Space engineering - Multipaction design and test

This document specifies the requirements and recommendations for the design and test of RF components and equipment to achieve acceptable performance with respect to multipaction-free operation in service in space. The document includes:
¾   verification planning requirements;
¾   definition of a route to conform to the requirements;
¾   design and test margin requirements;
¾   design and test requirements; and
¾   informative annexes that provide guidelines on the design and test processes.
This document is intended to result in the effective design and verification of the multipaction performance of the equipment and consequently in a high confidence in achieving successful product operation.
This document covers multipaction events occurring in all classes of RF satellite components and equipment at all frequency bands of interest. Operation in single carrier CW and pulse modulated mode are included, as well as multi-carrier operations. document does not include breakdown processes caused by collisional processes, such as plasma formation.
This document is applicable to all space missions.
When viewed in a specific project context, the requirements defined in this document should be tailored to match the genuine requirements of a particular profile and circumstances of a project.
NOTE   Tailoring is a process by which individual requirements of specifications, standards and related documents are evaluated and made applicable to a specific project, by selection and in some exceptional cases, modification of existing or addition of new requirements.

Raumfahrttechnik - Multiplication Konzeption und Test

Systèmes sol et opérations - Conception et test prenant en compte l'effet Multipactor

Space engineering - Multipaction design and test

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
27-Jul-2004
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
23-Sep-2020

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Space engineering - Multipaction design and testRaumfahrttechnik - Multiplication Konzeption und TestSystemes sol et opérations - Conception et test prenant en compte l'effet MultipactorSpace engineering - Multipaction design and test49.140Vesoljski sistemi in operacijeSpace systems and operationsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14777:2004SIST EN 14777:2005en01-januar-2005SIST EN 14777:2005SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 14777:2005

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 14777July 2004ICS 49.140English versionSpace engineering - Multipaction design and testSystèmes sol et opérations - Conception et test prenant encompte l'effet MultipactorRaumfahrttechnik (Engeneering) - MultipactionKonzenption und TestThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 29 April 2004.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2004 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 14777:2004: ESIST EN 14777:2005

EN 14777:2004 (E) 2 Contents page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................5 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................6 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................7 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................7 3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms..........................................................................................8 3.1 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................8 3.2 Abbreviated terms...............................................................................................................................10 4 Verification...........................................................................................................................................10 4.1 Verification process............................................................................................................................10 4.2 Verification levels................................................................................................................................11 4.3 Verification plan...................................................................................................................................11 4.3.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................11 4.3.2 Generation and updating....................................................................................................................11 4.3.3 Description...........................................................................................................................................11 4.4 Verification routes...............................................................................................................................12 4.5 Classification of component type......................................................................................................12 4.6 Single carrier........................................................................................................................................13 4.6.1 General..................................................................................................................................................13 4.6.2 Margins.................................................................................................................................................13 4.6.3 Route to demonstrate conformance..................................................................................................14 4.7 Multi-carrier..........................................................................................................................................16 4.7.1 General..................................................................................................................................................16 4.7.2 Threshold above equivalent CW peak power...................................................................................16 4.7.3 Threshold below equivalent CW peak power...................................................................................16 4.7.4 Route to demonstrate conformance..................................................................................................17 5 Design analyses...................................................................................................................................19 5.1 General..................................................................................................................................................19 5.2 Field analysis.......................................................................................................................................19 5.3 Critical region identification...............................................................................................................19 5.4 Multipaction sensitivity analysis........................................................................................................20 5.5 Venting analysis...................................................................................................................................21 5.6 Inspection.............................................................................................................................................21 6 Test conditions....................................................................................................................................21 6.1 Cleanliness...........................................................................................................................................21 6.2 Pressure................................................................................................................................................21 6.3 Temperature.........................................................................................................................................21 6.4 Frequencies..........................................................................................................................................22 6.5 Pulse duration......................................................................................................................................22 6.5.1 General..................................................................................................................................................22 6.5.2 CW units...............................................................................................................................................22 6.5.3 Pulse units............................................................................................................................................23 6.6 Electron seeding..................................................................................................................................23 6.6.1 CW test..................................................................................................................................................23 6.6.2 Pulsed test............................................................................................................................................23 6.6.3 Multi-carrier test...................................................................................................................................23 6.6.4 Seeding sources..................................................................................................................................23 SIST EN 14777:2005

EN 14777:2004 (E) 3 7 Methods of detection..........................................................................................................................24 7.1 General.................................................................................................................................................24 7.2 Detection methods..............................................................................................................................24 7.3 Detection method parameters............................................................................................................24 7.3.1 Sensitivity.............................................................................................................................................24 7.3.2 Rise time...............................................................................................................................................25 8 Test procedures...................................................................................................................................25 8.1 Test configurations.............................................................................................................................25 8.2 Test facility validation.........................................................................................................................25 8.3 Test execution.....................................................................................................................................26 8.3.1 General.................................................................................................................................................26 8.3.2 Test procedure.....................................................................................................................................26 8.4 Acceptance criteria.............................................................................................................................27 8.4.1 General.................................................................................................................................................27 8.4.2 Multi-carrier test..................................................................................................................................27 Annex A (informative)

Multipaction background........................................................................................28 A.1 Physics of multipaction......................................................................................................................28 A.2 Other physical processes...................................................................................................................29 A.3 RF operating environment..................................................................................................................29 A.4 Parallel plate multipaction..................................................................................................................35 A.5 Coaxial line multipaction....................................................................................................................40 Annex B (informative)

Component venting..................................................................................................43 B.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................43 B.2 Discharge dependence on pressure.................................................................................................43 B.3 Test example........................................................................................................................................43 B.4 Venting dimensions............................................................................................................................44 B.5 Venting hole calculations...................................................................................................................44 B.6 Payload vacuum..................................................................................................................................44 B.7 Venting model used............................................................................................................................44 B.8 Pumping conductance of a venting hole..........................................................................................45 B.9 Ultimate pressure................................................................................................................................46 B.10 Venting experiment.............................................................................................................................48 B.11 Venting guidelines...............................................................................................................................48 Annex C (normative)

Cleaning, handling, storage and contamination.....................................................50 C.1 Generic processes..............................................................................................................................50 C.2 Cleaning, handling and storage.........................................................................................................50 C.3 Contaminants.......................................................................................................................................52 Annex D (normative)

Electron seeding........................................................................................................55 D.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................55 D.2 CW test.................................................................................................................................................55 D.3 Pulsed test...........................................................................................................................................55 D.4 Multi-carrier test..................................................................................................................................55 D.5 Types of seeding source....................................................................................................................57 Annex E (informative)

Test methods............................................................................................................58 E.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................58 E.2 General test methods..........................................................................................................................58 E.3 Transient tests methods.....................................................................................................................62 E.4 Test facility validation.........................................................................................................................69 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................70

Figures Figure 1 — Routes to conformance for single carrier.........................................................................................15 Figure 2 — Routes to conformance for multi-carrier case.................................................................................18 SIST EN 14777:2005

EN 14777:2004 (E) 4 Figure 3 — The susceptibility zone boundaries for aluminium, copper, silver, gold and alodine 1200.............20 Figure A.1 — Total secondary electron emission as a function of energy of the incident electron...................36 Figure A.2 — Multipaction susceptibility zones for parallel plates of aluminum................................................37 Figure A.3 — Multipaction thresholds for all materials studied, plotted in a single graph as labeled................42 Figure B.1 — The basic venting model..............................................................................................................45 Figure E.1 — Generic close to carrier noise multipaction test site....................................................................59 Figure E.2 — Principal multipaction test set-up for nulling detection method...................................................61 Figure E.3 — Test configuration (mode 1).........................................................................................................63 Figure E.4 — Test configuration (mode 2).........................................................................................................64 Figure E.5 — Detected envelope of a five carrier waveform.............................................................................66 Figure E.6 — Charge probe...............................................................................................................................68 Tables Table A.1 — Worst case mode order for susceptible gaps for gold..................................................................31 Table A.2 — Worst case mode order for susceptible gaps for silver................................................................32 Table A.3 — Worst case mode order for susceptible gaps for aluminium........................................................33 Table A.4 — Worst case mode order for susceptible gaps for alodine.............................................................34 Table A.5 — Worst case mode order for susceptible gaps for copper..............................................................35 Table A.6 — Constants for the most used materials.........................................................................................40 Table A.7 — Critical voltages for multipaction in 50 Ω coaxial lines..................................................................41 Table B.1 — Outgassing rate for space components used in space applications............................................46

SIST EN 14777:2005

EN 14777:2004 (E) 5 Foreword This document (EN 14777:2004) has been prepared by CEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2005, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2005. It is based on a previous version1) originally prepared by the ECSS E-20-01 Working Group, reviewed by the ECSS Engineering Panel and approved by the ECSS Steering Board. The European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) is a cooperative effort of the European Space Agency, National Space Agencies and European industry associations for the purpose of developing and maintaining common standards. This European Standard is one of the series of space standards intended to be applied together for the management, engineering and product assurance in space projects and applications. Requirements in this European Standard are defined in terms of what shall be accomplished, rather than in terms of how to organize and perform the necessary work. This allows existing organizational structures and methods to be applied where they are effective, and for the structures and methods to evolve as necessary without rewriting the standards. The formulation of this European Standard takes into account the existing EN ISO 9000 family of documents. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

1) ECSS-E-20-01 SIST EN 14777:2005

EN 14777:2004 (E) 6 Introduction Single carrier multipaction has well-established theoretical and testing procedures, and the heritage from proven components enables to define testing margin values as requirements for European space missions. Applying the single carrier margin to peak in-phase multi-carrier signals is recognized as excessively onerous in many cases, but the present understanding of multipaction for multicarrier signals is not well enough established for a reduced limit to be specified. For this reason, the margins for the multi-carrier case are stated as recommendations, with a view to their evolving to requirements in the longer term. SIST EN 14777:2005

EN 14777:2004 (E) 7 1 Scope This document specifies the requirements and recommendations for the design and test of RF components and equipment to achieve acceptable performance with respect to multipaction-free operation in service in space. The document includes:  verification planning requirements;  definition of a route to conform to the requirements;  design and test margin requirements;  design and test requirements; and  informative annexes that provide guidelines on the design and test processes. This document is intended to result in the effective design and verification of the multipaction performance of the equipment and consequently in a high confidence in achieving successful product operation. This document covers multipaction events occurring in all classes of RF satellite components and equipment at all frequency bands of interest. Operation in single carrier CW and pulse modulated mode are included, as well as multi-carrier operations. This document does not include breakdown processes caused by collisional processes, such as plasma formation. This document is applicable to all space missions. When viewed in a specific project context, the requirements defined in this document should be tailored to match the genuine requirements of a particular profile and circumstances of a project. NOTE Tailoring is a process by which individual requirements of specifications, standards and related documents are evaluated and made applicable to a specific project, by selection and in some exceptional cases, modification of existing or addition of new requirements. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 13701:2001, Space systems — Glossary of terms. EN 14725, Space engineering — Verification. EN ISO 14644–1, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness (ISO 14644-1:1999). ESCC Basic Specification No. 24900, Issue 1, October 2002, Minimum requirements for controlling environmental contamination of components. ESCC Basic Specification No. 20600, Issue 1, February 2003, Preservation, packaging and despatch of ESCC electronic components. SIST EN 14777:2005

EN 14777:2004 (E) 8 3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms 3.1 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 13701:2001 and the following apply. 3.1.1 acceptance margin margin to use for acceptance testing 3.1.2 acceptance stage verification stage with the objective of demonstrating that the product is free of workmanship defects and integration errors and ready for its intended use 3.1.3 analysis uncertainty numerical value of the uncertainty associated with an analysis NOTE In performing analysis, a conservative approach based on pessimistic assumptions is used when assessing threshold powers for the onset of multipaction. 3.1.4 assembly (process) process of mechanical mating of hardware to obtain a low level configuration after the manufacturing process (see also EN 13701) 3.1.5 batch acceptance test test performed on a sample from each batch of flight units to verify that the units conform to the acceptance requirements NOTE For requirements on the sample size, see 8.3.1.a. 3.1.6 design margin theoretically computed margin between the specified power handling of the component and the result of an analysis after the analysis uncertainty has been subtracted NOTE As for the analysis uncertainty, the worst case is used. 3.1.7 development test testing performed during the design and development phase which can supplement the theoretical design activities 3.1.8 gap voltage voltage in the critical gap NOTE The critical gap corresponds to the most critical location in the space RF component where the multipaction can occur. 3.1.9 in-process test testing performed during the manufacture of flight standard equipment SIST EN 14777:2005

EN 14777:2004 (E) 9 NOTE It is carried out with the equipment in an unfinished state or on a part or sub-assembly that cannot be tested fully when later integrated into the equipment. The tests form part of verification. 3.1.10 integration process of physically and functionally combining lower level products to obtain a particular functional configuration NOTE The term product can include hardware, software or both. 3.1.11 measurement uncertainty uncertainty with which the specified power level is applied to the test item 3.1.12 model philosophy definition of the optimum number and characteristics of physical models to achieve a high confidence in the product verification with the shortest planning and a suitable weighing of costs and risks 3.1.13 qualification margin margin between the specified power level and the power level at which a qualification test is performed, taking into account the measurement uncertainty 3.1.14 qualification stage verification stage with the objective to demonstrate that the design conforms to the applicable requirements including proper margins 3.1.15 qualification test testing performed on a single flight standard unit to establish that a suitable margin exists in the design and build standard NOTE Such suitable margin is the qualification margin. 3.1.16 review-of-design verification method using validation of previous records or evidence of validated design documents, when approved design reports, technical descriptions and engineering drawings unambiguously show that the requirement is conformed to 3.1.17 test margin margin demonstrated by test 3.1.18 unit acceptance test testing carried out on each flight standard unit to verify that the unit conforms to the acceptance requirements 3.1.19 verification level product architectural level at which the relevant verification is performed SIST EN 14777:2005

EN 14777:2004 (E) 10 3.2 Abbreviated terms The following abbreviated terms are defined and used within this document: Abbreviation Meaning AC/DC alternating current/direct current BAT batch acceptance test BSE back-scattered electron CFRP carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic CW continuous wave DUT device under test ECSS European Cooperation for Space Standardization EMC electromagnetic compatibility ERS European remote sensing satellite ESCC European Space Components Coordination FM flight model HPA high power amplifier IF intermediate frequency LNA low noise amplifier OMUX output multiplexer PIC particle in cell PID process identification document PIMP passive intermodulation product RF radio frequency SEE secondary electron emission TEM transverse electromagnetic mode TWTA travelling wave tube amplifier UAT unit acceptance test UV ultraviolet VSWR voltage standing wave ratio WG wave guide 4 Verification 4.1 Verification process a) The process of verification of the component with respect to multipaction performance shall demonstrate conformance to the margin requirements defined in 4.6. b) Verification of the component with respect to multipaction shall be performed as part of the overall component verification process specified in EN 14725. NOTE 1 The requirements contained in this document are in line with those of EN 14725, with tailoring specific to multipaction performance verification. SIST EN 14777:2005

EN 14777:2004 (E) 11 c) Such verification shall be adequately planned for each component NOTE 2 It can involve a combination of design analyses, inspections, development testing, in-process testing, qualification testing, batch acceptance testing and unit acceptance testing. 4.2 Verification levels a) Multipaction performance should be verified at the component level. b) If this is not feasible or practicable, then verification may be performed at the subassembly level. 4.3 Verifi

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