Metallic materials - Instrumented indentation test for hardness and materials parameters - Part 2: Verification and calibration of testing machines (ISO 14577-2:2015)

ISO 14577-2:2015 specifies the method of verification and calibration of testing machines for carrying out the instrumented indentation test in accordance with ISO 14577‑1:2015.
It describes a direct verification method for checking the main functions of the testing machine and an indirect verification method suitable for the determination of the repeatability of the testing machine. There is a requirement that the indirect method be used in addition to the direct method and for the periodic routine checking of the testing machine in service.
It is a requirement that the indirect method of verification of the testing machine be carried out independently for each test method.
ISO 14577-2:2015 is also applicable for transportable testing machines.

Metallische Werkstoffe - Instrumentierte Eindringprüfung zur Bestimmung der Härte und anderer Werkstoffparameter - Teil 2: Überprüfung und Kalibrierung der Prüfmaschinen (ISO 14577-2:2015)

Dieser Teil von ISO 14577 legt das Verfahren zur Prüfung und Kalibrierung von Prüfmaschinen für die instrumentierte Eindringprüfung entsprechend ISO/DIS 14577-1:2012 fest.
Er beschreibt ein direktes Prüfverfahren zur Überprüfung der Hauptfunktionen der Prüfmaschine und ein indirektes Prüfverfahren, das zur Bestimmung der Wiederholpräzision der Prüfmaschine geeignet ist. Es gibt eine Anforderung, dass das indirekte Verfahren zusätzliche zum direkten Verfahren sowie für regelmäßige Routineüberprüfungen der Prüfmaschine im Betrieb anzuwenden ist.
Es ist eine Anforderung, dass die indirekte Prüfung der Prüfmaschine für jedes Verfahren separat durchgeführt werden muss.
Dieser Teil von ISO 14577 ist auch bei tragbaren Prüfmaschinen anwendbar.

Matériaux métalliques - Essai de pénétration instrumenté pour la détermination de la dureté et de paramètres des matériaux - Partie 2: Vérification et étalonnage des machines d'essai (ISO 14577-2:2015)

L'ISO 14577-2:2015 spécifie la méthode de vérification et d'étalonnage des machines d'essai destinées à la réalisation de l'essai de pénétration instrumenté conformément à l'ISO 14577‑1:2015.
Elle décrit une méthode de vérification directe pour contrôler les fonctions principales de la machine d'essai et une méthode de vérification indirecte appropriée pour la détermination de la répétabilité de la machine d'essai. Il est exigé que la méthode indirecte soit utilisée en sus de la méthode directe et pour le contrôle de routine périodique de la machine d'essai en service.
Il est exigé que la méthode indirecte de vérification de la machine d'essai soit réalisée de façon indépendante pour chaque méthode d'essai.
L'ISO 14577-2:2015 est également applicable aux machines d'essai transportables.

Kovinski materiali - Instrumentirano vtiskanje pri preskušanju trdote in drugih lastnosti materialov - 2. del: Overjanje in kalibriranje preskuševalnih strojev (ISO 14577-2:2015)

Ta del standarda ISO 14577 določa metodo za overjanje in kalibriranje preskuševalnih strojev za
izvajanje preskušanja z instrumentiranim vtiskanjem v skladu s standardom ISO 14577-1:2015.
Opisuje neposredno metodo overjanja za preverjanje glavnih funkcij preskuševalnih strojev in posredno metodo overjanja, primerno za ugotavljanje ponovljivosti za preskuševalni stroj. Vključena je zahteva, da se mora posredna metoda uporabiti poleg neposredne metode ter da je treba redno izvajati rutinska preverjanja preskuševalnega stroja, ki se uporablja.
Zahteva se, da se posredna metoda overjanja preskuševalnega stroja opravi neodvisno za vsako preskusno metodo. Ta del standarda ISO 14577 se uporablja tudi za premične preskuševalne stroje.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Jul-2015
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
29-Jul-2015
Completion Date
29-Jul-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
01-oktober-2015
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2004
Kovinski materiali - Instrumentirano vtiskanje pri preskušanju trdote in drugih

lastnosti materialov - 2. del: Overjanje in kalibriranje preskuševalnih strojev (ISO

14577-2:2015)

Metallic materials - Instrumented indentation test for hardness and materials parameters

- Part 2: Verification and calibration of testing machines (ISO 14577-2:2015)

Metallische Werkstoffe - Instrumentierte Eindringprüfung zur Bestimmung der Härte und

anderer Werkstoffparameter - Teil 2: Prüfung und Kalibrierung der Prüfmaschinen (ISO

14577-2:2015)

Matériaux métalliques - Essai de pénétration instrumenté pour la détermination de la

dureté et de paramètres des matériaux - Partie 2: Vérification et étalonnage des
machines d'essai (ISO 14577-2:2015)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14577-2:2015
ICS:
77.040.10 Mehansko preskušanje kovin Mechanical testing of metals
SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 14577-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2015
ICS 77.040.10 Supersedes EN ISO 14577-2:2002
English Version
Metallic materials - Instrumented indentation test for hardness
and materials parameters - Part 2: Verification and calibration of
testing machines (ISO 14577-2:2015)

Matériaux métalliques - Essai de pénétration instrumenté Metallische Werkstoffe - Instrumentierte Eindringprüfung

pour la détermination de la dureté et de paramètres des zur Bestimmung der Härte und anderer Werkstoffparameter

matériaux - Partie 2: Vérification et étalonnage des - Teil 2: Überprüfung und Kalibrierung der Prüfmaschinen

machines d'essai (ISO 14577-2:2015) (ISO 14577-2:2015)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 16 April 2015.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14577-2:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
EN ISO 14577-2:2015 (E)
Contents
Page

European foreword .............................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
EN ISO 14577-2:2015 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 14577-2:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 164 “Mechanical

testing of metals” in collaboration with Technical Committee ECISS/TC 101 “Test methods for steel (other

than chemical analysis)” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2016, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by January 2016.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 14577-2:2002.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14577-2:2015 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14577-2:2015 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14577-2
Second edition
2015-07-15
Metallic materials — Instrumented
indentation test for hardness and
materials parameters —
Part 2:
Verification and calibration of
testing machines
Matériaux métalliques — Essai de pénétration instrumenté pour la
détermination de la dureté et de paramètres des matériaux —
Partie 2: Vérification et étalonnage des machines d’essai
Reference number
ISO 14577-2:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
ISO 14577-2:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
ISO 14577-2:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 General conditions ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.1 Preparation ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Functional installation ......... ............................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.3 Indenter ......... ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.4 Application of the test force ......................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Direct verification and calibration .................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Calibration of the test force .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Calibration of the displacement measuring device ................................................................................................. 3

4.4 Verification and calibration of the machine compliance .................................................................................... 4

4.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Calibration and verification of the indenter .................................................................................................................. 5

4.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.2 Vickers indenter ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.3 Berkovich, modified Berkovich, and corner cube indenters ...................................................... 7

4.5.4 Hard metal ball indenters ........................................................................................................................................ 8

4.5.5 Spherical tipped conical indenters ................................................................................................................... 9

4.6 Verification of the indenter area function ....................................................................................................................10

4.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.6.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................10

4.7 Verification of the testing cycle ..............................................................................................................................................10

5 Indirect verification .......................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6 Intervals between calibrations and verifications ...........................................................................................................14

6.1 Direct verification and calibration ......................................................................................................................................14

6.2 Indirect verification .........................................................................................................................................................................15

6.3 Routine checking ................................................................................................................................................................................15

7 Verification report/Calibration certificate ............................................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Example of an indenter holder ..................................................................................................................16

Annex B (normative) Procedures for determination of indenter area function .................................................17

Annex C (informative) Examples for the documentation of the results of indirect verification .........19

Annex D (normative) Machine compliance calibration procedure ...................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
ISO 14577-2:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 164, Mechanical testing of metals, Subcommittee

SC 3, Hardness testing.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14577-2:2002), which has been

technically revised.

ISO 14577 consists of the following parts, under the general title Metallic materials — Instrumented

indentation test for hardness and materials parameters:
— Part 1: Test method
— Part 2: Verification and calibration of testing machines
— Part 3: Calibration of reference blocks
— Part 4: Test method for metallic and non-metallic coatings
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
ISO 14577-2:2015(E)
Introduction

Hardness has typically been defined as the resistance of a material to permanent penetration by

another harder material. The results obtained when performing Rockwell, Vickers, and Brinell tests are

determined after the test force has been removed. Therefore, the effect of elastic deformation under the

indenter has been ignored.

ISO 14577 (all parts) has been prepared to enable the user to evaluate the indentation of materials by

considering both the force and displacement during plastic and elastic deformation. By monitoring the

complete cycle of increasing and removal of the test force, hardness values equivalent to traditional

hardness values can be determined. More significantly, additional properties of the material, such as

its indentation modulus and elasto-plastic hardness, can also be determined. All these values can be

calculated without the need to measure the indent optically. Furthermore, by a variety of techniques, the

instrumented indentation test allows to record hardness and modulus depth profiles within a, probably

complex, indentation cycle.

ISO 14577 (all parts) has been written to allow a wide variety of post test data analysis.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14577-2:2015(E)
Metallic materials — Instrumented indentation test for
hardness and materials parameters —
Part 2:
Verification and calibration of testing machines
1 Scope

This part of ISO 14577 specifies the method of verification and calibration of testing machines for

carrying out the instrumented indentation test in accordance with ISO 14577-1:2015.

It describes a direct verification method for checking the main functions of the testing machine and an

indirect verification method suitable for the determination of the repeatability of the testing machine.

There is a requirement that the indirect method be used in addition to the direct method and for the

periodic routine checking of the testing machine in service.

It is a requirement that the indirect method of verification of the testing machine be carried out

independently for each test method.
This part of ISO 14577 is also applicable for transportable testing machines.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 376, Metallic materials — Calibration of force-proving instruments used for the verification of uniaxial

testing machines
ISO 3878, Hardmetals — Vickers hardness test

ISO 14577-1:2015, Metallic materials — Instrumented indentation test for hardness and materials

parameters — Part 1: Test method

ISO 14577-3, Metallic materials — Instrumented indentation test for hardness and materials parameters —

Part 3: Calibration of reference blocks
3 General conditions
3.1 Preparation
The machine shall be designed in such a way that it can be verified.

Before verification and calibration of the testing machine, it shall be checked to ensure that the conditions

laid down in 3.2 to 3.4 are met.
3.2 Functional installation

The testing machine shall be configured to operate in compliance with and shall be installed in an

environment that meets the requirements of this part of ISO 14577, ISO 14577-1:2015, and, where

applicable, ISO 14577-3. The testing machine shall be protected from vibrations. For testing in the

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
ISO 14577-2:2015(E)

micro and nano ranges, the testing machine shall also be protected from air currents and temperature

fluctuations.

The influence of environment on the data, i.e. the noise floor, shall be estimated by performing a low force

(e.g. equivalent to the usual initial contact force) indentation on a CRM and analysing the displacement

over time. The force variability is the indent stiffness (obtained from force removal curve) multiplied

by the standard deviation of the displacement once any background drift in mean displacement has

been subtracted. These uncertainties shall then be included in the total combined uncertainty tests as

calculated in ISO 14577-1:2015, Clause 8 and Annex H.
3.3 Indenter

In order to get repeatable measurements of the force/indentation depth data set, the indenter holder

shall be firmly mounted into the testing machine.

The indenter holder should be designed in such a way that the contribution to the overall compliance is

minimized (see Annex A).
3.4 Application of the test force

The test force shall be applied and removed without shock or vibration that can significantly affect the

test results. It shall be possible to verify the process of increasing, holding, and removal of the test force.

4 Direct verification and calibration
4.1 General

4.1.1 Direct verification and calibration shall be carried out at the constant temperature of use, typically

10 °C to 35 °C, but preferably in the range (23 ± 5) °C. If a range of operating temperatures is required, then

direct calibration and verification should be carried out at suitable points over that temperature range

to determine the calibration validity as a function of temperature. If necessary, a calibration correction

function or a set of calibrations valid at specific operating temperatures can be determined.

4.1.2 The instruments used for direct calibration and verification shall be traceable to National

Standards as far as available.
4.1.3 Direct verification and calibration involves
a) calibration of the test force,
b) calibration of the displacement measuring device,
c) verification and calibration of the machine compliance,
d) verification of the indenter,

e) calibration and verification of the indenter area function, if the indentation depth is less than 6 µm, and

f) verification of the test cycle.
4.2 Calibration of the test force

4.2.1 Each range of force used shall be calibrated over the whole force range for both application and

removal of the test force. A minimum of 16 evenly distributed points in the test force range shall be

calibrated, i.e. 16 during application and 16 during removal of the test force. The procedure shall be

repeated at least three times and the average calibration value shall be used. The maximum difference in

calibration values shall not exceed half of the tolerances given in Table 1.
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
ISO 14577-2:2015(E)

4.2.2 The test force shall be measured by a traceable method, for example, the following:

a) measuring by means of an elastic proving-device in accordance with class 1, or better of, ISO 376;

b) balancing against a force, accurate to within ±0,2 % applied by means of calibrated masses with

mechanical advantage;

c) electronic balance with a suitable accuracy of 0,1 % of the minimum calibrated test force or 10 µg

(0,1 µN) for the nano range.

For each measured point used for calibration, the difference between the measured and the nominal test

force shall be within the tolerances given in Table 1.
Table 1 — Tolerances for test forces
Range of the test force
Tolerances
F ≥ 2 ±1,0
0,001 ≤ F < 2 ±1,0
F < 0,001 ±2,5
For the nano range, a tolerance of ±1 % is strongly recommended.
4.3 Calibration of the displacement measuring device

4.3.1 The resolution required of the displacement measuring system depends on the size of the smallest

indentation depth being measured. For the micro range, this value is by definition h = 0,2 µm; for the

macro range it is typically ≥2 µm.

The scale of the displacement measuring device shall be graduated to permit a resolution of indentation

depth measurement in accordance with Table 2.

4.3.2 The displacement measuring device shall be calibrated on the testing machine for every range

used by means of a suitable method and a corresponding system. The device shall be calibrated at a

minimum of 16 points in each direction evenly distributed throughout its travel. The procedure shall be

repeated three times.

The following methods are recommended for the measurement of the relative displacement of the

indenter: laser interference method, inductive method, capacitive method, and piezotranslator method.

For each measured point used for calibration, the difference between the measured and the nominal

displacement shall be within the tolerances given in Table 2.
Table 2 — Resolution and tolerances of the displacement measuring device
Resolution of the displacement
Range of application measuring device Tolerances
Macro ≤100 1 % of h
Micro ≤10 1 % of h
Nano ≤1 2 nm

For the nano range, a tolerance of <1 % of h (indentation depth) is strongly recommended.

4.3.3 Changes in temperature are commonly a dominant source of displacement drift. To minimize

thermally induced displacement drift, the temperature of the instrument shall be maintained such that the

displacement drift rate remains constant over the time period of one calibration cycle. The drift rate shall

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 14577-2:2015
ISO 14577-2:2015(E)

be measured during, immediately before, or immediately after each calibration cycle, e.g. by monitoring

displacement during a suitable hold period. The displacement calibration data shall be corrected for

thermal drift and the product of variation in drift rate and the duration of one calibration cycle shall be

less than the tolerance given in Table 2. The drift rate uncertainty shall be included in the displacement

calibration uncertainty calculation.
4.4 Verification and calibration of the machine compliance
4.4.1 General
See Annex D and ISO 14577-1:2015, Annex C.

This verification and calibration shall be carried out after the test force and the displacement measuring

system have been calibrated in accordance with 4.2 and 4.3.
4.4.2 Procedure

The calibration and verification of machine compliance is carried out by the measurement of indentation

modulus at a minimum of five different test forces. Method 3 as described in Annex D is recommended.

In all cases, a suitable Certified Reference Material (CRM) shall be mounted into the instrumented

indentation test system in the same way as future test samples will be mounted. This is to ensure that

the CRM provides a faithful reproduction of each particular total machine compliance.

The compliance of the testing machine can be affected by the particular construction and mounting of an

indenter and also the method used to mount a sample. For instance, mounting in plastics (e.g. PVC) can

introduce an extra compliance into the measurement loop. The verification and calibration of machine

compliance should be performed using the indenter that will be used for subsequent measurements.

For indentation depths, h > 6 µm, it is not necessary to take into account the real contact area function.

For the verification and calibration of the machine compliance, a reference material with certified

indentation modulus, independent from the indentation depth, shall be used. A material with a high

ratio of EH/ (such as tungsten) is recommended. The range for the test force is defined by the

IT IT

minimum test force that correlates to 6 µm indentation depth and the maximum possible test force of

the testing machine. Large indentation depths have the advantage that errors in the area function are

likely to be smaller; however, care shall be taken that the test is not biased by pile-up in the reference

material. The measured compliance of the indentation shall then be compared with the calculated

compliance for the indentation using the certified value of modulus. To recalibrate machine compliance,

the product of the applied force and the detected difference in machine compliance is applied to the

displacement data to refine the estimate of contact depth and, therefore, the machine compliance

estimate at each force. This process is iterated until self-consistent values of machine compliance and

contact depth are reached.

For indentation depths, <6 µm, the method above shall be applied, except that the actual area of contact,

as calculated from the calibrated indenter area function, shall be used to calculate the contact compliance

using the certified modulus of the CRM.

In many nano and micro range instruments, the machine compliance value is independent of force.

However, if this is not the case, then a machine compliance function can be determined using the above

procedure but a wider range of forces. The range for the test forces is defined by the indentation depths,

>0,5 µm, and the maximum test force of the testing machine or the maximum test force for which no

...

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