Protective clothing against heat and flame - Determination of heat transmission on exposure to flame (ISO 9151:2016, Corrected version 2017-03)

ISO 9151:2016 specifies a method for determining the heat transmission through materials or material assemblies used in protective clothing. Materials may then be ranked by comparing heat transfer indices, which provide an indication of the relative heat transmission under the specified test conditions. The heat transfer index should not be taken as a measure of the protection time given by the tested materials under actual use conditions.

Schutzkleidung gegen Hitze und Flammen - Bestimmung des Wärmedurchgangs bei Flammeneinwirkung (ISO 9151:2016, korrigierte Fassung 2017-03)

Dieses Dokument legt ein Verfahren für die Bestimmung des Wärmedurchgangs bei in Schutzkleidung verwendeten Materialien oder Materialkombinationen fest. Durch Vergleich der Wärmeübergangsindizes, die als Anhaltspunkt für den relativen Wärmedurchgang unter den festgelegten Prüfbedingungen dienen, kann eine Einstufung der Materialien vorgenommen werden. Der Wärmeübergangsindex sollte nicht als Maß für die angegebene Schutzdauer der geprüften Materialien unter tatsächlichen Einsatzbedingungen angesehen werden.

Vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et les flammes - Détermination de la transmission de chaleur à l'exposition d'une flamme (ISO 9151:2016, Version corrigée 2017-03)

ISO 9151:2016 spécifie une méthode qui vise à déterminer la transmission de chaleur à travers des matériaux ou des assemblages de matériaux utilisés dans les vêtements de protection. Cette méthode permet ensuite de classer les matériaux en comparant les indices de transmission de chaleur, lesquels constituent une indication de la transmission de chaleur relative dans les conditions d'essai spécifiées. Il convient de ne pas considérer l'indice de transmission de chaleur comme une mesure de la durée de protection offerte par les matériaux soumis à essai dans des conditions réelles d'utilisation.

Varovalna obleka pred učinki toplote in ognja - Določanje prenosa toplote pri izpostavljenosti plamenu (ISO 9151:2016)

Ta mednarodni standard določa metodo za primerjavo prenosa toplote skozi materiale ali kombinacije materialov, ki se uporabljajo pri zaščitnih oblekah. Materiali so razvrščeni s pomočjo izračuna indeksa prenosa toplote, ki kaže relativni prenos toplote pri določenih preskusnih pogojih. Indeks prenosa toplote naj se ne uporablja kot merilo za čas trajanja zaščite, ki ga omogočajo preskusni materiali pri dejanskih pogojih uporabe.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Dec-2016
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
07-Dec-2016
Completion Date
07-Dec-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
01-marec-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 367:1996
SIST EN 367:1996/AC:2000
9DURYDOQDREOHNDSUHGXþLQNLWRSORWHLQRJQMD'RORþDQMHSUHQRVDWRSORWHSUL
L]SRVWDYOMHQRVWLSODPHQX ,62

Protective clothing against heat and flame - Determination of heat transmission on

exposure to flame (ISO 9151:2016)
Schutzkleidung gegen Hitze und Flammen - Bestimmung des Wärmedurchgangs bei
Flammeneinwirkung (ISO 9151:2016)
Vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et les flammes - Détermination de la
transmission de chaleur à l'exposition d'une flamme (ISO 9151:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 9151:2016
ICS:
13.340.10 Varovalna obleka Protective clothing
SIST EN ISO 9151:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
EN ISO 9151
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.340.10 Supersedes EN 367:1992
English Version
Protective clothing against heat and flame - Determination
of heat transmission on exposure to flame (ISO
9151:2016)

Vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et les Schutzkleidung gegen Hitze und Flammen -

flammes - Détermination de la transmission de chaleur Bestimmung des Wärmedurchgangs bei

à l'exposition d'une flamme (ISO 9151:2016) Flammeneinwirkung (ISO 9151:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 November 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 9151:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
EN ISO 9151:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 89/686/EEC .......................................................................................... 4

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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
EN ISO 9151:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 9151:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 94 "Personal

safety - Protective clothing and equipment" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 162

“Protective clothing including hand and arm protection and lifejackets” the secretariat of which is held

by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN 367:1992.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,

Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 9151:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 9151:2016 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
EN ISO 9151:2016 (E)
Annex ZA
(informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 89/686/EEC

This European Standard has been prepared under a Commission’s standardization request M/031 to

provide one voluntary means of conforming to essential requirements of Directive 89/686/EEC on the

approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to personal protective equipment.

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Union under that Directive,

compliance with the normative clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of

the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity with the corresponding essential requirements

of that Directive and associated EFTA regulations.

Table ZA.1 — Correspondence between this International Standard and Annex II of the Directive

89/686/EEC Personal Protective Equipment
Essential Requirements of Directive Clause(s)/subclause(s) of
Remarks/Notes
89/686/EEC this International Standard
Together with the

3.6, Protection against heat and/or fire Complete Standard requirements in the product

standard

WARNING 1 — Presumption of conformity stays valid only as long as a reference to this European

Standard is maintained in the list published in the Official Journal of the European Union. Users of this

standard should consult frequently the latest list published in the Official Journal of the European

Union.

WARNING 2 — Other Union legislation may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the scope of

this standard.
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9151
Second edition
2016-11-15
Protective clothing against heat
and flame — Determination of heat
transmission on exposure to flame
Vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et les flammes —
Détermination de la transmission de chaleur à l’exposition d’une
flamme
Reference number
ISO 9151:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Gas burner ......... .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Copper disc calorimeter and mounting block .............................................................................................................. 2

5.4 Specimen support frame ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.5 Calorimeter location plate............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.6 Support stand ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.7 Recorder ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.8 Flat rigid template ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6 Precautions ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1 Specimen dimensions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Number of specimens ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Conditioning and testing atmospheres ......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 Conditioning atmosphere .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.2 Testing atmosphere............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

9 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

9.1 Preparation and calibration ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.1.1 Preliminary procedures ............................................................................................................................................. 9

9.1.2 Regulation of the incident heat flux .............................................................................................................10

9.2 Test specimen mounting ..............................................................................................................................................................11

9.3 Test specimen exposure ...............................................................................................................................................................11

10 Test report (see Annex C) .........................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Significance of the heat transfer test ...................................................................................................13

Annex B (informative) Availability of materials ....................................................................................................................................15

Annex C (informative) Example test report form .................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO)

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/

foreword.html

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 94, Personal safety — Protective clothing and

equipment, Subcommittee SC 13, Protective clothing and by Technical Committee CEN/TC 162, Protective

clothing including hand and arm protection and lifejackets in collaboration.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 9151:1995), of which Clauses/subclauses

2, 3.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 6, 8.1, 8.2, 9.1.2, 9.3.1, 9.3.2, 10, all figures, and Annexes A and B have been

technically revised. Tolerances have been added to specified dimensions where appropriate. Results of

a recent inter-laboratory trial have been added to Annex A.

To improve reproducibility, the following major modifications have been made from the previous

version of this test method:

a) The percentage minimum purity of the propane used has been provided (see 5.2);

b) Two alternative methods for constructing the calorimeter are described with additional

information on the figures; additional instructions are given for inserting the calorimeter into the

mounting block; and the total mass of the calorimeter and mounting block is specified (see 5.3);

c) Tolerances for the dimensions of machined parts have been added to text and drawings where

required;
d) Control of air movement during testing is specified (see Clause 6);

e) The specified relative humidity and temperature ranges for the conditioning and testing

atmospheres have been changed (see 8.1 and 8.2);

f) Additional procedures for calibration and stabilization of thermocouple temperature, including a

procedure to check on the linearity of the thermocouple output during regulation of the incident

heat flux density, have been added (see 9.1.1 and 9.1.2); and
g) Test report requirements have been revised (see Clause 10).
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
Introduction

Heat transmission through clothing is largely determined by its thickness including any air gaps

trapped between adjacent layers. The air gaps can vary considerably in different areas of the same

clothing assembly. The present method provides a grading of materials when tested under standard

test conditions without an air gap.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 9151:2016(E)
Protective clothing against heat and flame —
Determination of heat transmission on exposure to flame
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for determining the heat transmission through materials or

material assemblies used in protective clothing. Materials may then be ranked by comparing heat

transfer indices, which provide an indication of the relative heat transmission under the specified test

conditions. The heat transfer index should not be taken as a measure of the protection time given by the

tested materials under actual use conditions.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5725-2, Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results — Part 2: Basic method

for the determination of repeatability and reproducibility of a standard measurement method

IEC 60584-1, Thermocouples — Part 1: Reference tables

IEC 60584-3, Thermocouples — Part 3: Extension and compensating cables — Tolerances and

identification systems
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
test specimen

all the layers of fabric or other materials arranged in the order and orientation as used in practice,

including, where applicable, undergarment fabrics
3.2
incident heat flux
amount of energy applied to the exposed face of the specimen, per unit time
Note 1 to entry: The unit is kW/m .
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
3.3
heat transfer index
HTI

mean time, t , in whole seconds to achieve a temperature rise of (24 ± 0,2) °C when tested by

the method described in this document using a copper disc of mass (18 ± 0,05) g and incident heat flux

of (80 ± 2) kW/m

Note 1 to entry: Within the context of this document, the heat transfer index refers to the heat transfer between

a flame and the test specimen. See Annex A.
4 Principle

A horizontally oriented test specimen is restrained from moving and subjected to an incident heat

flux of (80 ± 2) kW/m from the flame of a gas burner placed beneath it. The heat passing through

the specimen is measured by means of a small copper calorimeter on top of and in contact with the

specimen. The time, in seconds, for the temperature in the calorimeter to rise (24 ± 0,2) °C is recorded.

The mean result for three test specimens is calculated as the “heat transfer index (flame)”.

5 Apparatus
5.1 General
The apparatus consists of:
— a Meker gas burner;
— a copper disc calorimeter;
— a specimen support frame;
— a calorimeter location plate;
— a support stand;
— suitable measuring and recording equipment;
— a template.
5.2 Gas burner

A flat topped Meker burner with a perforated top area of (38 ± 2) mm diameter and a jet suitable for

propane gas shall be used. (See Annex B for possible sources.)

Commercial grade propane of 95 % minimum purity shall be used with the flow being controlled by a

fine control valve and flow meter. Alternatively, other gases may be used but such use shall be reported

as part of the test report.
5.3 Copper disc calorimeter and mounting block

Copper disc calorimeter, consisting of a disc of copper of minimum 99 % purity, having a diameter of

(40 ± 0,05) mm and thickness 1,6 mm, and a mass of (18 ± 0,05) g. The disc shall be weighed before

drilling and assembly.

The calorimeter shall be constructed as indicated in Figure 1 (method A) or Figure 2 (method B).

Insulated copper-constantan thermocouple wire in accordance with IEC 60584-1 and IEC 60584-3,

diameter 0,254 mm ± 002 mm shall be used. The constantan wire shall be either inserted into predrilled

hole in the centre of the calorimeter and soldered in place with a minimum of solder (method A) or

shall be soldered to the back face of the calorimeter as shown in Figure 2 (method B). The copper wire

2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)

shall be attached in the same manner, 15 mm to 18 mm from the centre, so as not to interfere with the

seating of disc in the mounting block.
NOTE The specified thermocouple wire is equivalent to Type T – 36 gauge.

The calorimeter is located in a mounting block which shall consist of a 89 mm diameter circular piece

of asbestos-free non-combustible heat insulating board (See Annex B) of nominal thickness 13 mm (see

Figure 3). The thermal characteristics shall comply with the following specification:

Density (750 ± 100) kg/m
Thermal conductivity (0,180 ± 0,018) W/(m·K)

A circular cavity is machined in the centre of the block to accommodate the disc and an air gap as shown

in Figure 3. The disc is held in position using small stainless steel pins (0,45 mm diameter or less)

which protrude through the back of the insulating block with sufficient length that they can be used to

secure the disc (method A – Figure 4). The mounting pins shall be stainless steel, soft soldered to the

calorimeter using the minimum quantity of solder necessary. If method B of mounting the calorimeter

is chosen the calorimeter shall be attached to the mounting block with a suitable high temperature

adhesive.

The face of the copper disc shall be flush with the surface of the mounting block. It shall also be coated

with a thin layer of an optically black paint having a coefficient of absorption, α, greater than 0,9 (see

Annex B).
The total mass of the calorimeter/mounting block assembly shall be (80 ± 10) g.
Dimensions in millimetres
a) Calorimeter assembly with mounting pins omitted for clarity
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
b) Copper calorimeter showing location c) Copper calorimeter assembly
of mounting pins (additional thermocouple
wires omitted for clarity)
Key
1 thermocouple wire 5 mounting pin
2 blind hole for mounting pin 6 copper wire
3 blind hole for thermocouple 7 copper disk
4 constantan wire X detail scale 5:1
Figure 1 — Copper calorimeter (method A)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 copper thermocouple wire, as close as practical to edge of calorimeter
2 constantan thermocouple wire, approximately centre of calorimeter

Figure 2 — Alternative calorimeter construction (method B) (additional thermocouple wires

omitted for clarity)
4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 heat insulation board
2 cavity
Figure 3 — Calorimeter mounting block (informative)
Key
1 copper calorimeter
2 0,45 mm stainless pin
3 2-56 set screw
4 thermocouple wires
5 sensor mounting block
6 flat washer
7 2-56 hex nut
Figure 4 — Calorimeter and mounting block assembly (method A shown)
5.4 Specimen support frame
+05,

Specimen support frame consisting of a piece of mild steel (carbon content < 0,5 %) (150 ) mm

square and (1,6 ± 0,1) mm thick with a (50 ± 0,5) mm square hole in its centre (see Figure 5). Materials

+05,

other than mild steel (e.g. copper) may also be used. Tolerances for machined parts shall be mm to

fit the calorimeter location plate.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
5.5 Calorimeter location plate

Calorimeter location plate made from a piece of aluminium (149 ) mm square and (6 ±0,1) mm thick

−05,

and having a circular hole 90 mm in diameter located centrally (see Figure 6). The plate shall have a

mass of (264 ± 13) g. Tolerances for machined parts shall be mm to fit the specimen support frame.

−05,
5.6 Support stand

Support stand, used to locate the specimen and calorimeter relative to the burner. The top face of the

specimen support stand shall be (50 ± 2) mm above and parallel with the top face of the burner, with

the axis of the burner aligned with the centre of the opening in the support frame (see Figure 7).

It is convenient to have a shutter between the burner and the specimen support frame. If used, the

shutter shall open completely in less than 0,5 s and shall be operated immediately after placing the

burner in position. It is useful if the positioning of the burner, or the opening of the shutter, if fitted, can

be used to record the start of the exposure.
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 5 — Specimen support frame
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 6 — Calorimeter location plate
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 sensor mounting block
2 copper calorimeter
3 thermocouple wires
4 sensor locating plate
5 support stand
6 Meker burner
Figure 7 — Equipment setup
5.7 Recorder

The output of the thermocouple shall be read using a recorder or data logger with a temperature

resolution of at least 0,25 °C and a time resolution of a minimum of 0,2 s.
5.8 Flat rigid template

Flat rigid template, with dimensions 140 mm × 140 mm, used for cutting material specimens.

8 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9151:2017
ISO 9151:2016(E)
6 Precautions

Perform the test in a hood or ventilated area to carry away the fumes. The test location should be

surrounded by a volume of air sufficient not to be affected by any reduction of oxygen concentration. It

may be necessary to turn off the exhaust or to shield the apparatus during the test so as not to disturb

the flame. Air movement at the point of test shall be less than 0,2 m/s at the commencement of the test

of each specimen. The equipment becomes hot during testing and some test materials may melt or drip.

Use protective gloves when handling hot objects.

Keep combustible materials away from the burner. Ensure that the solvent used for cleaning the

calorimeter is kept away from hot surfaces and naked flames.
7 Sampling
...

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