2.1.35 cold setting adhesive (cold glue deprecated) adhesive that sets without the application of heat 2.1.36 hot setting adhesive adhesive that sets only with the application of heat

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 9 2.1.37 reaction adhesive, reactive adhesive adhesive that sets by a chemical reaction of its components and/or the action of external agents 2.1.38 cold curing adhesive adhesive that cures without the application of heat 2.1.39 hot curing adhesive adhesive that cures only with the application of heat 2.1.40 self curing adhesive adhesive that cures, after application, under specified conditions 2.1.41 anaerobic adhesive adhesive that cures in absence of oxygen, curing being inhibited by the presence of oxygen and catalysed by metal ions 2.1.42 moisture curing adhesive adhesive that cures by reaction of water from the air or from an adherend 2.1.43 conductive adhesive adhesive especially designed to either avoid the accumulation of an electrical charge or to conduct an electrical current 2.1.44 adhesive batch quantity of a particular adhesive (or component of an adhesive) manufactured in a single location at a defined, limited time and under uniform conditions NOTE "Lot" is a commonly used commercial term. A lot can consist of less or more than one batch. 2.2 Functional adhesive components 2.2.1 binder component of an adhesive that is primarily responsible for the adhesion and cohesion 2.2.2 monomer chemical compound, usually of low molecular mass, that can be converted into a polymer by combining with itself or with other chemical compounds 2.2.3 polymer substance composed of molecules characterized by the multiple repetition of one or more species of atoms or groups of atoms (constitutional units) linked to each other in amounts sufficient to provide a set of properties that do not markedly vary with the addition or removal of one or a few of the constitutional units NOTE The nature of these constitutional units, their order and the average number per molecule influence the physical and mechanical properties of the polymer. 2.2.4 copolymer polymer derived from more than one species of monomer

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 10 2.2.5 elastomer macromolecular material which returns rapidly to approximately its initial dimensions and shape after substantial deformation by a weak stress and release of the stress at room temperature 2.2.6 resin solid, semi solid or pseudosolid organic material that has an indefinite and often high relative molecular mass, exhibits a tendency to flow when subjected to stress, usually has a softening or melting range, and usually fractures conchoidally NOTE 1 In a broader sense, the term is used to designate any polymer that is basic material for plastics. Bitumen, pitches and waxes are excluded by convention. NOTE 2 Some resins may be part of a reaction adhesive (see 2.1.37). 2.2.7 synthetic resin resin derived from a synthetic monomer 2.2.8 thermoplastic resin, thermoplast polymer or copolymer capable of being softened by heating and hardened by cooling NOTE Softening and hardening are repeatable. Many thermoplastic materials can become thermoset by appropriate treatment to induce crosslinking, e.g. by the addition of a suitable chemical crosslinking agent or by irradiation. 2.2.9 thermosetting resin, thermoset monomer, polymer or copolymer, which when cured, changes into a substantially infusible and insoluble product NOTE The setting of a thermosetting resin undergoes three different stages: the "A-stage" at which the material is still fusible and still soluble. The intermediate pseudo-stable "B-stage" at which it is fusible and partially soluble. The "B-stage" is converted to the final crosslinked, insoluble and infusible "C-stage" by application of heat and, usually, pressure.

2.2.10 crosslinking agent substance that causes, promotes or regulates the formation of intermolecular, covalent or ionic bonds between polymer chains resulting in a three dimensional molecular network NOTE Crosslinking can occur either between polymer chains or by reaction of simple functional molecules (e.g. two part polyurethane or epoxy adhesives). Crosslinking can also be produced by radiation or oxidation. The terms "hardener" and "curing agent" are often used synonymously with crosslinking agent. 2.2.11 adhesion promotor; coupling agent substance used in small proportions to increase the adhesion to specific substrates 2.2.12 accelerator substance used in small proportions to increase the reaction rate of a chemical system (reactants, plus additives) 2.2.13 catalyst substance used in small proportion, that augments the rate of a chemical reaction, and in theory remains unchanged chemically at the end of the reaction

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 11 2.2.14 inhibitor substance used in small proportions to suppress a chemical reaction 2.2.15 retarder substance used in small proportions to reduce the reaction rate of a chemical system 2.2.16 antioxidant substance used to retard deterioration caused by oxidation 2.2.17 flexibilizer; internal plasticizer co-reactant which, when incorporated into a polymer confers improved flexibility and resilience to the polymer NOTE A flexibilizer provides to the adhesive film a greater extension at break, a lower modulus and a lower temperature at which it becomes brittle. A flexibilizer is not extractable and will not migrate from the adhesive film. 2.2.18 plasticizer; external plasticizer non-reactive substance incorporated into an adhesive to improve flexibility and resilience of its bond. NOTE A plasticizer provides to the adhesive film a greater extension at break, a lower modulus and a lower temperature at which it becomes brittle. A plasticizer can be soluble and can migrate from the adhesive film. 2.2.19 solvent liquid or mixture of liquids that are used in the manufacture of adhesives to dissolve or to dilute the binder without chemical change NOTE Solvents are used to control the consistency and character of the adhesive and can regulate application properties. 2.2.20 diluent (thinner, deprecated) liquid whose sole function is to reduce the concentration of solids and viscosity of an adhesive 2.2.21 reactive diluent low-viscosity liquid added to a high-viscosity solvent-free adhesive which reacts chemically with the adhesive during setting NOTE A reactive diluent is usually mono-functional and reduces the viscosity of the adhesive with acceptable changes in other properties. 2.2.22 filler relatively inert solid material added to a plastic or an adhesive to modify strength, permanence, working properties or other quality NOTE 1

Two classes of fillers are used:  chemically inert fillers, e.g. china clay or woodflour;  "reinforcing fillers" like silicates, carbon black, fibrous materials or

aluminium powder

that markedly enhance the per-formance of a polymer. NOTE 2 A filler only used to reduce cost is termed “extender”. An extender can be a liquid.

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 12 2.2.23 matrix part of an adhesive that surrounds or engulfs embedded filler or reinforcing particles and filaments 2.2.24 modifier ingredient which, when added to an adhesive, changes its properties NOTE The term modifier includes fillers, diluents, plasticizers and tackifiers. 2.2.25 stabilizer substance used in the formulation of some plastics or adhesives to assist in maintaining the properties of the material or of the adhesive and its bonds at or near their initial values during storage and processing and under service conditions NOTE Special stabilizers are used to prevent or slow down undesirable effects such as coagulation, excessive reactivity, absorption by adherends or destruction of adherends. 2.2.26 emulsifier; emulsifying agent; dispersant surface-active substance that promotes and maintains the dispersion of two incomplete miscible liquids or a solid and a liquid by reducing the interfacial tension between the two phases 2.2.27 tackifier substance intended to enhance the tack or the tack range of an adhesive coat 2.3 Chemical base products 2.3.1 soluble silicate silicate obtained by melting a purified silica with an alkali salt 2.3.2 hydraulic cement inorganic adhesive material that sets and hardens by chemical interaction with water and that is capable of doing so under water NOTE 1 Hydraulic cements set chemically by "hydration" thus forming compounds with strength-producing properties. There are several types of hydraulic cements:  “Portland cement“, produced by pulverizing partially fused "clinker" consisting primarily of hydrated calcium silicates, and usually containing calcium sulfate in any hydration state (anhydrite, gypsum, hemihydrate);  “natural cement“, produced by calcining a naturally occurring argillaceouse limestone at a temperature below the sintering point and

then grinding to a fine powder;  “slag cement“, consisting mostly of an intimate and uniform blend of granulated blast-furnace slag and hydrated lime in which the slag constituent is more than a specified minimum percentage. Blast-furnace slag is the non-metallic product consisting essentially of silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium and other bases that is developed in a molten condition simultaneously with iron in a blast furnace;  “Portland-Pozzolan cement“, consisting of an intimate and uniform blend of Portland cement or Portland blast-furnace slag cement and fine pozzolan, in which the amount of the pozzolan constituent is within specified limits. Pozzolan is a siliceous and aluminous material which in itself possesses little or no cementitious value but which will, in finily divided form and in the presence of moisture, chemically react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing cementitious properties.

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 13 NOTE 2 "Concrete" is composite material that consists essentially of a binder (e.g. hydrated cement and water) within which are embedded particles of fragments or aggregates. NOTE 3 The term "cement" is also used as a synonym for organic adhesives but its use is strongly deprecated. 2.3.3 protein natural product having the repeating linkage -NH-CO- NOTE Some examples are:  Soya bean protein is obtained from soya bean seeds. When compounded with other reactants it is used as an adhesive, mostly in plywood.  "Casein" is protein precipitated from skimmed milk by the action of rennet or acid. When compounded with other reactants it is used as an adhesive for wood and packaging applications.  "Collagen" is produced from collagenous animal materials like skin, bone and connective tissue.  "Gelatine" is a soluble protein derived from collagen.  "Animal glue" is an impure protein obtained by hydrolysis of collagenous materials by various methods and is predominantly used for bonding of wood and other porous substrates. 2.3.4 starch vegetable carbohydrate occurring in the granular form in certain plants and corresponding to a polymer composed almost exclusively of anhydroalpha-D-glucose groups 2.3.5 starch ether modified starch in which the hydroxyl groups of the starch have been totally or partially etherified 2.3.6 starch ester modified starch in which the hydroxyl groups of the starch have been totally or partially esterified 2.3.7 dextrin(e) modified starch prepared from starch by heat treatment in the dry state with or without the addition of small quantities of chemical agents NOTE Dextrin is used in certain water-borne adhesives. 2.3.8 cellulose esters products of esterification of certain of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose macromolecule with organic or mineral acids NOTE Examples of cellulose esters are cellulose acetate, cellulose acetobutyrate, cellulose acetopropionate, cellulose nitrate. Cellulose esters are soluble in organic solvents such as esters or ketones, and thus form the basis of some solvent-borne adhesives. 2.3.9 cellulose ethers products of etherification of certain of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose macromolecule NOTE Examples of cellulose ethers are carboxymethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl- and hydroxypropyl cellulose. Cellulose ethers are soluble in, or solubilized by water and simple alcohols and find use as the basis of water soluble adhesives for paper and as thickening agents in water-borne adhesives.

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 14 2.3.10 gum water-soluble vegetable resin NOTE Gums are dried exudations of plants or modified vegetable products.  "Gum arabic" is the dried exudation from the stem and the branches of Acacia senegal Willdenow and other species of acacia.  "Gum tragacanth" is the dried mucilaginous exudation from Astragalus gummifer and other species of astragalus (leguminosae), and which is partly soluble in water. Gum tragacanth is used as a modifier and stabilizer in water (or occasionally alcohol) borne adhesives.  "Cellulose gum" is a water-soluble cellulose derivative used as a substitute for gum arabic.  "British gum" is a special type of dextrin normally used in textile sizing.  "Mucilage" is a solution of a gum in water. 2.3.11 dammar resin is obtained from species of Shorea, Hopea, and Balnocarpus NOTE Dammar resin is soluble in certain organic solvents and used as a tackifier and modifier of pressure-sensitive adhesives. 2.3.12 terpene resin pale thermoplastic polyterpene hydrocarbons obtained by the acid catalysed polymerization of bicyclic monoterpene ß-pinene (or occasionally α-pinene) products of the distillation of sulphate-cellulose-turpentine NOTE Terpene resin is principally used in adhesives as a tackifier. Hydrogenated and polymerized grades are available. 2.3.13 tall resin essentially consisting of abietic acid and its isomers obtained from pine trees by the sulphate-cellulose-process 2.3.14 rosin; colophony resin essentially consisting of abietic acid and its isomers obtained as a residue in the distillation of crude turpentine from the sap of pine tree ("gum rosin") or from an extract of the stumps and other parts of the tree ("wood rosin") NOTE Resinous esters of rosin with polyhydric alcohols such as glycerol or pentaerythritrol ("ester gum") are sometimes used as a tackifier. Hydrogenated and polymerized rosin grades are available. 2.3.15 natural rubber (NR) solid material with elastic properties obtained from the botanic source Hevea brasiliensis NOTE Cis-1,4-polyisoprene is the main constituent of NR. 2.3.16 cyclized rubber isomeric derivative of natural rubber produced by a variety of chemical treatments NOTE The products are resinous and are used as rubber-to-metal adhesives.

EN 923:2005+A1:2008 (E) 15 2.3.17 chlorinated rubber white powder or fibrous product obtained by the controlled chlorination of natural rubber NOTE Chlorinated rubber is used as a compounding ingredient in solvent adhesives. 2.3.18 carnauba wax naturally occurring wax from the leaves of the Brasilian wax palm (Copernica cerifera) NOTE Carnauba wax is frequently used as a constituent of release agents. 2.3.19 bitumen; asphalt very viscous liquid or solid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. NOTE Bitumen is soluble in carbon disulphide. It is substantially non-volatile and softens gradually when heated. Bitumen is black or brown in colour and possesses waterproofing and adhesive properties. Bitumen is obtained by refinery process from petroleu

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