Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 303: Requirements for electronic visual displays (ISO 9241-303:2011)

ISO 9241-303:2011 establishes image-quality requirements, as well as providing guidelines, for electronic visual displays. These are given in the form of generic (independent of technology, task and environment) performance specifications and recommendations that will ensure effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users with normal or adjusted-to-normal eyesight.

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 303: Anforderungen an elektronische optische Anzeigen (ISO 9241-303:2011)

Dieser Teil von ISO 9241 legt Anforderungen an die Bildqualität von elektronischen optischen Anzeigen fest und enthält entsprechende Leitlinien. Diese sind als generelle, von Technologie, Aufgaben und Umgebung unabhängige Leistungsspezifikationen und Empfehlungen festgelegt, um effektive und komfortable Seh-bedingungen für Anwender mit normaler oder auf normal korrigierter Sehschärfe sicherzustellen.
Dieser Teil von ISO 9241 betrifft nicht die Verfügbarkeit für Menschen mit Behinderungen. Sie berücksichtigt aber Aspekte der Sehschärfe älterer Menschen und kann für Menschen von Bedeutung sein, die sich mit Fragen der Sehbehinderung in bestimmten Fällen beschäftigen; die Spezifikation wesentlicher Merkmale der Normalsicht kann zur Beurteilung der Schwere verschiedener Sehanomalien verwendet werden, um geeig¬nete Lösungen aufzuzeigen.
ANMERKUNG   Darüber hinaus enthalten die Literaturhinweise im Anhang F eine Auswahl einschlägiger Dokumente, die sich mit den Bedürfnissen von Menschen mit Behinderungen einschließlich derjenigen beschäftigen, die ein geringes, sich verschlechterndes oder kein Sehvermögen haben.

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 303: Exigences relatives aux écrans de visualisation électroniques (ISO 9241-303:2011)

L'ISO 9241-303:2011 établit des exigences de qualité d'image, et donne des lignes directrices, pour les écrans de visualisation électroniques. Ces exigences et lignes directrices sont génériques (elles sont indépendantes de la technologie, de la tâche et de l'environnement). Elles sont énoncées sous forme de spécifications et de recommandations de performance pour garantir des conditions de visualisation efficaces et confortables aux utilisateurs disposant d'une vision normale ou ajustée de manière à être normale.

Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 303. del: Zahteve za elektronske slikovne zaslone (ISO 9241-303:2011)

Ta del standarda ISO 9241 določa zahteve v zvezi s kakovostjo slike ter smernice za elektronske slikovne zaslone. Podane so v obliki generičnih priporočil in specifikacij lastnosti, neodvisnih od tehnologije, naloge in okolja, ki zagotavljajo učinkovite in udobne pogoje gledanja za uporabnike z normalnim vidom ali vidom, prilagojenim normalnemu. Ta del standarda ISO 9241 ne obravnava dostopnosti za invalide. Vendar pa upošteva vidike v zvezi z vidom starejših ljudi in je lahko v nekaterih primerih koristen za ljudi, ki se ukvarjajo s prizadetostjo vida: specifikacija osnovnih značilnosti za običajno gledanje se lahko uporablja za merjenje resnosti različnih anomalij v zvezi z vidom za prepoznavanje ustreznih rešitev.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Nov-2011
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
15-Nov-2011
Completion Date
15-Nov-2011

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
01-marec-2012
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2009
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VOLNRYQH]DVORQH ,62

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 303: Requirements for electronic visual

displays (ISO 9241-303:2011)

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 303: Anforderungen an elektronische

optische Anzeigen (ISO 9241-303:2011)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 303: Exigences relatives aux écrans

de visualisation électroniques (ISO 9241-303:2011)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 9241-303:2011
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
35.180 Terminalska in druga IT Terminal and other
periferna oprema IT peripheral equipment
SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 9241-303
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2011
ICS 13.180; 35.180 Supersedes EN ISO 9241-303:2008
English Version
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 303:
Requirements for electronic visual displays (ISO 9241-303:2011)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 303: Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 303:

Exigences relatives aux écrans de visualisation Anforderungen an elektronische optische Anzeigen (ISO

électroniques (ISO 9241-303:2011) 9241-303:2011)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 November 2011.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 9241-303:2011: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
EN ISO 9241-303:2011 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
EN ISO 9241-303:2011 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 9241-303:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159

"Ergonomics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of which is

held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the

latest by May 2012.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 9241-303:2008.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 9241-303:2011 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 9241-303:2011 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9241-303
Second edition
2011-11-15
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 303:
Requirements for electronic visual
displays
Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système —
Partie 303: Exigences relatives aux écrans de visualisation
électroniques
Reference number
ISO 9241-303:2011(E)
ISO 2011
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
ISO 9241-303:2011(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2011

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
ISO 9241-303:2011(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... viii

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

4  Guiding principles ................................................................................................................................. 1

5  Ergonomic requirements and recommendations .............................................................................. 2

5.1  Viewing conditions ................................................................................................................................ 2

5.1.1  General ................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1.2  Design viewing distance ....................................................................................................................... 2

5.1.3  Design viewing direction ...................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.4  Gaze and head tilt angles ..................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.5  Displays for virtual images ................................................................................................................... 4

5.2  Luminance .............................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.1  General ................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.2  Illuminance ............................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.3  Display luminance ................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.4  Luminance balance and glare .............................................................................................................. 5

5.2.5  Luminance adjustment ......................................................................................................................... 5

5.3  Special physical environments ............................................................................................................ 5

5.3.1  General ................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.2  Vibration ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.3.3  Wind and rain ......................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.4  Excessive temperatures ....................................................................................................................... 6

5.4  Visual artefacts ...................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4.1  General ................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4.2  Luminance non-uniformity ................................................................................................................... 6

5.4.3  Colour non-uniformity ........................................................................................................................... 6

5.4.4  Contrast uniformity ............................................................................................................................... 7

5.4.5  Geometric distortions ........................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.6  Screen and faceplate defects ............................................................................................................... 8

5.4.7  Temporal instability (flicker) ................................................................................................................ 8

5.4.8  Spatial instability (jitter) ........................................................................................................................ 9

5.4.9  Moiré effects .......................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4.10  Other instabilities ................................................................................................................................ 10

5.4.11  Unwanted reflections .......................................................................................................................... 10

5.4.12  Unintended depths effects ................................................................................................................. 10

5.5  Legibility and readability .................................................................................................................... 11

5.5.1  General ................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.5.2  Luminance contrast ............................................................................................................................ 11

5.5.3  Image polarity ...................................................................................................................................... 11

5.5.4  Character height .................................................................................................................................. 11

5.5.5  Text size constancy ............................................................................................................................. 12

5.5.6  Character stroke width ........................................................................................................................ 13

5.5.7  Character width-to-height ratio .......................................................................................................... 13

5.5.8  Character format .................................................................................................................................. 13

5.5.9  Between-character spacing ................................................................................................................ 13

5.5.10  Between-word spacing ....................................................................................................................... 13

5.5.11  Between-line spacing .......................................................................................................................... 13

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
ISO 9241-303:2011(E)

5.6  Legibility of information coding .........................................................................................................14

5.6.1  General ..................................................................................................................................................14

5.6.2  Luminance coding ...............................................................................................................................14

5.6.3  Blink coding .........................................................................................................................................14

5.6.4  Colour coding .......................................................................................................................................14

5.6.5  Geometrical coding .............................................................................................................................14

5.7  Legibility of graphics ...........................................................................................................................14

5.7.1  General ..................................................................................................................................................14

5.7.2  Monochrome and multicolour object size .........................................................................................14

5.7.3  Contrast for object legibility ...............................................................................................................15

5.7.4  Colour considerations for graphics ...................................................................................................15

5.7.5  Background and surrounding image effects ....................................................................................16

5.7.6  Number of colours ...............................................................................................................................16

5.8  Fidelity ..................................................................................................................................................17

5.8.1  General ..................................................................................................................................................17

5.8.2  Colour gamut and reference white .....................................................................................................17

5.8.3  Gamma and grey scale ........................................................................................................................17

5.8.4  Rendering of moving images .............................................................................................................18

5.8.5  Image formation time (IFT) ..................................................................................................................19

5.8.6  Spatial resolution .................................................................................................................................19

5.8.7  Raster modulation or fill factor ..........................................................................................................19

5.8.8  Pixel density .........................................................................................................................................20

6  Conformance ........................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Overview of the ISO 9241 series ................................................................................21

Annex B (informative) Attractivity, or subject visual quality ........................................................................22

Annex C (informative) Usability aspects of installation ................................................................................23

Annex D (normative) Basic concepts of visual perception for contrast and luminance of

electronic displays ..............................................................................................................................25

Annex E (informative) Virtual display — Performance objectives ...............................................................33

Annex F (informative) Electronic visual display accessibility — Selected bibliography ...........................40

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................42

iv © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
ISO 9241-303:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 9241-303 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human-system interaction.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 9241-303:2008), of which it constitutes a minor

revision. Together with ISO 9241-302 and ISO 9241-305, ISO 9241-303:2008 cancelled and replaced

ISO 9241-8, and together with ISO 9241-302, ISO 9241-305 and ISO 9241-307, it cancelled and replaced

ISO 9241-7 and ISO 13406-2, and partially replaced ISO 9241-3:

 terms and definitions related to electronic visual displays were transferred to, and collected in,

ISO 9241-302;

 while the areas previously covered in ISO 9241 and by ISO 13406 remained essentially unchanged, test

methods and requirements were updated to account for advances in science and technology;

 all generic ergonomic requirements were incorporated into ISO 9241-303;

 the application of those requirements to different display technologies, application areas and

environmental conditions — including test methods and pass/fail criteria — is specified in ISO 9241-307.

ISO 9241 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomic requirements for office work with

visual display terminals (VDTs):
 Part 1: General introduction
 Part 2: Guidance on task requirements
 Part 4: Keyboard requirements
 Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements
 Part 6: Guidance on the work environment
 Part 9: Requirements for non-keyboard input devices
 Part 11: Guidance on usability
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
ISO 9241-303:2011(E)
 Part 12: Presentation of information
 Part 13: User guidance
 Part 14: Menu dialogues
 Part 15: Command dialogues
 Part 16: Direct manipulation dialogues
 Part 17: Form filling dialogues

ISO 9241 also consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomics of human-system interaction:

 Part 20: Accessibility guidelines for information/communication technology (ICT) equipment and services

 Part 100: Introduction to standards related to software ergonomics [Technical Report]

 Part 110: Dialogue principles
 Part 129: Guidance on software individualization
 Part 143: Forms
 Part 151: Guidance on World Wide Web user interfaces
 Part 171: Guidance on software accessibility
 Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems
 Part 300: Introduction to electronic visual display requirements
 Part 302: Terminology for electronic visual displays
 Part 303: Requirements for electronic visual displays
 Part 304: User performance test methods for electronic visual displays
 Part 305: Optical laboratory test methods for electronic visual displays
 Part 306: Field assessment methods for electronic visual displays
 Part 307: Analysis and compliance test methods for electronic visual displays

 Part 308: Surface-conduction electron-emitter displays (SED) [Technical Report]

 Part 309: Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays [Technical Report]

 Part 310: Visibility, aesthetics and ergonomics of pixel defects [Technical Report]

 Part 400: Principles and requirements for physical input devices
 Part 410: Design criteria for physical input devices

 Part 411: Evaluation methods for the design of physical input devices [Technical Specifiction]

 Part 420: Selection of physical input devices
vi © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
ISO 9241-303:2011(E)
 Part 910: Framework for tactile and haptic interaction
 Part 920: Guidance on tactile and haptic interactions
The following parts are under preparation:
 Part 154: Interactive voice response (IVR) applications

Human-centred design and evaluation methods, optical characteristics of autostereoscopic displays, and

requirements, analysis and compliance test methods for the reduction of photosensitive seizures are to form

the subjects of future parts 230, 331 and 391.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
ISO 9241-303:2011(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 9241 addresses a large range of technologies, tasks and environments.

ISO 9241 was originally developed as a seventeen-part International Standard on the ergonomics

requirements for office work with visual display terminals. As part of the standards review process, a major

restructuring of ISO 9241 was agreed to broaden its scope, to incorporate other relevant standards and to

make it more usable. The general title of the revised ISO 9241, “Ergonomics of human-system interaction”,

reflects these changes and aligns the standard with the overall title and scope of Technical Committee

ISO/TC 159, Subcommittee SC 4. The revised multipart standard is structured as series of standards

numbered in the “hundreds”: the 100 series deals with software interfaces, the 200 series with human-centred

design, the 300 series with visual displays, the 400 series with physical input devices, and so on.

See Annex A for an overview of the entire ISO 9241 series.
viii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 9241-303:2011(E)
Ergonomics of human-system interaction —
Part 303:
Requirements for electronic visual displays
1 Scope

This part of ISO 9241 establishes image-quality requirements, as well as providing guidelines, for electronic

visual displays. These are given in the form of generic — independent of technology, task and environment —

performance specifications and recommendations that will ensure effective and comfortable viewing

conditions for users with normal or adjusted-to-normal eyesight.

This part of ISO 9241 does not address issues of accessibility for people with disabilities. However, it does

take into account aspects of the eyesight of older people and could be of value to people dealing with issues

of visual impairment in certain cases: the specification of essential characteristics for normal viewing can be

used to gauge the severity of different visual abnormalities so that appropriate solutions can be identified.

NOTE In addition to the Bibliography, Annex F gives a selected bibliography of documents addressing the needs of

people with disabilities, including people with poor, deteriorating or no eyesight.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9241-302, Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 302: Terminology for electronic visual

displays

ISO 9241-307, Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 307: Analysis and compliance test methods

for electronic visual displays
3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 9241-302 apply.

4 Guiding principles

For a satisfying human–display interaction, a number of different requirements have to be met at the same

time in an appropriate balance. For the purposes of this part of ISO 9241, these requirements have been

grouped into the following eight major areas:
 viewing conditions;
 luminance;
 special physical environments;
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 9241-303:2012
ISO 9241-303:2011(E)
 visual artefacts;
 legibility and readability;
 legibility of information coding;
 legibility of graphics;
 fidelity.
NOTE For the attractivity of the image on the visual display, see Annex B.
5 Ergonomic requirements and recommendations
5.1 Viewing conditions
5.1.1 General

Many tasks require that the information presented on an electronic visual display be acted upon. Viewing the

display such that this information can be taken up quickly, without error and with little effort, is thus highly

important. A number of viewing conditions that are necessary, though not sufficient of themselves, can be

specified for achieving fast, error-free and near-effortless viewing. These pertain to the design viewing

distance and direction and to the needed gaze and head tilt angles of the viewer.

It is known that viewing distance and line-of-sight angle (gaze angle) need to be compatible with the user's

vergence and accommodation capability and his or her capability to focus on short distances.

5.1.2 Design viewing distance

The design viewing distance is dependent on the task and on the electronic visual display and shall not be

less than 300 mm, being the typical minimum comfortable viewing distance, or near point, for normal

(emmetropic) eyes of adults. There is a physiologically determined relationship between the near point and

the age of the user, shown in Figure 1, and between the near point and the luminance level; however, there is

a large variance in this relation.

Shorter viewing distances, of between 200 mm and 300 mm, can be observed in children and (very) young

adults, enabling them to see details (e.g. parts of characters) smaller than those that they could see at greater

distances, provided that aspects such as display luminance, contrast and the sharpness are high enough.

However, most adults as well as older people position their displays at a larger viewing distance, typically

300 mm and more.

For larger visual displays, such as those used in office tasks, the preferred viewing distance is longer —

typically 400 mm to 750 mm. At this distance, the accommodative strain to the eyes is less than at shorter

viewing distances; moreover, there is larger freedom of movement at larger viewing distances. For

presentation tasks or projection, the preferred viewi
...

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