Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 4: Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing

The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Strukturwerkstoffe - Teil 4: Integritätskontrolle, Verifizierungsrichtlinien und Herstellung

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 4 : Contrôle de l’intégrité, directives de vérification et fabrication

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 4. del: Nadzor integritete, smernice za preverjanje in proizvodnja

Priročnik o strukturnih materialih, SMH, združuje informacije o materialih in oblikovanju uveljavljenih polimernih matričnih kompozitov z začasnimi informacijami o nastajajočih skupinah novejših naprednih materialov in njihovih kompozitov. Opisani so vidiki oblikovanja, skupaj z dejavniki združevanja in proizvodnje. Kjer je mogoče, so podani primeri ali študije primerov.
Priročnik o strukturnih materialih vsebuje 8 delov.
Slovar izrazov, opredelitve in okrajšave izrazov za te priročnike so v 8. delu.
Deli so:
1. del: Pregled in lastnosti materialov ter aplikacije                    Točke 1–9
2. del: Metode za izračun zasnove in splošni vidiki zasnove    Točke 10–22
3. del: Prenos obremenitve ter projektiranje spojev in konstrukcij    Točke 23–32
4. del: Nadzor integritete, smernice za preverjanje in proizvodnja    Točke 33–45
5. del: Novi napredni materiali, napredni kovinski materiali, splošni konstrukcijski vidiki ter prenos obremenitve in oblikovanje sklepov    Točke 46–63
6. del: Modeliranje zlomov in materialov, študije primerov, načrtovanje in nadzor integritete ter inšpekcijski pregled    Točke 64–81
7. del: Toplotna in okoljska celovitost, proizvodni vidiki, spremljanje stanja materialov v orbiti, mehki materiali, hibridni materiali in nanotehnologije   Točke 82–107
8. del: Slovar   
OPOMBA: Teh 8 delov je označenih s številkami od TR17603-32-01 do TR 17603-32-08.

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
19-Jan-2022
Completion Date
19-Jan-2022

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-04:2022
01-marec-2022

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 4. del: Nadzor integritete,

smernice za preverjanje in proizvodnja

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 4: Integrity control, verification

guidelines and manufacturing

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Strukturwerkstoffe - Teil 4: Integritätskontrolle,

Verifizierungsrichtlinien und Herstellung

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 4 : Contrôle de l’intégrité,

directives de vérification et fabrication
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-04:2022
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-04:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-04:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-04:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-04
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2022
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
4: Integrity control, verification guidelines and
manufacturing

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Strukturwerkstoffe -

- Partie 4 : Contrôle de l'intégrité, directives de Teil 4: Integritätskontrolle, Verifizierungsrichtlinien

vérification et fabrication und Herstellung

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 22 November 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-04:2022 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 26

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 27

33 Aspects of damage tolerance ............................................................................ 28

33.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 28

33.1.1 Damage tolerance ..................................................................................... 28

33.1.2 Damage events ......................................................................................... 28

33.1.3 Damage tolerance criteria ......................................................................... 28

33.2 General guidelines .................................................................................................. 29

33.2.1 Fracture control ......................................................................................... 29

33.2.2 Durability ................................................................................................... 29

33.2.3 Damage .................................................................................................... 29

33.2.4 Defects in composites ............................................................................... 29

33.2.5 Impact damage ......................................................................................... 32

33.3 Damage tolerance criteria ....................................................................................... 33

33.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 33

33.3.2 Load paths ................................................................................................ 34

33.3.3 Environment .............................................................................................. 34

33.3.4 Damage .................................................................................................... 34

33.3.5 Residual strength ...................................................................................... 35

33.3.6 Safe-life ..................................................................................................... 35

33.3.7 Fail-safe .................................................................................................... 35

33.3.8 Stiffness .................................................................................................... 35

33.3.9 Loads ........................................................................................................ 35

33.3.10 Environmental factors ............................................................................... 35

33.3.11 Inspection ................................................................................................. 35

33.3.12 Summary .................................................................................................. 36

33.4 Defect standardisation ............................................................................................ 36

33.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 36

33.4.2 Types of defects ........................................................................................ 37

33.5 Effect of macroscopic defects on static load ........................................................... 39

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33.5.1 Composite failure ...................................................................................... 39

33.5.2 Use of fracture mechanics ......................................................................... 39

33.5.3 Multi-angle laminates ................................................................................ 39

33.6 Test and analysis .................................................................................................... 40

33.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 40

33.6.2 Constituent tests ....................................................................................... 42

33.6.3 Lamina tests.............................................................................................. 43

33.6.4 Laminate tests ........................................................................................... 43

33.6.5 Structural element and component tests ................................................... 43

33.6.6 Structural sub-component or full-scale tests .............................................. 43

33.6.7 Delamination ............................................................................................. 43

33.7 Other features of damage-tolerance design ............................................................ 45

33.7.1 Acoustic fatigue ......................................................................................... 45

33.7.2 Proof testing .............................................................................................. 45

33.7.3 Metallic parts ............................................................................................. 45

33.7.4 Thermal and meteoroid protection system ................................................ 45

33.7.5 Impact dynamics – crashworthiness .......................................................... 45

33.7.6 Flammability, toxicity and off-gassing ........................................................ 45

33.7.7 Lightning protection ................................................................................... 46

33.8 Improving damage tolerance with higher toughness laminates ............................... 46

33.8.1 General ..................................................................................................... 46

33.8.2 Material-related aspects ............................................................................ 46

33.8.3 Lay-up aspects .......................................................................................... 47

33.9 References ............................................................................................................. 47

33.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 47

33.9.2 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 48

33.9.3 MIL standards ........................................................................................... 48

34 Inspection and quality assurance ..................................................................... 49

34.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 49

34.2 Fabrication and quality assurance .......................................................................... 49

34.2.1 Quality assurance ..................................................................................... 49

34.3 Inspection, maintenance and repair ........................................................................ 50

34.3.1 Inspection and maintenance ..................................................................... 50

34.3.2 Repairs ..................................................................................................... 51

34.4 Inspection ............................................................................................................... 51

34.4.1 Basic considerations ................................................................................. 51

34.5 Definition of inspection procedures ......................................................................... 52

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34.5.1 Procedures ............................................................................................... 52

34.5.2 Thin composite laminates.......................................................................... 53

34.5.3 Thick composite laminates ........................................................................ 53

34.6 Non-destructive inspection techniques .................................................................... 54

34.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 54

34.6.2 Damage tolerant designs .......................................................................... 54

34.6.3 Advances in NDT ...................................................................................... 54

34.6.4 Techniques ............................................................................................... 55

34.6.5 Smart technologies for condition monitoring .............................................. 56

34.7 Defects and anomalies for detection ....................................................................... 56

34.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 56

34.7.2 Emphasis of NDT development ................................................................. 57

34.8 Overview of NDT techniques .................................................................................. 57

34.8.1 Selection of NDT technique ....................................................................... 57

34.8.2 Detection of defects .................................................................................. 58

34.9 Traditional contact NDT techniques ........................................................................ 64

34.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 64

34.9.2 Visual inspection ....................................................................................... 64

34.9.3 Dye penetrant ........................................................................................... 64

34.9.4 Magnetic particle ....................................................................................... 64

34.9.5 Mechanical resonance or impedance ........................................................ 64

34.10 Ultrasonic techniques ............................................................................................. 65

34.10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 65

34.10.2 Modes of examination ............................................................................... 66

34.10.3 Ultrasonic signal presentation ................................................................... 66

34.10.4 Data and image processing ....................................................................... 66

34.10.5 Equipment calibration ................................................................................ 67

34.10.6 Large area scanning ................................................................................. 67

34.10.7 Acousto-ultrasonics ................................................................................... 68

34.10.8 Lamb wave (guided wave) ........................................................................ 69

34.10.9 Rayleigh wave techniques ......................................................................... 70

34.10.10 Backscattering techniques ........................................................... 70

34.10.11 Transducer technology ................................................................ 71

34.10.12 Air-coupled techniques (non-contact) .......................................... 74

34.11 Acoustic emission ................................................................................................... 77

34.12 Laser ultrasonics .................................................................................................... 78

34.12.1 General ..................................................................................................... 78

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34.12.2 Basic principles ......................................................................................... 79

34.13 Holography ............................................................................................................. 80

34.13.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 80

34.13.2 Laser interferometric techniques ............................................................... 81

34.13.3 Vibration, pressure and thermal loading .................................................... 82

34.13.4 Electronic imaging ..................................................................................... 82

34.13.5 Examination of space structures ............................................................... 83

34.14 Laser shearography ................................................................................................ 84

34.14.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 84

34.14.2 Basic technique ......................................................................................... 84

34.14.3 Characteristics of shearography ................................................................ 85

34.15 Thermography ........................................................................................................ 86

34.15.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 86

34.15.2 Techniques ............................................................................................... 87

34.15.3 Heat sources and pulse duration ............................................................... 91

34.15.4 Detection capabilities ................................................................................ 91

34.15.5 Limitations of thermography ...................................................................... 92

34.16 X-ray radiography ................................................................................................... 93

34.16.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 93

34.16.2 X-ray techniques ....................................................................................... 94

34.16.3 Digital radiographic system developments ................................................ 95

34.16.4 Defect resolution ....................................................................................... 98

34.17 Computer tomography ............................................................................................ 98

34.17.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 98

34.17.2 Basic technique ......................................................................................... 98

34.17.3 Attributes of CT scanning .......................................................................... 99

34.17.4 Micro-tomography ................................................................................... 100

34.18 Eddy currents ....................................................................................................... 100

34.18.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 100

34.18.2 Developments in eddy current techniques ............................................... 101

34.19 Other NDT techniques .......................................................................................... 102

34.19.1 General ................................................................................................... 102

34.19.2 Microwave ............................................................................................... 103

34.19.3 Heat and photosensitive agents .............................................................. 103

34.19.4 Electrical impedance ............................................................................... 103

34.19.5 Acoustic microscopy ............................................................................... 103

34.19.6 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ....................................................... 104

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34.19.7 Neutron radiography ............................................................................... 104

34.19.8 Gamma radiography ............................................................................... 104

34.19.9 D sight - Diffracto sight ............................................................................ 104

34.20 NDT for adhesive bond defects............................................................................. 105

34.20.1 General ................................................................................................... 105

34.20.2 Disbonds, voids and porosity .................................................................. 105

34.20.3 Cohesion and adhesion .......................................................................... 106

34.21 NDT for space applications ................................................................................... 106

34.21.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 106

34.21.2 Developments in inspection .................................................................... 107

34.21.3 Summary of NDT techniques .................................................................. 107

34.22 Rupture tests ........................................................................................................ 109

34.22.1 Application .............................................................................................. 109

34.23 Test related items ................................................................................................. 110

34.23.1 General ................................................................................................... 110

34.23.2 Major items ............................................................................................. 110

34.23.3 Qualification tests .................................................................................... 111

34.24 Structural test reports ........................................................................................... 122

34.25 Analysis and test documents ................................................................................ 123

34.26 References ........................................................................................................... 125

34.26.1 General ................................................................................................... 125

34.26.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 137

35 Objective of verification ................................................................................... 138

35.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 138

35.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 138

35.1.2 Composite structures .............................................................................. 138

35.1.3 Composite materials ............................................................................... 138

36 Procurement specifications for raw materials ............................................... 140

36.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 140

36.1.1 Guidelines ............................................................................................... 140

36.2 Specification methods ........................................................................................... 140

36.2.1 Fiche sheet principle ............................................................................... 140

36.2.2 Specific material specification ................................................................. 141

36.3 Guidelines on resin procurement .......................................................................... 141

36.3.1 Scope...................................................................................................... 141

36.3.2 Basic information to be provided by the supplier ..................................... 142

36.4 Guidelines on carbon and other fibre prepreg procurement .................................. 146

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36.4.1 Scope...................................................................................................... 146

36.4.2 Description and classification of prepreg ................................................. 146

36.4.3 Prepreg charachteristics for qualification and batch testing ..................... 147

36.4.4 Laminate Characteristics ......................................................................... 150

36.4.5 Test methods .......................................................................................... 151

36.5 References ........................................................................................................... 152

36.5.1 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 152

36.5.2 ESA publications ..................................................................................... 152

37 Philosophy of assessment of design allowables .......................................... 153

37.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 153

37.2 Carbon fibre reinforced plastics ............................................................................ 153

37.2.1 Design values ......................................................................................... 153

37.3 Definition of design allowables .............................................................................. 154

37.3.1 'A' basis allowable ................................................................................... 154

37.3.2 'B' basis allowable ................................................................................... 154

37.4 Development procedure........................................................................................ 154

37.5 Test data .............................................................................................................. 154

37.5.1 Material ................................................................................................... 154

37.5.2 Data ........................................................................................................ 155

37.6 References ........................................................................................................... 159

37.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 159

38 Manufacturing techniques ............................................................................... 160

38.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 160

38.1.1 Processing techniques ............................................................................ 160

38.1.2 Process selection .................................................................................... 160

38.2 Process selection criteria ...................................................................................... 161

38.3 Hand lay-up .......................................................................................................... 161

38.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 161

38.3.2 Wet lamination ........................................................................................ 162

38.3.3 Prepreg lay-up ........................................................................................ 165

38.4 Autoclave moulding .............................................................................................. 169

38.4.1 Use ......................................................................................................... 169

38.4.2 Basic process .......................................................................................... 169

38.4.3 Bag moulding methods ........................................................................... 170

38.4.4 Features of bag moulding........................................................................ 173

38.4.5 Bagging techniques ................................................................................. 174

38.4.6 Tool materials ......................................................................................... 175

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38.4.7 Cure schedules ....................................................................................... 177

38.5 Filament winding ................................................................................................... 178

38.5.1 Basic process .......................................................................................... 178

38.5.2 Applications............................................................................................. 178

38.5.3 Winding process ..................................................................................... 179

38.5.4 Mandrels ................................................................................................. 180

38.5.5 Sandwich constructions .......................................................................... 180

38.5.6 Tape winding ........................................................................................... 181

38.6 Filament-winding machines .................................................................................. 181

38.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 181

38.6.2 Polar winding .......................................................................................... 181

38.6.3 Helical winding ........................................................................................ 183

38.7 Resin transfer moulding ........................................................................................ 184

38.7.1 General ...................................................................

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-04:2021
01-oktober-2021

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 4. del: Nadzor integritete,

smernice za preverjanje in proizvodnja

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 4: Integrity control, verification

guidelines and manufacturing

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Strukturwerkstoffe - Teil 4: Integritätskontrolle,

Verifizierungsrichtlinien und Herstellung

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 4 : Contrôle de l’intégrité,

directives de vérification et fabrication
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17603-32-04
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-04:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-04:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 17603-32-04
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
July 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
4: Integrity control, verification guidelines and
manufacturing

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Strukturwerkstoffe -

- Partie 4 : Contrôle de l'intégrité, directives de Teil 4: Integritätskontrolle, Verifizierungsrichtlinien

vérification et fabrication und Herstellung

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17603-32-04:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

33.1.1 Damage tolerance ..................................................................................... 24

33.1.2 Damage events ......................................................................................... 24

33.1.3 Damage tolerance criteria ......................................................................... 24

33.2.1 Fracture control ......................................................................................... 25

33.2.2 Durability ................................................................................................... 25

33.2.3 Damage .................................................................................................... 25

33.2.4 Defects in composites ............................................................................... 25

33.2.5 Impact damage ......................................................................................... 28

33.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 29

33.3.2 Load paths ................................................................................................ 30

33.3.3 Environment .............................................................................................. 30

33.3.4 Damage .................................................................................................... 30

33.3.5 Residual strength ...................................................................................... 31

33.3.6 Safe-life ..................................................................................................... 31

33.3.7 Fail-safe .................................................................................................... 31

33.3.8 Stiffness .................................................................................................... 31

33.3.9 Loads ........................................................................................................ 31

33.3.10 Environmental factors ............................................................................... 31

33.3.11 Inspection ................................................................................................. 31

33.3.12 Summary .................................................................................................. 32

33.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 32

33.4.2 Types of defects ........................................................................................ 33

33.5.1 Composite failure ...................................................................................... 35

33.5.2 Use of fracture mechanics ......................................................................... 35

33.5.3 Multi-angle laminates ................................................................................ 35

33.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 36

33.6.2 Constituent tests ....................................................................................... 38

33.6.3 Lamina tests.............................................................................................. 39

33.6.4 Laminate tests ........................................................................................... 39

33.6.5 Structural element and component tests ................................................... 39

33.6.6 Structural sub-component or full-scale tests .............................................. 39

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33.6.7 Delamination ............................................................................................. 39

33.7.1 Acoustic fatigue ......................................................................................... 41

33.7.2 Proof testing .............................................................................................. 41

33.7.3 Metallic parts ............................................................................................. 41

33.7.4 Thermal and meteoroid protection system ................................................ 41

33.7.5 Impact dynamics – crashworthiness .......................................................... 41

33.7.6 Flammability, toxicity and off-gassing ........................................................ 41

33.7.7 Lightning protection ................................................................................... 42

33.8.1 General ..................................................................................................... 42

33.8.2 Material-related aspects ............................................................................ 42

33.8.3 Lay-up aspects .......................................................................................... 43

33.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 43

33.9.2 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 44

33.9.3 MIL standards ........................................................................................... 44

34.2.1 Quality assurance ..................................................................................... 45

34.3.1 Inspection and maintenance ..................................................................... 46

34.3.2 Repairs ..................................................................................................... 47

34.4.1 Basic considerations ................................................................................. 47

34.5.1 Procedures ............................................................................................... 48

34.5.2 Thin composite laminates.......................................................................... 49

34.5.3 Thick composite laminates ........................................................................ 49

34.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 50

34.6.2 Damage tolerant designs .......................................................................... 50

34.6.3 Advances in NDT ...................................................................................... 50

34.6.4 Techniques ............................................................................................... 51

34.6.5 Smart technologies for condition monitoring .............................................. 52

34.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 52

34.7.2 Emphasis of NDT development ................................................................. 53

34.8.1 Selection of NDT technique ....................................................................... 53

34.8.2 Detection of defects .................................................................................. 54

34.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 60

34.9.2 Visual inspection ....................................................................................... 60

34.9.3 Dye penetrant ........................................................................................... 60

34.9.4 Magnetic particle ....................................................................................... 60

34.9.5 Mechanical resonance or impedance ........................................................ 60

34.10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 61

34.10.2 Modes of examination ............................................................................... 62

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34.10.3 Ultrasonic signal presentation ................................................................... 62

34.10.4 Data and image processing ....................................................................... 62

34.10.5 Equipment calibration ................................................................................ 63

34.10.6 Large area scanning ................................................................................. 63

34.10.7 Acousto-ultrasonics ................................................................................... 64

34.10.8 Lamb wave (guided wave) ........................................................................ 65

34.10.9 Rayleigh wave techniques ......................................................................... 66

34.10.10 Backscattering techniques ........................................................... 66

34.10.11 Transducer technology ................................................................ 67

34.10.12 Air-coupled techniques (non-contact) .......................................... 70

34.12.1 General ..................................................................................................... 74

34.12.2 Basic principles ......................................................................................... 75

34.13.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 76

34.13.2 Laser interferometric techniques ............................................................... 77

34.13.3 Vibration, pressure and thermal loading .................................................... 78

34.13.4 Electronic imaging ..................................................................................... 78

34.13.5 Examination of space structures ............................................................... 79

34.14.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 80

34.14.2 Basic technique ......................................................................................... 80

34.14.3 Characteristics of shearography ................................................................ 81

34.15.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 82

34.15.2 Techniques ............................................................................................... 83

34.15.3 Heat sources and pulse duration ............................................................... 87

34.15.4 Detection capabilities ................................................................................ 87

34.15.5 Limitations of thermography ...................................................................... 88

34.16.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 89

34.16.2 X-ray techniques ....................................................................................... 90

34.16.3 Digital radiographic system developments ................................................ 91

34.16.4 Defect resolution ....................................................................................... 94

34.17.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 94

34.17.2 Basic technique ......................................................................................... 94

34.17.3 Attributes of CT scanning .......................................................................... 95

34.17.4 Micro-tomography ..................................................................................... 96

34.18.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 96

34.18.2 Developments in eddy current techniques ................................................. 97

34.19.1 General ..................................................................................................... 98

34.19.2 Microwave ................................................................................................. 99

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34.19.3 Heat and photosensitive agents ................................................................ 99

34.19.4 Electrical impedance ................................................................................. 99

34.19.5 Acoustic microscopy ................................................................................. 99

34.19.6 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ....................................................... 100

34.19.7 Neutron radiography ............................................................................... 100

34.19.8 Gamma radiography ............................................................................... 100

34.19.9 D sight - Diffracto sight ............................................................................ 100

34.20.1 General ................................................................................................... 101

34.20.2 Disbonds, voids and porosity .................................................................. 101

34.20.3 Cohesion and adhesion .......................................................................... 102

34.21.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 102

34.21.2 Developments in inspection .................................................................... 103

34.21.3 Summary of NDT techniques .................................................................. 103

34.22.1 Application .............................................................................................. 105

34.23.1 General ................................................................................................... 106

34.23.2 Major items ............................................................................................. 106

34.23.3 Qualification tests .................................................................................... 107

34.26.1 General ................................................................................................... 121

34.26.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 133

35.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 134

35.1.2 Composite structures .............................................................................. 134

35.1.3 Composite materials ............................................................................... 134

36.1.1 Guidelines ............................................................................................... 136

36.2.1 Fiche sheet principle ............................................................................... 136

36.2.2 Specific material specification ................................................................. 137

36.3.1 Scope...................................................................................................... 137

36.3.2 Basic information to be provided by the supplier ..................................... 138

36.4.1 Scope...................................................................................................... 142

36.4.2 Description and classification of prepreg ................................................. 142

36.4.3 Prepreg charachteristics for qualification and batch testing ..................... 143

36.4.4 Laminate Characteristics ......................................................................... 146

36.4.5 Test methods .......................................................................................... 147

36.5.1 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 148

36.5.2 ESA publications ..................................................................................... 148

37.2.1 Design values ......................................................................................... 149

37.3.1 'A' basis allowable ................................................................................... 150

37.3.2 'B' basis allowable ................................................................................... 150

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37.5.1 Material ................................................................................................... 150

37.5.2 Data ........................................................................................................ 151

37.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 155

38.1.1 Processing techniques ............................................................................ 156

38.1.2 Process selection .................................................................................... 156

38.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 157

38.3.2 Wet lamination ........................................................................................ 158

38.3.3 Prepreg lay-up ........................................................................................ 161

38.4.1 Use ......................................................................................................... 165

38.4.2 Basic process .......................................................................................... 165

38.4.3 Bag moulding methods ........................................................................... 166

38.4.4 Features of bag moulding........................................................................ 169

38.4.5 Bagging techniques ................................................................................. 170

38.4.6 Tool materials ......................................................................................... 171

38.4.7 Cure schedules ....................................................................................... 173

38.5.1 Basic process .......................................................................................... 174

38.5.2 Applications............................................................................................. 174

38.5.3 Winding process ..................................................................................... 175

38.5.4 Mandrels ................................................................................................. 176

38.5.5 Sandwich constructions .......................................................................... 176

38.5.6 Tape winding ........................................................................................... 177

38.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 177

38.6.2 Polar winding .......................................................................................... 177

38.6.3 Helical winding ........................................................................................ 179

38.7.1 General ................................................................................................... 180

38.7.2 Basic process .......................................................................................... 180

38.7.3 Applications............................................................................................. 181

38.7.4 Fibre preforms ......................................................................................... 181

38.7.5 Resin injection ......................................................................................... 182

38.7.6 Process variables .................................................................................... 183

38.7.7 Process advantages ................................................................................ 183

38.8.1 Use ......................................................................................................... 184

38.8.2 Basic process .......................................................................................... 184

38.8.3 Pull-forming ............................................................................................. 185

38.9.1 Tubular sections ...................................................................................... 185

38.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 186

38.10.2 Fibre metal laminates .............................................................................. 186

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38.10.3 Thermoplastic composites ....................................................................... 186

38.11.1 General ................................................................................................... 187

38.11.2 Short fibre composites ............................................................................ 187

38.12.1 Process developments ............................................................................ 188

38.12.2 EB electron beam curing ......................................................................... 189

38.12.3 Microwave ............................................................................................... 193

38.12.4 UV curing ................................................................................................ 194

38.13.1 General ................................................................................................... 194

38.13.2 Braids...................................................................................................... 195

38.13.3 Commingled fibre performs ..................................................................... 195

38.14.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 196

38.14.2 Advantages ............................................................................................. 199

38.14.3 Repeatability in lay-up and properties ..................................................... 200

38.14.4 Mixed materials in the same lay-up ......................................................... 201

38.14.5 Major advantages of fibre placement compared with other

technologies ............................................................................................ 202

38.14.6 Examples of European launcher and satellite structures made by

fibre placement ....................................................................................... 203

38.15.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 204

38.15.2 Aerospace structural parts ...................................................................... 204

38.15.3 Composite materials ............................................................................... 205

38.15.4 Tooling .................................................................................................... 205

38.16.1 General ................................................................................................... 206

38.16.2 ECSS standards ..................................................................................... 212

39.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 213

39.2.2 Equipment ............................................................................................... 213

39.3.1 Carbon/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 214

39.3.2 Aramid/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 214

39.3.3 Trimming and bevelling ........................................................................... 215

39.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 216

39.4.2 Fit or trim ................................................................................................. 216

39.4.3 Bonding ................................................................................................... 217

39.4.4 Aramid/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 218

39.5.1 Basic rules .............................................................................................. 218

39.5.2 Bandsawing ............................................................................................ 218

39.5.3 Circular sawing ....................................................................................... 219

39.5.4 Sabre sawing .......................................................................................... 220

39.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 221

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39.6.2 Carbon and glass reinforced epoxy ......................................................... 221

39.6.3 Aramid/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 221

39.8.1 Basic Rules ............................................................................................. 223

39.8.2 Plunge-cut milling .................................................................................... 223

39.9.1 Basic problems ....................................................................................... 224

39.9.2 Drill bits for composites ........................................................................... 225

39.10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 227

39.10.2 Advantages ............................................................................................. 228

39.10.3 Drilling parameters .................................................................................. 228

39.10.4 Equipment ............................................................................................... 228

39.10.5 Application examples .............................................................................. 229

39.11.1 General ................................................................................................... 230

39.11.2 ECSS standards
...

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