Packaging - Evaluation of the disintegration of packaging materials in practical oriented tests under defined composting conditions

This European Standard is used to evaluate the disintegration of packaging materials in a pilot-scale aerobic composting test under defined conditions. Other methods should be used to measure the biodegradability of the packaging materials. Packaging materials are mixed with biowaste and spontaneously composted for 12 weeks in practical oriented composting conditions. At the end of the composting cycle the disintegration is measured by sieving of the compost and the calculation of a mass balance. The influence of the tested sample on the quality of the compost can be be studied by using the compost obtained at the end of the composting process for further measurements such as chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests.
Additionally this method can be used for visual perception and photographic documentation of the disintegration of packaging materials and for evaluating the effect of their addition on the composting process.

Verpackung - Bewertung der Desintegration von Verpackungsmaterialien in praxisorientierten Prüfungen unter definierten Kompostierungsbedingungen

Emballage - Evaluation de la désintégration des matériaux d'emballage lors d'essais à usage pratique dans des conditions de compostage définies

Embalaža – Vrednotenje razkroja embalažnih materialov v praktičnih preskusih pod določenimi pogoji kompostiranja

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Mar-2003
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
04-Dec-2007

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EN 14045:2003
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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Verpackung - Bewertung der Desintegration von Verpackungsmaterialien in praxisorientierten Prüfungen unter definierten KompostierungsbedingungenEmballage - Evaluation de la désintégration des matériaux d'emballage lors d'essais a usage pratique dans des conditions de compostage définiesPackaging - Evaluation of the disintegration of packaging materials in practical oriented tests under defined composting conditions55.040SDNLUDQMHPackaging materials and accessories13.030.99Drugi standardi v zvezi z odpadkiOther standards related to wastesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14045:2003SIST EN 14045:2003en01-julij-2003SIST EN 14045:2003SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 14045:2003

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 14045March 2003ICS 13.030.99; 55.040English versionPackaging - Evaluation of the disintegration of packagingmaterials in practical oriented tests under defined compostingconditionsEmballage - Evaluation de la désintégration des matériauxd'emballage lors d'essais à usage pratique dans desconditions de compostage définiesVerpackung - Bewertung der Desintegration vonVerpackungsmaterialien in praxisorientierten Prüfungenunter definierten KompostierungsbedingungenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 27 December 2002.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UnitedKingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2003 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 14045:2003 ESIST EN 14045:2003

EN 14045:2003 (E)2ContentspageForeword......................................................................................................................................................................3Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................41Scope..............................................................................................................................................................52Normative references....................................................................................................................................53Terms and definitions....................................................................................................................................54Principle..........................................................................................................................................................55Apparatus.......................................................................................................................................................66Procedure of the test.....................................................................................................................................77Calculation....................................................................................................................................................128Validity of the test........................................................................................................................................129Test Report...................................................................................................................................................13Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................14SIST EN 14045:2003

EN 14045:2003 (E)3ForewordThis document (EN 14045:2003) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 261 "Packaging", thesecretariat of which is held by AFNOR.This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text orby endorsement, at the latest by September 2003, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at thelatest by September 2003.This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the EuropeanFree Trade Association.According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the followingcountries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.SIST EN 14045:2003

EN 14045:2003 (E)4IntroductionOrganic recovery, which includes aerobic composting and anaerobic biogasification, of packaging in well operated,especially municipal or industrial biological waste treatment facilities are important alternatives for reducing andrecycling packaging waste in a biological way. Using these technologies, the aims of the European Directive94/62/EC on Packaging and Packaging Waste can be met.SIST EN 14045:2003

EN 14045:2003 (E)51 ScopeThis European Standard is used to evaluate the disintegration of packaging materials in a pilot-scale aerobiccomposting test under defined conditions. Other methods should be used to measure the biodegradability of thepackaging materials. Packaging materials are mixed with biowaste and spontaneously composted for 12 weeks inpractical oriented composting conditions. At the end of the composting cycle the disintegration is measured bysieving of the compost and the calculation of a mass balance. The influence of the tested sample on the quality ofthe compost can be studied by using the compost obtained at the end of the composting process for furthermeasurements such as chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests.Additionally this method can be used for visual perception and photographic documentation of the disintegration ofpackaging materials and for evaluating the effect of their addition on the composting process.2 Normative referencesThis European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. Thesenormative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. Fordated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this EuropeanStandard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of thepublication referred to applies (including amendments).EN 13193: 2000, Packaging – Packaging and the environment – Terminology.ISO 3310-2, Test sieves — Technical requirements and testing — Part 2: Test sieves of perforated metal plate.3 Terms and definitionsFor the purposes of this European Standard, the following terms and definitions and those given in EN 13193:2000apply.3.1maturity of compoststage of development of compost3.2total dry solidsamount of solids obtained by taking a known mass of test material or compost and drying at 105 °C to constantweight3.3volatile solidsamount of solids obtained by subtracting the residues of a known mass of test material or compost afterincineration at about 550 °C from the total dry solids content of the same sample4 PrincipleThe disintegration test under defined composting conditions on a pilot-scale level is a standardized compostingprocess.The test material is mixed in a precise concentration with fresh biowaste and introduced in a defined compostingenvironment after which the biological composting process spontaneously starts. A natural ubiquitous microbialpopulation will start the composting process and temperature increase will happen spontaneously. The compostingmass is regularly turned over and mixed. The temperature, pH, moisture content and gas composition within thecomposting material are regularly monitored and have to fulfill certain requirements in order to ensure sufficient andappropriate microbial activity. The composting process is continued till fully stabilized compost is obtained (after 12weeks).SIST EN 14045:2003

EN 14045:2003 (E)6At the end of the composting process, the compost / test material mixture is sieved over 2 and 10 mm.Disintegration of the packaging material is evaluated after sieving procedure (6.1.3.2.). If possible a mass balanceis calculated on the basis of wet and dry weight. The compost obtained at the end of the composting process canbe used for further measurements such as chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests.5 Apparatus5.1 Composting environment5.1.1 GeneralComposting environment may be either a pilot-scale composting bin or nets buried in a pilot-scale composting bin.The volume of each bin shall be high enough for natural self-heating process to occur. Sufficient aeration shall beprovided by an air providing system and air distribution should be even.NOTETo standardize conditions for the test the composting trials can be run in bins, which are placed in a climaticchamber with a constant chamber temperature or in insulated bins.If during the spontaneous thermophilic phase the compost mass reaches temperatures higher than 65 °C the microbial speciesdiversity could be reduced. To restore a full array of thermophilic microbes, it is possible to re-incoculate the mass with maturecompost (1 % of total initial biowaste mass) of recent origin (max. 3 months).Reinoculationcan be done after the temperature peak at start. Additionally, it is possible to restore a full array of mesophilicmicroorganisms by reinoculating with mature compost (1% of total initial biowaste mass) of recent origin (max.3 months)afterthe thermophilic period in the test is over (or in other words : at the start of the mesophilic period in the test, e.g. after 4 or 6weeks).5.1.2 Composting bin5.1.2.1 Volume and fittingThe bins shall :¾ have a volume of minimum 140 l ;¾ consist of a sturdy, heat resistant up to 120 °C and non-biodegradable material ;¾ not effect the compost process and the quality of the compost.5.1.2.2 DrainageA draining system shall be constructed such that the compost will not flood.5.1.3 Sample netsThe sample nets, if used, shall consist of mesh-like material with a mesh width of 1 mm made of non-degradableplastic, which is resistant to temperatures up to 120 °C.The minimum volume shall be 20 l.5.2 Apparatus for temperature measurementMeasuring range (0°C - 100°C) ± 1°CSIST EN 14045:2003

EN 14045:2003 (E)75.3 pH meter5.4 Apparatus for oxygen analysis (e.g. gas chromatography)5.5 Sieves with screens of 2 and 10 mm (according to ISO 3310-2)6 Procedure of the test6.1 Actions during incubation6.1.1 Start-up of the test6.1.1.1 Preparation of biowasteThe carrier matrix for the composting test consists of biowaste. It is important that for all test series a homogeneousbiowaste of the same age and origin is used. The biowaste shall be reduced to particle sizes of maximum 50 mm(e.g. by shredding or sieving). Depending on the type of waste 10 % to 60 % of bulking agent of structurally stablecomponents such as wood chips, bark, etc. with a size between 10 mm and 50 mm shall be added. In order toensure a good composting process the biowaste shall fulfil the following criteria :¾ C/N ratio of the fresh biowaste/bulking agent mixture shall be between 20 and 30 ;¾ moisture content shall be above 50 % (w/w) not exceeding its water holding capacity;¾ volatile solids content shall be above 50 % (w/w) ;¾ pH shall be above 5.NOTE 1A representative sample of the biowaste should be mixed with demineralised water in a ratio of 1:5 (wet weightbased), it should be left to it settle for 5 min and then the pH in the liquid phase should be measured.NOTE 2In order to correct the C/N-ratio, urea can be added.The biowaste is obtained from the input material from a composting plant treating predominantly source separatedorganic municipal waste. Or, less satisfactorily, directly from households, grocery stores etc.Alternatively a representative artificial (self-composed) biowaste can be used.NOTE 3As an example the following ingredients can be used :¾ fresh mixed fruit and vegetable waste ;¾ rabbit feed (seeds and dried extruded vegetables) ;¾ matured compost ;¾ urea (to adjust the C/N-ratio) ;¾ plus sufficient water to attain a good moisture content ;¾ plus bulking agent (e.g. woodchips or bark).NOTE 4After sieving at 50 mm, biowaste (especially urban biowaste) should not bring any packaging pieces which may beincluded in the disintegration results of the tested packaging.6.1.1.2 Preparation of the test materiala) If the purpose of test is only measurement of disintegration, composting process and compost quality :SIST EN 14045:2003

EN 14045:2003 (E)8the test material shall be tested in an identical form (e.g. shape, thickness) as for the intended final use. Largematerials can be reduced in size to 10 cm x 10 cm.NOTE 1As option a coloring agent may be added to the test material for easier resegregation (e.g. TiO2 or Fe2O3) ;NOTE 2Prior to start-up, the test material can be prewetted by adding water and mixing. Excess water is discarded again.The weight of water added should be noted.b) If the purpose of test includes production of compost for ecotoxicity tests :For ecotoxicity tests, additional to a), test material shall be added under the form of fine powder or granulate. Thefine form shall prevent the mixture of biowaste/test material of getting too bulky.NOTEIt is recommended to use powder of test material with diameters < 500 m.6.1.1.3 Number of test seriesThe test shall include at least :a) 2 series for the biowaste control and 2 series for the test material disintegration and compost analysis;b) 2 series for the test material (b1) disintegration and compost analysis plus optionally (b2) ecotoxicity tests ;c) 2 separate series only for ecotoxicity tests (

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