Characterization of sludges - Good practice for combined incineration of sludges and household wastes

This CEN Report gives indication for dealing of the combined incineration treatment of sludge and household waste.
This European standard is applicable to sludges described in the scope of CEN/TC 308 i.e. specifically derived from :
- storm water handling ;
- night soil ;
- urban wastewater collecting systems ;
- urban wastewater treatment plants ;
- treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC ) ;
but excluding hazardous sludges from industry.
Annex A gives information on various systems to input sludge into a household waste incineration plant.

Charakterisierung von Schlämmen - Anleitung für die gute fachliche Praxis bei gemeinsamen Verbrennung von Schlämmen und Hanshaltsabfällen

Diese Europäische Norm gibt eine Anleitung für die gemeinsame Verbrennung von Schlamm und Haushaltsabfällen. Diese Europäische Norm gilt für Schlämme, die im Anwendungsbereich des CEN/TC 308 beschrieben sind, d.h. aus: - der Regenwasserbehandlung; - der Fäkalienentsorgung; - der kommunalen Abwasserkanalisation; - der kommunalen Kläranlagen; - der Behandlung ähnlicher Industrieabwässer (wie in Richtlinie 91/271/EEC festgelegt); - den Wasseraufbereitungsanlagen; - den Wasserversorgungsnetzen, mit Ausnahme von gefährlichen Industrieschlämmen.

Caractérisation des boues - Bonne pratique pour incinération combinée des boues et des déchets ménagers

La présente norme européenne donn des indications pour le traitement par incinération combinée de boues et déchets ménagers. La présente norme européenne est applicable aux boues décrites dans le domaine d'application du CEN/TC 308, c'est-à-dire: - de la collecte des eaux pluviales; - des matières de vidange; - des systèmes de collecte des eaux usées urbaines; - des stations d'épuration des eaux usées urbaines; - des stations d'épuration des eaux industrielles assimilées (telles que définies par la Directive 91/271/CEE); - des usines de production d'eau potable; - des systèmes de distribution d'eau potable, etc.

Karakterizacija blata - Dobra praksa za skupni sežig blat in komunalnih odpadkov

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
31-Jul-2001
Withdrawal Date
17-Aug-2004
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Due Date
18-Aug-2004
Completion Date
18-Aug-2004

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standardization document
CR 13768:2001
English language
21 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST CR 13768:2001
01-december-2001
Karakterizacija blata - Dobra praksa za skupni sežig blat in komunalnih odpadkov

Characterization of sludges - Good practice for combined incineration of sludges and

household wastes
Charakterisierung von Schlämmen - Anleitung für die gute fachliche Praxis bei
gemeinsamen Verbrennung von Schlämmen und Hanshaltsabfällen

Caractérisation des boues - Bonne pratique pour incinération combinée des boues et

des déchets ménagers
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CR 13768:2001
ICS:
13.030.20 7HNRþLRGSDGNL%ODWR Liquid wastes. Sludge
13.030.40 Naprave in oprema za Installations and equipment
odstranjevanje in obdelavo for waste disposal and
odpadkov treatment
SIST CR 13768:2001 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
CEN REPORT
CR 13768
RAPPORT CEN
CEN BERICHT
August 2001
ICS
English version
Characterization of sludges - Good practice for combined
incineration of sludges and household wastes

Caractérisation des boues - Bonne pratique pour Charakterisierung von Schlämmen - Anleitung für die gute

incinération combinée des boues et des déchets ménagers fachliche Praxis bei gemeinsamen Verbrennung von

Schlämmen und Hanshaltsabfällen

This CEN Report was approved by CEN on 16 June 2001. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 308.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2001 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CR 13768:2001 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
CR 13768:2001 (E)
Contents

Foreword......................................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................................5

2 References......................................................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions....................................................................................................................................5

4 Requirements .................................................................................................................................................7

4.1 General............................................................................................................................................................7

4.2 Origin and knowledge of the materials intended for combined incineration ..........................................7

4.3 Requirements concerning transport, storage and transfer.......................................................................9

4.4 Suitability of the incineration equipment ..................................................................................................12

Annex A Various systems to input sludge into a household waste incineration plant.....................................15

Annex B Different furnace types .............................................................................................................................17

Bibliography ..............................................................................................................................................................21

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
CR 13768:2001 (E)
Foreword
This document has been prepared by CEN /TC 308, "Characterisation of sludges".
This document is currently submitted to the BT for publication as a CEN Report.

The status of this document as CEN Report has been chosen because the most of its content is not completely in

line with practice and regulation in each member state. This document gives recommendations for a good practice

concerning the combined incineration of sludges and household wastes but existing national regulations remain in

force.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
CR 13768:2001 (E)
Introduction

All of the recommendations of this document constitute a framework within which the combined incineration

process can be proposed in addition to and/or as a substitution for field spreading, waste site disposal (landfilling),

specific incineration (see CR 13767), or any other process.

Combined incineration should abide by the European Directives 89/369/EEC (Prevention of air pollution from new

municipal waste incineration plants), 94/67/EEC (incineration of hazardous waste) by the future European Directive

studied by the CEN/TC 292, and should comply with the relevant regulations and recommendations in force within

each member state to reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment such as pollution of the air,

ground, surface and underground water, and on human and animal health. This concern therefore relates to: the

pre-treatment of the sludge in plants, the transfer of the material to the treatment centre, the actual destruction

process, the treatment of gaseous discharge into the atmosphere, the future of the different by-products stemming

from combustion and the treatment of the liquid effluents possibly resulting from the process.

Anyway, priority should be given to reduction of pollutants at the origin and or to recovery of valuable substances

(phosphorus, potassium…) in sludge and derived products if technically and economically feasible.

As part of a process and company quality approach, the relevant issues are therefore :

 exploiting the operating data and the statutory inspections carried out ;

 rendering the process reliable, optimising and of perpetuating it, as well as guaranteeing a permanent

development ;

 maintaining a climate of confidence between the authorities, the sludge producers, the transporters, the

incineration plant and waste disposal site operators and to allow the services to be provided on a contractual

basis.

When necessary, a distinction can be made between existing facilities and new incineration plants.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
CR 13768:2001 (E)
1 Scope

This CEN Report gives indication for dealing of the combined incineration treatment of sludge and household

waste.

This European standard is applicable to sludges described in the scope of CEN/TC 308 i.e. specifically derived

from :
 storm water handling ;
 night soil ;
 urban wastewater collecting systems ;
 urban wastewater treatment plants ;

 treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC ) ;

but excluding hazardous sludges from industry.

Annex A gives information on various systems to input sludge into a household waste incineration plant.

2 References
EN 1085, Wastewater treatment – Vocabulary.
EN 12832, Characterisation of sludges.

prEN 13965-1, Characterization of waste - Terminology - Part 1 : Materials related terms and definitions.

prEN 13965-2, Characterization of waste - Terminology - Part 2 : Management related terms and definitions.

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this CEN Report, the following terms and definitions given in EN 12832 and EN 1085 and the

following in accordance with prEN 13965-1 and 2 except for the definition of combined incineration apply :

3.1
household waste
waste arising in households
509 of EN 13965-1
3.2
incineration
treatment by combustion

NOTE In contrast to pyrolysis, incineration is carried out with full supply of oxygen

22 of EN 13965-2
3.3
household waste incineration plant

all of the equipment required for the thermal conversion by incineration of household waste with or without energy

recovery
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
CR 13768:2001 (E)
3.4
combined incineration of sludge and household waste
incineration of sludge and household waste in a same combustion chamber
3.5
pyrolysis
thermal treatment with limited supply of oxygen
29 of EN 13965-2
3.6
thermolysis
one of the methods of application of pyrolysis
3.7
charge preparation

the operation of preparing sludge that can be necessary prior to entering the furnace

3.8
incinerator furnace

specific part of the incineration plant where the combustion reactions that destroy the organic matter take place,

generating gaseous effluent and solid residues
3.9
boiler (heat exchanger)

specific part of the incineration plant where heat exchange takes place in view of recovering energy and of cooling

down the fumes
3.10
waste gas treatment

any physical or chemical process aimed at cleaning the flue gas resulting from the thermal treatment with the

regard to their discharge into the atmosphere
3.11
bottom ash)
combustion residue arising at the bottom of combustion furnaces
[502 of EN 13965-1]
3.12
fly ash
solid material that is entrained in a flue gas stream
213 of EN 13965-1
NOTE See waste Directive 91/156/EEC.
3.13
energy recovery

activity to use combustible waste as a means to generate energy through direct incineration with recovery of heat

[39 EN 13965-2]
NOTE See packaging Directive (94/62/EEC).
3.14
storage center (landfill)
NOTE See Landfill Directive.
3.15
leachate
NOTE See landfill Directive.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
CR 13768:2001 (E)
3.16
recycling

activity in a production process to process waste materials for the original purpose or for other purposes, excluding

energy recovery
NOTE See packaging Directive 94/62/EEC
41 of EN 13965-2
4 Requirements
4.1 General

As a general rule, the criteria, which lead the decision-makers to choose combined incineration, are similar to those

which lead them to construct or to extend incineration plants for household waste only.

The local recommendations take into account :

 the impossibility to introduce or pursue any other process or to have at one's disposal an alternative to existing

solutions, throughout whole or part of the year, in particular in the case of technical shutdown and particularly if

the incineration plant only has one treatment unit ;

 the geographical context, the client population and therefore the potential input material (waste + sludge) as

well as the expected developments ;

 the proximity of the sewage treatment plant/incineration plant and the local road network ;

 the extent to which the incineration plants are used (dimensioning of furnaces, charge levels, filling) ;

 the variations due to seasonal activity and production peaks both in sludge and household waste.

4.2 Origin and knowledge of the materials intended for combined incineration
4.2.1 General aspects

Considering, in the spirit of this guide, combined incineration as one of the channels for sludge treatment, two

approaches are possible :

a) the treatment site accepts over the course of time materials of different origin, type, behaviour and quantity

and it should be readily adaptable in order to always guarantee optimum destruction ;

b) the treatment site (due to its design, for example) cannot offer any flexibility. Two cases then present

themselves :
 a quantitative or qualitative limitation will be demanded on the site ;

 a reflection, taking into account the technical and economic constraints, should be conducted in order to

examine the influence of any modification in sludge production, so as to achieve a perfect

material/process match.

There should be the opportunity for process evolution to comply with new constraints, particularly arising from

changes in legislation. Finally, it is worthwhile specifying that incineration plants are installations which, for reasons

of technical availability and maintenance, operate between 7000 h and 8000 h per year. It will therefore be

advisable to provide for a selective and appropriate organisation (alternative elimination or storage channel) with

the water treatment site administrator during the furnace shutdown periods, whether of short duration (minor

maintenance operations, incident) or of long duration (programmed stoppage for major yearly overhauling). This

latter comment is particularly important in the case of a plant equipped with one incineration line only.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
CR 13768:2001 (E)

Under these conditions, it is then a question of specifying certain physico-chemical properties of the "sludge

material" which can influence the combined incineration process with a view to making provision for the necessary

installations, the behaviour and flexibility of the equipment to be implemented as well as the possible additional

maintenance and wear. The methods for sampling and controlling the follow-ups as well as their validity will

conform to the requirements suggested by all of the players of the process, from the producer up to the final

disposer.

Prior knowledge of the parameters given below will greatly help determine what equipment has to be considered

both for adapting the new combined incineration activity at existing plants not planned for this purpose and for

designing new incineration plants.

The operational departments of the incineration plants reserve the right to refuse a sludge, which can present one

or more "abnormal" parameters, e.g. a particularly high content of one or more trace elements and for which the

unit's equipment :
 will not allow to guarantee compliance with current emission thresholds ;

 will generate bottom ash and fly ash whose deterioration of the quality will no longer allow a disposal in

conformity to the provisions in force (regulation and/or current technical-economic conditions). We will point out

that too high contents of phosphorous pentoxide (P O ) in the bottom ash and ash cause a drop in their

2 5
melting point.
4.2.2 Parameters relating to transport. storage and transfer
It is a question of :
 origin of sludge ;
 type of sludge ;
 dry substance content ;
 viscosity and rheological behaviour on delivery and on recovery ;
 stability when piled, heap angle ;

 risks of the material and its parameters changing with time, during transport and storage (varying stability,

rheological change, fermentation, smells) ;
 pH value.

4.2.3 Parameters relating to combustion conditions and to gaseous and solid discharges

These elements permits to anticipate the consequences on the combustion chamber functioning and on

discharges :
 dry matter content ;
 organic matter content, organic micropolutants or volatile matter index ;
 higher or lower calorific value ;
 content of :
 carbon ;
 hydrogen ;
 oxygen ;
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
CR 13768:2001 (E)
 nitrogen ;
 sulfur ;
 chlorine ;
 phosphorous :

 as far as the nature of the gaseous discharge into the atmosphere is concerned, particular attention will be

paid to compliance with national regulatory provisions. A periodic monitoring of toxic metals of sludges

should be carried out to ascertain the standards of incineration plants are respected.

4.2.4 The case of sludge with additives
Lime-treated sludge.

In order to slow down fermentation, lime is frequently added to the sludge. The limed sludge may have a positive

impact on transport and storage, however, on the other hand, combustion can be affected by it: the life cycle of the

refractories can be reduced due to alkaline degradation at these temperature levels, and additional clogging occur

in the furnace's boiler unit. Furthermore, the resulting quantities of bottom ash and ash are increased in the

proportions considered.

 other important types of additives : FeCl , polymers, organic flocculants, phosphate removal products, etc.

To date, the impact of these additives has not been sufficiently quantified to enable recommendations to be made.

For all of these three categories of parameters, a distinction will be made between those parameters which are

worthwhile knowing for satisfactory combined incineration on a routine basis and the additional parameters which,

although having little or no influence, can prove useful for optimising the process.

It will be particularly important to determine the ranges within which change is acceptable and/or unacceptable.

Among all of these parameters, a selection of those, which should be regularly monitored and/or inspected, should

be proposed.
4.3 Requirements concerning transport, storage and transfer
4.3.1 General provisions concerning transport

The "transport" system should be designed so as to guarantee maximum containment and limited nuisance due to

smells. The transport vehicle driver should have in his possession the consignment note stating the origin, quality,

quantity and destination of the sludge being transported.

Transport should not give rise to any accidental spillage of sludge onto the roadways and the various manoeuvring

areas. In the event of the travelling distances being long, modification of the sludge should be taken into

consideration.

The vehicles used should be suited to the different categories of roads. National and/or local regulatory provisions

should be imperatively observed.
Recommendations specific to transport

Transport consists in conveying the sludge from the sewage treatment plant to the incineration plant, if possible in

a single stage. It includes the sludge loading and unloading operations.

In the majority of cases, transport will be carried out using an appropriate vehicle for which loading and unloading

means adapted to the volume and condition of the sludge should exist. Unloading generally takes place by gravity,

occasionally by pumping.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST CR 13768:2001
CR 13768:2001 (E)

Transport can be carried out via pipeline where the plant and incineration plants are close enough to one another

for this to be technically and economically feasible. The pumping conditions and the outputs to be applied will then

be particularly examined. In particular, the use of polymers can be used for facilitating transport in the case of very

long pipes.
4.3.2 General provisions concerning storage
4.3.2.1 Storage with household waste

Sludge can be stored with household waste either directly by tipping into the pit, or by using spray, or any other

method in order to spread it right through the pit. The operator will have to accept and master the constraints

involved in the choice of storage method.
4.3.2.2 Recommendations

Two elements are essential in the quality of the sludge to be tipped: dryness and consistency. In the case of liquid

or semi-paste-like sludge, there is a risk of the household waste becoming wet and water accumulating by gravity

at the bottom of the pit. An identical gravity phenomenon can occur with solid sludge of low particle size, difficult to

remove with a grapple.

In all cases, tipping sludge into a pit creates an additional work for the crane operator so that the mixture will be as

homogeneous as possible. This work should be carried out in parallel with the management of household waste in

pits and therefore requires a dual function for the crane driver.

In fact, this is a possible solution where sludge quantity is low compared to the household waste and/or on a

selective basis. According to how dry the sludge can be and the proportions anticipated, a study should be

envisaged, even prior tests.

We would draw attention to the risks related to handling dried sludge: (explosive and burning risk depends on solid

state).

On the other hand, the odour problems are directly linked to the quality of the sludge (e.g. raw sludge)

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.