Space engineering - Adhesive bonding handbook

This handbook is an acceptable way of meeting the requirements of adhesive materials in bonded
joints of EN 16603-32 (equivalent to ECSS‐E‐ST‐32).

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu geklebten Verbindungen

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de collage

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za lepljenje

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Current Stage

Buy Standard

Technical report
-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022 - BARVE
English language
458 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
01-september-2022
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za lepljenje
Space engineering - Adhesive bonding handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu geklebten Verbindungen
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de collage
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
ICS:
49.025.50 Lepila Adhesives
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-21
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
June 2022
ICS 49.025.50; 49.030.99; 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Adhesive bonding handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de collage Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu geklebten

Verbindungen

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 13 April 2022. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................ 27

1 Scope .................................................................................................................... 28

2 References ........................................................................................................... 29

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ......................................................... 30

3.1 Terms from other documents .................................................................................. 30

3.2 Terms specific to the present document’ ................................................................. 30

3.3 References ............................................................................................................. 48

4 Joining .................................................................................................................. 49

4.1 Joining methods for space structures...................................................................... 49

4.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 49

4.1.2 Adhesive bonding ..................................................................................... 49

4.1.3 Mechanical fastening disadvantages ......................................................... 50

4.2 References ............................................................................................................. 51

4.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 51

4.2.2 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 52

5 Adherends ............................................................................................................ 53

5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 53

5.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 53

5.1.2 Polymer composites .................................................................................. 54

5.1.3 Metals ....................................................................................................... 54

5.1.4 Ceramics ................................................................................................... 55

5.2 Advanced composites ............................................................................................. 56

5.2.1 Polymer-based composites ....................................................................... 56

5.2.2 FML - Fibre metal laminates ...................................................................... 60

5.2.3 MMC - Metal matrix composites ................................................................ 60

5.3 Metals ..................................................................................................................... 61

5.3.1 Structural materials ................................................................................... 61

5.3.2 New materials ........................................................................................... 61

5.4 Higher-temperature applications ............................................................................. 62

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022 (E)

5.4.1 Adherends ................................................................................................ 62

5.4.2 Adhesives ................................................................................................. 62

5.4.3 General guidelines .................................................................................... 64

5.5 Low-temperature and cryogenic applications .......................................................... 64

5.5.1 Adherends ................................................................................................ 64

5.5.2 Adhesives ................................................................................................. 64

5.5.3 General guidelines .................................................................................... 65

5.6 Bonds between adherends ..................................................................................... 65

5.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 65

5.6.2 Composite-to-composite ........................................................................... 65

5.6.3 Composite-to-metal ................................................................................... 66

5.6.4 Metal-to-metal ........................................................................................... 66

5.6.5 Dissimilar materials ................................................................................... 66

5.7 References ............................................................................................................. 67

5.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 67

5.7.2 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 68

6 Adhesive characteristics and properties ........................................................... 69

6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 69

6.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 69

6.1.2 Guidelines ................................................................................................. 69

6.2 Types of adhesives ................................................................................................. 70

6.2.1 Formulation ............................................................................................... 70

6.2.2 Characteristics .......................................................................................... 70

6.2.3 Mechanical properties ............................................................................... 73

6.2.4 Environmental durability ............................................................................ 73

6.2.5 Aerospace structural adhesives ................................................................ 74

6.3 Epoxy-based adhesives .......................................................................................... 74

6.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 74

6.3.2 Properties ................................................................................................. 75

6.3.3 Environmental durability ............................................................................ 80

6.4 Polyimide-based adhesives .................................................................................... 84

6.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 84

6.4.2 Properties ................................................................................................. 85

6.5 Bismaleimide-based adhesives............................................................................... 87

6.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 87

6.5.2 Properties ................................................................................................. 87

6.6 Silicone-based adhesives ....................................................................................... 89

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022 (E)

6.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 89

6.6.2 Properties ................................................................................................. 89

6.6.3 Environmental durability ............................................................................ 91

6.7 Elastomeric adhesives ............................................................................................ 92

6.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 92

6.8 Adhesives used in space ........................................................................................ 92

6.8.1 Adhesive systems ..................................................................................... 92

6.9 References ............................................................................................................. 96

6.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 96

6.9.2 Data sheets ............................................................................................... 97

6.9.3 Sources ..................................................................................................... 98

6.9.4 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 98

6.9.5 Other standards ........................................................................................ 98

7 Adhesive selection .............................................................................................. 99

7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 99

7.2 Adhesive selection factors ...................................................................................... 99

7.2.1 Guidelines ................................................................................................. 99

7.2.2 Evaluation exercise ................................................................................... 99

7.2.3 Trade-off ................................................................................................. 100

7.3 Post application selection factors .......................................................................... 101

7.3.1 Earth environment ................................................................................... 101

7.3.2 Space environment ................................................................................. 103

7.4 Pre-application selection factors ........................................................................... 106

7.4.1 Joint design ............................................................................................. 106

7.4.2 Adhesive systems ................................................................................... 106

7.4.3 Environmental factors ............................................................................. 108

7.4.4 Cost factors ............................................................................................. 108

7.5 Application ............................................................................................................ 109

7.5.1 Method .................................................................................................... 109

7.5.2 Cure factors ............................................................................................ 110

7.5.3 Health and safety .................................................................................... 111

7.6 Adhesive screening criteria for space ................................................................... 112

7.7 References ........................................................................................................... 113

7.7.1 General ................................................................................................... 113

7.7.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 114

7.7.3 Other standards ...................................................................................... 115

8 Basic joint types ................................................................................................ 116

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022 (E)

8.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 116

8.2 Bond or mechanically fasten ................................................................................. 116

8.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 116

8.2.2 Adhesive bonding in the space industry .................................................. 118

8.3 Loading modes ..................................................................................................... 118

8.4 Tensile shear loading ............................................................................................ 119

8.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 119

8.4.2 Joint geometry ........................................................................................ 120

8.4.3 Composite adherends ............................................................................. 122

8.5 References ........................................................................................................... 124

8.5.1 General ................................................................................................... 124

8.5.2 Sources ................................................................................................... 124

8.5.3 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 125

9 Joint selection ................................................................................................... 126

9.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 126

9.2 Joint strength ........................................................................................................ 126

9.2.1 Failure modes ......................................................................................... 126

9.2.2 Guidelines ............................................................................................... 130

9.2.3 Joint design ............................................................................................. 131

9.3 Fatigue resistance ................................................................................................ 132

9.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 132

9.3.2 Joint evaluation ....................................................................................... 132

9.3.3 Factors influencing fatigue resistance ..................................................... 133

9.4 Acoustic fatigue resistance ................................................................................... 135

9.4.1 Bonded carbon/epoxy composite joints ................................................... 135

9.5 References ........................................................................................................... 137

9.5.1 General ................................................................................................... 137

10 Theory and design practices .......................................................................... 138

10.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 138

10.1.1 Analysis .................................................................................................. 138

10.1.2 Factors of safety ..................................................................................... 138

10.2 Basic theories of bonded joints ............................................................................. 138

10.2.1 Shear lag analysis ................................................................................... 138

10.2.2 Linear-elastic stress-strain response ....................................................... 139

10.2.3 Non-linear stress-strain response ............................................................ 139

10.3 Environmental factors for bonded joints ................................................................ 144

10.3.1 Effect of temperature and moisture ......................................................... 144

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022 (E)

10.4 Effect of bonding defects ...................................................................................... 148

10.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 148

10.4.2 Description of bonding defects ................................................................ 148

10.4.3 NDT non-destructive techniques ............................................................. 156

10.5 Double lap and double strap joints ........................................................................ 158

10.5.1 Stress distribution ................................................................................... 158

10.6 Single lap joints .................................................................................................... 162

10.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 162

10.6.2 Load path eccentricity ............................................................................. 162

10.6.3 Joint efficiencies ...................................................................................... 162

10.6.4 Adhesive characteristics.......................................................................... 165

10.7 Double-sided stepped lap joints ............................................................................ 165

10.7.1 Joint strength .......................................................................................... 165

10.7.2 Adherend stiffness balance ..................................................................... 165

10.8 Single-sided stepped lap joints ............................................................................. 168

10.8.1 Joint strength .......................................................................................... 168

10.9 Scarf joints ............................................................................................................ 168

10.9.1 Joint strength .......................................................................................... 168

10.10 Calculation of bonded joint strength ...................................................................... 169

10.11 Analysis of joint configurations .............................................................................. 169

10.11.1 Analytical notation ................................................................................... 169

10.11.2 Single lap shear joint ............................................................................... 170

10.11.3 Double lap shear joint ............................................................................. 173

10.11.4 Double-lap shear joint under mechanical and temperature loads ............ 175

10.11.5 Single taper scarf joint ............................................................................. 183

10.11.6 Double taper scarf joint ........................................................................... 184

10.11.7 Stepped lap joint ..................................................................................... 185

10.11.8 Analysis of environmental factors ............................................................ 186

10.12 Analytical design tools .......................................................................................... 187

10.12.1 General ................................................................................................... 187

10.12.2 Commercial software .............................................................................. 187

10.12.3 In-house software ................................................................................... 187

10.13 ESAComp ........................................................................................................... 187

10.13.1 Background ............................................................................................. 187

10.13.2 Usage and scope .................................................................................... 188

10.13.3 Analysis and data .................................................................................... 188

10.14 Astrium: Example spreadsheet ............................................................................. 191

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022 (E)

10.14.1 General ................................................................................................... 191

10.14.2 Usage and scope .................................................................................... 191

10.14.3 Analysis and data .................................................................................... 191

10.15 ESDU data and software ...................................................................................... 194

10.15.1 General ................................................................................................... 194

10.15.2 ESDU 78042: Bonded joints - 1............................................................... 194

10.15.3 ESDU 79016: Bonded joints – 2 .............................................................. 195

10.15.4 ESDU 80011: Bonded joints – 3 .............................................................. 196

10.15.5 ESDU 80039: Bonded joints – 4 .............................................................. 196

10.15.6 ESDU 81022: Bonded joints – 5 .............................................................. 197

10.16 Design chart ......................................................................................................... 198

10.16.1 Aide memoire .......................................................................................... 198

10.16.2 Joint category .......................................................................................... 198

10.17 References ........................................................................................................... 201

10.17.1 General ................................................................................................... 201

10.17.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 203

10.17.3 Other standards ...................................................................................... 203

11 Design allowables ........................................................................................... 204

11.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 204

11.2 Single lap joint ...................................................................................................... 205

11.2.1 Static loading .......................................................................................... 205

11.2.2 Dynamic loading ..................................................................................... 209

11.3 Double lap joint ..................................................................................................... 211

11.3.1 Static loading .......................................................................................... 211

11.4 Symmetrical double scarf joint .............................................................................. 212

11.4.1 Static loading .......................................................................................... 212

11.4.2 Dynamic loading ..................................................................................... 214

11.5 References ........................................................................................................... 216

11.5.1 General ................................................................................................... 216

11.5.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 216

12 Surface preparation ......................................................................................... 217

12.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 217

12.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 217

12.1.2 Standard processes ................................................................................ 218

12.1.3 Development processes .......................................................................... 219

12.1.4 Process steps ......................................................................................... 219

12.1.5 Legislation ............................................................................................... 219

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022
CEN/TR 17603-32-21:2022 (E)

12.2 Composites: Thermosetting matrix ....................................................................... 219

12.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 219

12.2.2 Techniques ............................................................................................. 220

12.2.3 Abrasion .................................................................................................. 220

12.2.4 Peel ply ................................................................................................... 222

12.3 Composites: Thermoplastic matrix ........................................................................ 222

12.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 222

12.3.2 Proposed methods .................................................................................. 223

12.4 Aluminium alloys ................................................................................................... 224

12.4.1 Aerospace aluminium alloys .................................................................... 224

12.4.2 MMC and Al-Lithium alloys ...................................................................... 224

12.4.3 Optimised Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) etch................................... 225

12.4.4 Phosphoric acid anodising (PAA) ............................................................ 227

12.4.5 Chromic acid anodising (CAA) ................................................................ 227

12.4.6 Boric sulphuric acid anodising (BSAA) .................................................... 228

12.4.7 Thin film sulphuric acid anodising (TFSAA) ............................................. 231

12.4.8 Solvent vapour cleaning .......................................................................... 231

12.4.9 Development processes .......................................................................... 232

12.5 Titanium al
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.