Low-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath

Is intended to define polyolefin insulated cables for insertion into local outdoor networks.is applicable to polyolefin insulated and moisture barrier polyolefin sheathed telephone cables, filled or unfilled with copper conductors,includes general design details and requirements for dimensions and other constructional details as well as mechanical, electrical and environmental characteristics for all types of low-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation (solid or cellular), filled or unfilled, and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath (with integral suspension strand)

Niederfrequenzkabel mit Isolierung aus Polyolefin und mit Polyolefin-Schichtenmantel

Câbles pour basses fréquences à isolation polyoléfine et gaine polyoléfine à barrière d'étanchéité

Is intended to define polyolefin insulated cables for insertion into local outdoor networks.is applicable to polyolefin insulated and moisture barrier polyolefin sheathed telephone cables, filled or unfilled with copper conductors,includes general design details and requirements for dimensions and other constructional details as well as mechanical, electrical and environmental characteristics for all types of low-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation (solid or cellular), filled or unfilled, and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath (with integral suspension strand)

Nizkofrekvenčni kabli s poliolefinsko izolacijo in poliolefinskim plaščem za zaščito pred vlago (IEC 60708:2005)

Ta standard je namenjen opredelitvi kablov s poliolefinsko izolacijo za vstavitev v lokalna zunanja omrežja. Ta standard se uporablja za telefonske kable s poliolefinsko izolacijo in poliolefinskim plaščem za zaščito pred vlago, ki so ali niso polnjeni z bakrenimi vodniki in se uporabljajo kot: a) kabli, primerni za napeljavo v kanale; b) kabli, primerni za neposreden vkop v zemljo; c) kabli z vgrajeno prekinitveno žico za antenske napeljave. Ta standard je v skladu s priporočili ITU-T. Ta standard vključuje splošne podrobnosti o zasnovi in zahteve za mere ter druge konstrukcijske podrobnosti kot tudi mehanske, električne in okoljske lastnosti za vse vrste nizkofrekvenčnih kablov s poliolefinsko izolacijo (trde ali mobilne), polnjene ali nepolnjene, in kable s poliolefinskim plaščem za zaščito pred vlago (z vgrajeno prekinitveno žico).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Nov-2005
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
29-Nov-2005
Completion Date
29-Nov-2005

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Niederfrequenzkabel mit Isolierung aus Polyolefin und mit Polyolefin-SchichtenmantelCâbles pour basses fréquences à isolation polyoléfine et gaine polyoléfine à barrière d'étanchéitéLow-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath29.060.20KabliCablesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 60708:2005SIST EN 60708:2008en,de01-november-2008SIST EN 60708:2008SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 60708:2008
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 60708 NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM

November 2005 CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2005 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60708:2005 E
ICS 29.060.20
English version
Low-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation
and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath (IEC 60708:2005)
Câbles pour basses fréquences

à isolation polyoléfine et gaine polyoléfine à barrière d'étanchéité (CEI 60708:2005)

Niederfrequenzkabel mit Isolierung
aus Polyolefin und mit Polyolefin-Schichtenmantel (IEC 60708:2005)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2005-09-13. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

SIST EN 60708:2008
EN 60708:2005 - 2 -

Foreword The text of document 46C/713/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 60708, prepared by SC 46C, Wires and symmetric cables, of IEC TC 46, Cables, wires, waveguides, R.F. connectors, R.F. and microwave passive components and accessories, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as EN 60708 on 2005-09-13. The following dates were fixed: – latest date by which the EN has to be implemented

at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement
(dop)
2006-07-01 – latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn
(dow)

2008-10-01 Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC. __________ Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 60708:2005 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard without any modification. __________ SIST EN 60708:2008

- 3 - «Field32»
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications

with their corresponding European publications The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. NOTE Where an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies. Publication Year Title EN/HD Year IEC 60028 – 1) International standard of resistance for copper

- - IEC 60189-1 – 1) Low-frequency cables and wires with PVC insulation and PVC sheath Part 1: General test and measuring methods - - IEC 60304 – 1) Standard colours for insulation for low-frequency cables and wires

HD 402 S2 1984 2) IEC 60794-1-2 – 1) Optical fibre cables Part 1-2: Generic specification - Basic optical cable test procedures

EN 60794-1-2 2003 2) IEC 60811-1-1 – 1) Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables - Common test methods Part 1-1: General application - Measurement of thickness and overall dimensions - Tests for determining the mechanical properties

EN 60811-1-1 1995 2) IEC 60811-1-2 – 1) Part 1-2: General application - Thermal ageing methods

EN 60811-1-2 1995 2) IEC 60811-1-3 – 1) Part 1-3: General application - Methods for determining the density - Water absorption tests - Shrinkage test

EN 60811-1-3 1995 2) IEC 60811-1-4 – 1) Part 1-4: General application - Tests at low temperature

EN 60811-1-4 1995 2)
1) undated reference. 2) valid edition at date of issue. SIST EN 60708:2008
EN 60708:2005 - 4 -

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year IEC 60811-4-1 – 1) Part 4-1: Methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds - Resistance to environmental stress cracking - Measurement of the melt flow index - Carbon black and/or mineral filler content measurement in polyethylene by direct combustion - Measurement of carbon black content by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) - Assessment of carbon black dispersion in polyethylene using a microscope

EN 60811-4-1 2004 2) IEC 60811-4-2

– 1) Part 4-2: Methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds - Tensile strength and elongation at break after conditioning at elevated temperature - Wrapping test after conditioning at elevated temperature - Wrapping test after thermal ageing in air - Measurement of mass increase - Long-term stability test - Test method for copper-catalyzed oxidative degradation

EN 60811-4-2 2004 2) IEC 60811-5-1 (mod) – 1) Part 5-1: Methods specific to filling compounds - Drop point - Separation of oil - Lower temperature brittleness - Total acid number - Absence of corrosive components - Permittivity at 23 °C - D.C. resistivity

at 23 °C and 100 °C

EN 60811-5-1 1999 2) IEC 61156-1 – 1) Multicore and symmetrical pair/quad cables for digital communications Part 1: Generic specification

- - ITU-T L.3 – 1) Armouring of cables
- -
SIST EN 60708:2008

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IEC60708 First edition2005-06 Low-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath  IEC 2005

Copyright - all rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher. International Electrotechnical Commission,

3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, SwitzerlandTelephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch

Web: www.iec.ch U For price, see current cataloguePRICE CODE

Commission Electrotechnique InternationaleInternational Electrotechnical CommissionSIST EN 60708:2008

– 2 – 60708  IEC:2005(E) CONTENTS FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................4 1 Scope...............................................................................................................................6 2 Normative references.......................................................................................................6 3 Quality assurance.............................................................................................................7 4 Cable construction............................................................................................................7 4.1 Conductor...............................................................................................................7 4.1.1 Conductor material......................................................................................7 4.1.2 Type of conductor........................................................................................7 4.1.3 Conductor-finish..........................................................................................7 4.1.4 Continuity of conductor................................................................................7 4.2 Insulation................................................................................................................8 4.2.1 Insulation material.......................................................................................8 4.2.2 Insulation thickness.....................................................................................8 4.2.3 Colour of insulated conductor......................................................................8 4.3 Cabling element......................................................................................................8 4.4 Stranding................................................................................................................8 4.5 Colour code.............................................................................................................8 4.5.1 General.......................................................................................................8 4.5.2 Sub-units, units and cables up to and including 100 pairs or 100 quads...................................................................................................9 4.5.3 Cables of more than 100 pairs or 100 quads................................................9 4.6 Spare pairs or quads.............................................................................................10 4.7 Filling....................................................................................................................10 4.8 Core protection.....................................................................................................10 4.9 Sheath..................................................................................................................10 4.9.1 Sheath material.........................................................................................10 4.9.2 Application of the sheath...........................................................................10 4.10 Cable protection....................................................................................................11 4.11 Finished cable.......................................................................................................11 4.11.1 Overall diameter........................................................................................11 4.11.2 Sheath marking.........................................................................................11 4.11.3 Sealing of ends.........................................................................................12 4.12 Delivery.................................................................................................................12 5 Mechanical requirements................................................................................................12 5.1 Conductor.............................................................................................................12 5.2 Insulation..............................................................................................................12 5.3 Sheath..................................................................................................................12 5.3.1 Tensile strength and elongation.................................................................12 5.3.2 Adhesion of aluminium tape to the polyethylene........................................12 5.3.3 Adhesion of aluminium tape at the overlap................................................13 5.4 Finished cable.......................................................................................................13 5.4.1 Sheath integrity.........................................................................................13 5.4.2 Resistance to water penetration................................................................13 5.4.3 Cable drip..................................................................................................13 SIST EN 60708:2008

60708  IEC:2005(E) – 3 –

6 Thermal stability and environmental requirements..........................................................13 6.1 Insulation..............................................................................................................13 6.1.1 Thermal oxidative stability (OIT-test).........................................................13 6.1.2 Shrinkage..................................................................................................14 6.1.3 Wrapping test of insulation after thermal aging..........................................14 6.1.4 Bending test at low temperature................................................................14 6.2 Sheath..................................................................................................................14 6.2.1 Elongation at break after ageing................................................................14 6.2.2 Resistance to weathering..........................................................................14 6.2.3 Resistance to environmental stress cracking.............................................14 7 Electrical requirements...................................................................................................14 7.1 General.................................................................................................................14 7.2 Electrical resistance of conductor..........................................................................14 7.3 Electrical resistance unbalance.............................................................................15 7.4 Dielectric strength.................................................................................................15 7.5 Insulation resistance.............................................................................................15 7.6 Mutual capacitance...............................................................................................15 7.7 Capacitance unbalance.........................................................................................16 7.8 Transmission characteristics (when used for digital communication)......................17 7.8.1 Attenuation................................................................................................17 7.8.2 Near End Crosstalk (NEXT).......................................................................17 7.8.3 Equal Level Far-end Crosstalk (ELFEXT)..................................................17 7.8.4 Power sum (PS) of crosstalk loss..............................................................17 7.8.5 Characteristic impedance..........................................................................17 7.8.6 Velocity of propagation..............................................................................17

Annex A (normative) Colour code: 10 pair or 5 quad count....................................................19 Annex B (normative) Colour code: sub-unit identification for 50 pair (25 quad)

and 100 pair (50 quad) cables or units, using 10 pair or 5 quad count.........................................20 Annex C (normative) Colour code: 25 pair count...................................................................21 Annex D (normative) Colour code: unit identification for 50 pair or quad and 100 pair

or quad cables or units, using 25 pair or quad count.............................................................22 Annex E (normative) Colour code: 25 quad count.................................................................23 Annex F (normative) Colour code: unit identification for cables

with more than 100 pairs, 25 pair count........................................................................................................24 Annex G (normative) Colour code: unit identification for cables

with more than 100 pairs or 50 quads, using 10 pair
or 5 quad count or 25 quad count................................26
SIST EN 60708:2008
– 4 – 60708  IEC:2005(E) INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION ____________

LOW-FREQUENCY CABLES WITH POLYOLEFIN INSULATION AND MOISTURE BARRIER POLYOLEFIN SHEATH

FOREWORD 1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. 2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user. 4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter. 5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication. 6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication. 7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is indispensable for the correct application of this publication. 9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. International Standard IEC 60708 has been prepared by subcommittee 46C: Wires and symmetric cables, of IEC technical committee 46: Cables, wires, waveguides, r.f. connectors, r.f. and microwave passive components and accessories. IEC 60708 cancels and replaces IEC 60708-1 published in 1981 and amendment 3(1988). This edition constitutes a technical revision. IEC 60708 has been completely revised technically and structurally. IEC 60708 now comprises only one single standard dealing with general design details and requirements. The old IEC 60708-2(1981), IEC 60708-3(1981) and IEC 60708-4(1983) have already been withdrawn because they are not used anymore. Although IEC 60708 addresses low frequency cables, these cables are often used for digital communications up to 2 Mbit/s or 1 MHz. Therefore a Subclause 7.8 has been added, which provides transmission characteristics for the cable when used for digital communication. Furthermore, Annex H of IEC 60708-1(1981) was deleted: The requirements for filling compounds are not needed anymore since they are covered by the cable performance requirements.

SIST EN 60708:2008
60708  IEC:2005(E) – 5 –

The text of this standard is based on the following documents: FDIS Report on voting 46C/713/FDIS 46C/728/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above Table. This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed; • withdrawn; • replaced by a revised edition, or • amended. A bilingual version of this standard may be issued at a later date.

SIST EN 60708:2008

– 6 – 60708  IEC:2005(E) LOW-FREQUENCY CABLES WITH POLYOLEFIN INSULATION AND MOISTURE BARRIER POLYOLEFIN SHEATH

1 Scope This standard is intended to define polyolefin-insulated cables for insertion into local outdoor networks. This standard is applicable to polyolefin insulated and moisture barrier polyolefin sheathed telephone cables, filled or unfilled with copper conductors, and used as: a)

Cables suitable for installation in ducts. b)
Cables suitable for direct burial in the ground. c)

Cables with integral suspension strand for aerial installations. This standard is in accordance with ITU-T Recommendations. This standard includes general design details and requirements for dimensions and other constructional details as well as mechanical, electrical and environmental characteristics for all types of low-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation (solid or cellular), filled or unfilled, and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath (with integral suspension strand). 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. IEC 60028, International Standard of Resistance for Copper IEC 60189-1, Low-frequency cables and wires with PVC Insulation and PVC sheath – Part 1: General test and measuring methods IEC 60304, Standard colours for insulation for low-frequency cables and wires IEC 60794-1-2, Optical fibre cables – Part 1-2: Generic specification – Basic optical cable test procedures IEC 60811-1-1, Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables – Part 1: Methods for general application – Section 1: Measurement of thickness and overall dimensions – Tests for determining the mechanical properties IEC 60811-1-2, Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables – Part 1: Methods for general application – Section Two: Thermal ageing methods IEC 60811-1-3, Insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables – Part 1: General application – Section 3: Methods for determining the density – Water absorption tests – Shrinkage test IEC 60811-1-4, Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables – Part 1: Methods for general application – Section Four – Test at low temperature SIST EN 60708:2008

60708  IEC:2005(E) – 7 –

IEC 60811-4-1, Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables – Common test methods – Part 4-1: Methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds – Resistance to environmental stress cracking – Measurement of the melt flow index – Carbon black and/or mineral filler content measurement in polyethylene by direct combustion – Measurement of carbon black content by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) – Assessment of carbon black dispersion in polyethylene using a microscope IEC 60811-4-2, Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables – Common test methods – Part 4-2: Methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds – Tensile strength and elongation at break after conditioning at elevated temperature – Wrapping test after conditioning at elevated temperature – Wrapping test after thermal ageing in air – Measurement of mass increase – Long-term stability test – Test method for copper-catalyzed oxidative degradation IEC 60811-5-1, Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables – Part 5-1: Methods specific to filling compounds – Drop point – Separation of oil – Lower temperature brittleness – Total acid number – Absence of corrosive components – Permittivity at 23 °C – DC resistivity at 23 °C and 100 °C IEC 61156-1, Multicore and symmetrical pair/quad cables for digital communications – Part 1: Generic specification ITU-T L.3, Armouring of cables 3 Quality assurance It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to establish quality assurance by quality control procedures which will ensure that the product will meet the requirements of this standard. It is not intended that a complete testing programme shall be carried out on every length of conductor and cable. When the purchaser wishes to specify acceptance tests or other quality procedures, it is essential that agreement be reached between the purchaser and the manufacturer by the time of ordering. 4 Cable construction 4.1 Conductor 4.1.1 Conductor material The conductor shall consist of annealed copper, uniform in quality and free from defects. The properties of the copper shall be in accordance with IEC 60028. 4.1.2 Type of conductor The conductor shall consist of a single strand circular in section. The nominal diameter shall be at least 0,4 mm. 4.1.3 Conductor-finish The conductor shall be plain. 4.1.4 Continuity of conductor Joints in the conductor are permitted provided that the tensile strength of a joint is not less than 90 % of the tensile strength of the unjointed conductor. SIST EN 60708:2008

– 8 – 60708  IEC:2005(E) 4.2 Insulation 4.2.1 Insulation material The conductor shall be covered with solid or cellular polyolefin insulation or any combination thereof. For cellular insulation, the cells produced by the expanding process shall be uniformly distributed circumferentially and should be substantially non-intercommunicating. The material for the insulation shall be a virgin thermoplastic compound suitably stabilized. Examples of suitable materials are: – Polyethylene. – Polypropylene. 4.2.2 Insulation thickness The insulation shall be continuous and shall have a thickness such that the completed cable will meet the electrical requirements specified. 4.2.3 Colour of insulated conductor The insulated conductors shall be coloured. Colours shall be readily identifiable and shall correspond reasonably with the standard colours shown in IEC 60304. 4.3 Cabling element A cabling element (Figure 1) shall be: - a pair of two insulated conductors twisted together and designated wire a and b respectively, or - a quad of four insulated conductors twisted together and designated wire a, wire c, wire b, and wire d respectively. The maximum length of lay in the finished cable shall not exceed 150 mm. NOTE Forming the element with a variable lay can lead to the infrequent but acceptable occurrence of the maximum lay being longer than specified. 4.4 Stranding The cable elements shall be formed into a number of sub-units or units which can be stranded into a regular make up to produce the required number of pairs. 4.5 Colour code 4.5.1 General Three different colour schemes for identifying pair or quad counts are defined. One with 10 pair or 5 quad sub-units, one for 25 pair colour groups and a third for 25 quad colour groups. SIST EN 60708:2008

60708  IEC:2005(E) – 9 –

4.5.2 Sub-units, units and cables up to and including 100 pairs or 100 quads 4.5.2.1 10 pair or 5 quad count The pairs or quads shall be identified by each insulated conductor having a single colour in accordance with the colour scheme given in Annex A. Sub-units of 10 pairs or 5 quads shall be identified by coloured bindings of tape or threads according to the colour scheme given in Annex B for assembly into units of 50 pairs (25 quads) or 100 pairs (50 quads). 4.5.2.2 25 pair count The pairs shall be identified by each insulated conductor having a single colour in accordance with the colour scheme given in Annex C. Sub-units shall be identified by coloured bindings of tape or threads. Each group of sub-units making up a 25 pair count shall be identified by a common colour of bindings. For 50 and 100 pair cables the colours of the bindings are given in Annex D. 4.5.2.3 25 quad count The quads shall be identified by each insulated conductor having a single colour in accord-ance with the colour scheme given in Annex E. Sub-units shall be identified by coloured bindings of tape or threads. Each group of sub-units making up a 25 quad count shall be identified by a common colour of bindings. For 50 quad (100 pair) and 100 quad (200 pair) cables the colours of the bindings are given in Annex D. 4.5.3 Cables of more than 100 pairs or 100 quads Cables shall be assembled in concentric layers of units. The units shall be identified by coloured bindings of tape or threads. 4.5.3.1 Marker / reference identification system In each layer, the marker unit shall be identified by red coloured bindings, the reference unit shall be identified by green coloured bindings and the other units shall be identified by bind-ings of a contrasting or natural colour. The m

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