Solid recovered fuels - Determination of particle size distribution - Part 3: Method by image analysis for large dimension particles

This European Standard specifies the determination of particle size distribution of solid recovered fuels using an image analysis method. It applies to both agglomerated and non-agglomerated solid, recovered, fuel pieces exhibiting an irregular shape, such as shredded end-of-life tyres and demolition woods. It provides the determination of the maximum projected length as well as parameters such as equivalent diameter. It also gives a characterisation of the filaments protruding from the SRF pieces.

Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Bestimmung der Partikelgrößenverteilung - Teil 3: Bildanalysenverfahren für große Partikel

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Bestimmung der Größenverteilung von festen Sekundärbrennstoffen mit einem Bildanalysenverfahren fest. Sie gilt sowohl für Stücke von agglomerierten als auch nicht agglomerierten festen Sekundärbrennstoffen, die eine unregelmäßige Form aufweisen, wie z. B. geschredderte Altreifen und Abbruchholz. Es ist anwendbar für die Bestimmung der größten projizierten Länge sowie von Parametern, wie z. B. des Äquivalentdurchmessers. Weiterhin ist es zur Charakterisierung der Drähte, die aus den SRF-Stücken herausstehen, anwendbar.

Combustibles solides de récupération - Détermination de la distribution granulométrique - Partie 3: Méthode par analyse d'images des particules de grande dimension

La présente Norme européenne spécifie la détermination de la distribution granulométrique de combustibles
solides de récupération par l’utilisation d’une méthode par analyse d’images. Elle s’applique aux fragments de
combustibles solides de récupération agglomérés et non agglomérés de forme irrégulière, comme les
pneumatiques non réutilisables ou le bois de démolition, broyés. Elle fournit une méthode de détermination par
projection de la longueur maximale, ainsi que des paramètres comme le diamètre équivalent. Elle décrit également
la caractérisation des barbules dépassant des fragments de CSR.

Trdna alternativna goriva - Ugotavljanje porazdelitve velikosti delcev - 3. del: Metoda z analizo slike za velike delce

Ta evropski standard določa ugotavljanje porazdelitve velikosti delcev v trdnih alternativnih gorivih z metodo z analizo slike. Uporablja se za aglomerirane in neaglomerirane delce trdnih alternativnih goriv nepravilne oblike, kot so razrezane izrabljene pnevmatike in odpadni gradbeni les. Omogoča ugotavljanje največje projicirane dolžine in zagotavlja parametre, kot je ekvivalentni premer. Prav tako podaja opis lastnosti vlaken iz delcev trdnih alternativnih goriv.

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Publication Date
10-Apr-2012
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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Trdna alternativna goriva - Ugotavljanje porazdelitve velikosti delcev - 3. del: Metoda z analizo slike za velike delceFeste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Bestimmung der Partikelgrößenverteilung - Teil 3: Bildanalysenverfahren für große PartikelCombustibles solides de récupération - Détermination de la distribution granulométrique - Partie 3: Méthode par analyse d'images pour des particules de grande dimensionSolid recovered fuels - Determination of particle size distribution - Part 3: Method by image analysis for large dimension particles75.160.10Trda gorivaSolid fuelsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 15415-3:2012SIST EN 15415-3:2012en,fr,de01-junij-2012SIST EN 15415-3:2012SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST-TS CEN/TS 15415:20071DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 15415-3:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 15415-3
April 2012 ICS 75.160.10 English Version

Solid recovered fuels - Determination of particle size distribution - Part 3: Method by image analysis for large dimension particles Combustibles solides de récupération - Détermination de la distribution granulométrique - Partie 3: Méthode par analyse d'images des particules de grande dimension

Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Bestimmung der Partikelgrößenverteilung - Teil 3: Bildanalysenverfahren für große Partikel This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 March 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 15415-3:2012: ESIST EN 15415-3:2012

EN 15415-3:2012 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................41 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................42 Normative references ............................................................................................................................43 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................54 List of symbols and abbreviations .......................................................................................................65 Principle ..................................................................................................................................................65.1 Principles of sampling ..........................................................................................................................65.2 Principle of determining the dimension(s) ..........................................................................................75.3 Principle of filaments characterisation ...............................................................................................86 Apparatus ...............................................................................................................................................87 Procedure ...............................................................................................................................................87.1 Preparation of the sampling plan .........................................................................................................87.2 Procedure for taking the field sample and producing the laboratory sample(s) ............................97.3 Procedure for quantification of maximum projected length and characterisation of filaments .............................................................................................................................................. 108 Precision .............................................................................................................................................. 119 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 11Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 13 SIST EN 15415-3:2012

EN 15415-3:2012 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 15415-3:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 343 “Solid recovered fuels”, the secretariat of which is held by SFS. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by October 2012.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. EN 15415, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of particle size distribution, consists of the following parts:  Part 1: Screen method for small dimension particles  Part 2: Maximum projected length method (manual) for large dimension particles  Part 3: Method by image analysis for large dimension particles According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

SIST EN 15415-3:2012

EN 15415-3:2012 (E) 4 Introduction This document is dedicated to outlining an optical method for characterizing the size of pieces of solid recovered fuel (SRF) that exhibit an irregular shape and are generally large in size. Typical examples are shredded end-of-life tyres or demolition woods.

When such products reach the end-of-life stage, they continue to exhibit the very strong mechanical properties for which they were designed and fabricated. For instance, tyres are designed and fabricated to withstand cutting. Therefore, it is wise to minimise shredding when producing SRF from these end-of-life products. This results in a general in production of SRF pieces exhibiting an irregular shape and large size.

These SRF cannot be characterised using the sieving method specified in EN 15415-1 which utilises well-known distribution curves and a series of test sieves. Consequently, the method specified in this document is an optical method based on the determination of the maximum projected length and accompanied by an appropriate statistical evaluation. This maximum projected length approach is needed for sake of testing; but it is mainly needed to facilitate the use of these solid recovered fuels. Safe transportation (e.g. with conveyer) and introduction into the combustion zone are dependent on the design and operations adapted to such maximum length. In this document, the maximum projected length determination is complemented with a characterisation of the filaments protruding from the SRF pieces (see 3.1). This document is based on CEN/TS 14243, AFNOR XP T47-753, AFNOR XP T47-756, AFNOR XP T47-757, AFNOR NF X11-696:1989 and ISO 13320.

1 Scope This European Standard specifies the determination of particle size distribution of solid recovered fuels using an image analysis method. It applies to both agglomerated and non-agglomerated solid, recovered, fuel pieces exhibiting an irregular shape, such as shredded end-of-life tyres and demolition woods. It provides the determination of the maximum projected length as well as parameters such as equivalent diameter. It also gives a characterisation of the filaments protruding from the SRF pieces. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 15357:2011, Solid recovered fuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions ISO 565, Test sieves — Metal wire cloth, perforated metal plate and electroformed sheet — Nominal sizes of openings ISO 3310-1 Test sieves — Technical requirements and testing — Part 1: Test sieves of metal wire cloth SIST EN 15415-3:2012

EN 15415-3:2012 (E) 5 3 Terms and definitions For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 15357:2011 and the following apply. 3.1 filaments filiform parts protruding from pieces of solid recovered fuel (SRF) generally of a metallic and or textile nature [SOURCE: EN 15415-2:2012, 3.1] 3.2 format of a large piece of SRF format based on the distribution of the maximum projected length [SOURCE: EN 15415-2:2012, 3.2] SIST EN 15415-3:2012

EN 15415-3:2012 (E) 6 4 List of symbols and abbreviations The following symbols and abbreviations are used in this document: LDF Lower dimension of the format (mm) HDF

Higher dimension of the format (mm) L Maximum projected length MS
Mass of the laboratory sample (kg) MF

Mass of the fine pieces (kg) MLM Mass of the loose metal wires NCC Number of central classes NCR Number of classes in the range from LDF to HDF TNP Total number of pieces in the sample not including the fine pieces MPF Mass percentage of the fine pieces MPM Mass percentage of the loose metal wires NPL Number percentage of large pieces MPL Mass percentage of large pieces (optional) NPC Number percentage of NCC MPC Mass percentage of NCC (optional) SRF Solid recovered fuel MLF Minimum length of a filament (mm) MLF1 Minimum length of a filament (mm) for the criterion average number of filaments per piece MLF2 Minimum length of a filament (mm) for the criterion number percentage of pieces having at least one filament ANPF Average number per piece of filaments longer than MLF1 NPF Number percentage of pieces having at least one filament longer than MLF2

NOTE In this document "mass percentage" is used for "mass fraction expressed as percent" to maintain continuity with other symbols and their abbreviations that do not designate mass fractions. 5 Principle

5.1 Principle of sampling The main principle of sampling is to obtain a representative sample or representative samples from a whole lot (of defined material) from which a characteristic is to be determined. If the lot is to be represented by a sample, then it is necessary that every particle in the lot have an equal probability of being included in the sample (i.e. probabilistic sampling). Whenever this principle cannot be applied in practice, the sampler shall define a procedure as close as possible to probabilistic sampling in their judgement (i.e. judgemental sampling) and note the limitations in the sampling plan and sampling report. In general, it is difficult to take samples in a way that satisfies the principle of correct sampling when a material is stationary (for example in a stockpile, big bag or silo). With regard to large pieces of irregular shape (e.g. pieces that include protruding filaments), it is necessary to take samples if the material is in movement. SIST EN 15415-3:2012

EN 15415-3:2012 (E) 7 NOTE The determination of properties other than dimensions can result in different sampling requirements. This is the case when determining physical properties such as bulk density or chemical composition. 5.2 Principle of the determination of dimension A laboratory sample of at least TNP > 100 separate elements not passing through the LDF sieve is taken for the test. The mass of the laboratory sample, MS, is weighed to within ± 0,01 kg. Any elements consisting solely of metal wires released from the pieces of solid recovered fuel are not counted in the TNP pieces. They are collected and weighed together (MLM in kilograms). After passing through a LDF sieve, the mass of the fine pieces, MF, is weighed to within ± 0,01 kg. The pieces not passing through the sieve (without loose metal wires) are used to determine the maximum lengths and constitute the test portion for determination purposes. Each piece of this test portion is treated individually. As these pieces are not u

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