Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 2: Stationary batteries

IEC 62485-2:2010 applies to stationary secondary batteries and battery installations with a maximum voltage of DC 1 500 V (nominal) and describes the principal measures for protections against hazards generated from: - electricity, - gas emission, - electrolyte. This International Standard provides requirements on safety aspects associated with the erection, use, inspection, maintenance and disposal. It covers lead-acid and NiCd/NiMH batteries.

Sicherheitsanforderungen an Sekundär-Batterien und Batterieanlagen - Teil 2: Stationäre Batterien

Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs et les installations de batteries - Partie 2: Batteries stationnaires

La CEI 62485-2:2010 s'applique aux batteries d'accumulateurs stationnaires et aux installations de batteries d'une tension maximale de 1 500 V (nominale) en courant continu et décrit les principales mesures pour la protection contre les risques générés par: - l'électricité, - les émissions gazeuses, - l'électrolyte. Cette norme internationale fournit les exigences concernant les aspects de sécurité liés à la mise en uvre, à l'utilisation, au contrôle, à la maintenance et à la mise au rebut. Elle couvre les accumulateurs au plomb et au NiCd/NiMH.

Varnostne zahteve za sekundarne baterije in baterijske naprave - 2. del: Nepremične baterije

Ta del standarda IEC 62485 se uporablja za nepremične sekundarne baterije in baterijske naprave z najvišjo (nazivno) enosmerno napetostjo 1500 V ter opisuje glavne ukrepe za zaščito pred nevarnostmi, ki jih povzročajo:
– električna energija;
– plinaste emisije;
– elektrolit.
Ta mednarodni standard določa zahteve glede varnostnih vidikov, povezanih z namestitvijo, uporabo, pregledi, vzdrževanjem in odstranjevanjem.
Obravnava svinčeno-kislinske ter nikelj-kadmijeve/nikljeve kovinsko-hidridne baterije.
Primeri glavnih vrst uporabe:
– telekomunikacije;
– obratovanje elektrarne;
– osrednja zasilna razsvetljava in alarmni sistemi;
– napajalniki za neprekinjeno napajanje;
– vgrajene naprave za zagon vozil;
– fotonapetostni sistemi.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-May-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
04-May-2018
Completion Date
04-May-2018

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
01-oktober-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 50272-2:2002
9DUQRVWQH]DKWHYH]DVHNXQGDUQHEDWHULMHLQEDWHULMVNHQDSUDYHGHO
1HSUHPLþQHEDWHULMH

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 2: Stationary

batteries

Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs et les installations de batteries

- Partie 2: Batteries stationnaires
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 62485-2:2018
ICS:
29.220.20 .LVOLQVNLVHNXQGDUQLþOHQLLQ Acid secondary cells and
EDWHULMH batteries
29.220.30 $ONDOQLVHNXQGDUQLþOHQLLQ Alkaline secondary cells and
EDWHULMH batteries
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 62485-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
May 2018
ICS 29.220.20; 29.220.30 Supersedes EN 50272-2:2001
English Version
Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery
installations - Part 2: Stationary batteries
(IEC 62485-2:2010)

Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs et Sicherheitsanforderungen an Sekundär-Batterien und

les installations de batteries - Partie 2: Batteries Batterieanlagen - Teil 2: Stationäre Batterien

stationnaires (IEC 62485-2:2010)
(IEC 62485-2:2010)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2018-04-09. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 62485-2:2018 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
EN IEC 62485-2:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN IEC 62485-2:2018) consists of the text of IEC 62485-2:2010 prepared by

IEC/TC 21 "Secondary cells and batteries".
The following dates are fixed:
• latest date by which this document has to be (dop) 2019-04-09
implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement
(dow) 2021-04-09
• latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with this document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 50272-2:2001.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62485-2:2010 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60065 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60065.
IEC 60079-10-1:2008 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60079-10-1:2009 (not modified).
IEC 60364-1 NOTE Harmonized as HD 60364-1.
IEC 60364-4-42 NOTE Harmonized as HD 60364-4-42.
IEC 60364-5-54 NOTE Harmonized as HD 60364-5-54.
IEC 60364-7-706 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60364-7-706.
IEC 60950-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60950-1.
IEC 60990 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60990.
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SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
EN IEC 62485-2:2018 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60364-4-41 - Low-voltage electrical installations -- Part HD 60364-4-41 -
4-41: Protection for safety - Protection
against electric shock
IEC 60364-4-43 - Low voltage electrical installations -- Part HD 60364-4-43 -
4-43: Protection for safety - Protection
against overcurrent
IEC 60364-5-53 - Electrical installations of buildings -- Part 5-- -
53: Selection and erection of electrical
equipment - Isolation, switching and control
IEC 60529 1989 Degrees of protection provided by EN 60529 1991
enclosures (IP Code)
- - + corrigendum May 1993
IEC 60622 2002 Secondary cells and batteries containing EN 60622 2003
alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes -
Sealed nickel-cadmium prismatic
rechargeable single cells
IEC 60623 2001 Secondary cells and batteries containing EN 60623 2001
alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes -
Vented nickel-cadmium prismatic
rechargeable single cells
IEC 60664-1 - Insulation coordination for equipment EN 60664-1 -
within low-voltage systems -- Part 1:
Principles, requirements and tests
IEC 60896-11 2002 Stationary lead-acid batteries -- Part 11: EN 60896-11 2003
Vented types - General requirements and
methods of tests
IEC 60896-21 2004 Stationary lead-acid batteries -- Part 21: EN 60896-21 2004
Valve regulated types - Methods of test
IEC 60896-22 2004 Stationary lead-acid batteries -- Part 22: EN 60896-22 2004
Valve regulated types - Requirements
IEC 60900 - Live working - Hand tools for use up to 1 EN 60900 -
000 V a.c. and 1 500 V d.c.
IEC 61140 - Protection against electric shock - EN 61140 -
Common aspects for installation and
equipment
IEC 61340-4-1 - Electrostatics -- Part 4-1: Standard test EN 61340-4-1 -
methods for specific applications -
Electrical resistance of floor coverings and
installed floors
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SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
EN IEC 62485-2:2018 (E)
IEC 61660-1 - Short-circuit currents in d.c. auxiliary EN 61660-1 -
installations in power plants and
substations -- Part 1: Calculation of short-
circuit currents
IEC 61660-2 - Short-circuit currents in d.c. auxiliary EN 61660-2 -
installations in power plants and
substations -- Part 2: Calculation of effects
IEC 62259 2003 Secondary cells and batteries containing EN 62259 2004
alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes -
Nickel-cadmium prismatic secondary single
cells with partial gas recombination
ISO 3864 series Graphical symbols - Safety colours and - -
safety signs
IEC/TR 60755 - General requirements for residual current - -
operated protective devices
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
IEC 62485-2
Edition 1.0 2010-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations –
Part 2: Stationary batteries
Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d’accumulateurs et les installations
de batteries –
Partie 2: Batteries stationnaires
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 29.220.20; 29.220.30 ISBN 978-2-88910-996-8
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
– 2 – 62485-2 © IEC:2010
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................4

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................6

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references........................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................8

4 Protection against electric shock.....................................................................................10

4.1 General .................................................................................................................10

4.2 Protection against direct contact ............................................................................11

4.3 Protection against indirect contact .........................................................................11

4.3.1 Protection by automatic disconnection of supply.........................................12

4.3.2 Protection by use of class II equipment or by equivalent insulation .............16

4.3.3 Protection by electrical separation..............................................................16

4.4 Protection against both direct and indirect contact..................................................16

4.4.1 General .....................................................................................................16

4.4.2 Protection by Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) or by Protective Extra

Low Voltage (PELV)...................................................................................16

4.4.3 Protection by Functional Extra Low Voltage (FELV) without protective

separation .................................................................................................17

5 Disconnection and separation .........................................................................................17

6 Prevention of short circuits and protection from other effects of electric current ...............17

6.1 General .................................................................................................................17

6.2 Short-circuits .........................................................................................................18

6.3 Protective measures during maintenance...............................................................18

6.4 Leakage currents...................................................................................................19

7 Provisions against explosion hazards ..............................................................................19

7.1 Gas generation......................................................................................................19

7.2 Ventilation requirements ........................................................................................19

7.3 Natural ventilation..................................................................................................21

7.4 Forced ventilation ..................................................................................................22

7.5 Charging modes ....................................................................................................22

7.6 Overcharging under fault conditions .......................................................................22

7.7 Close vicinity to the battery ....................................................................................22

7.8 Prevention of electrostatic discharges when working with batteries.........................23

8 Provision against electrolyte hazard ................................................................................23

8.1 Electrolyte and water .............................................................................................23

8.2 Protective clothing .................................................................................................23

8.3 Accidental contact and "First Aid"...........................................................................23

8.3.1 General .....................................................................................................23

8.3.2 Eye contact................................................................................................24

8.3.3 Skin contact...............................................................................................24

8.4 Battery accessories and maintenance tools............................................................24

9 Accommodation, housing ................................................................................................24

9.1 General .................................................................................................................24

9.2 Specific requirements for separate battery rooms...................................................24

9.3 Specific requirements for the specially separated areas in rooms

accommodating electrical equipment .....................................................................25

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SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
62485-2 © IEC:2010 – 3 –

9.4 Battery enclosures .................................................................................................25

9.5 Working on or near batteries..................................................................................26

9.5.1 Working distances within battery rooms .....................................................26

9.5.2 Remarks on special work in battery rooms .................................................26

9.6 Accommodation of lead-acid and NiCd batteries in the same room .........................26

10 Charge current requirements ..........................................................................................26

10.1 Superimposed ripple current ..................................................................................26

10.2 Maximum ripple current .........................................................................................27

11 Identification labels, warning notices and instructions for use, installation and

maintenance...................................................................................................................27

11.1 Warning labels and notices in rooms......................................................................27

11.2 Identification labels or marking on cells and monobloc batteries .............................27

11.3 Instructions for use, installation and maintenance ..................................................28

12 Transportation, storage, disposal and environmental aspects ..........................................28

12.1 Packing and transport............................................................................................28

12.2 Dismantling, disposal, and recycling of batteries ....................................................28

13 Inspection and monitoring ...............................................................................................28

Annex A (informative) Charging methods and modes of operation.........................................30

Annex B (informative) Calculation of safety distance d to protect against explosion

hazards.................................................................................................................................34

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................37

Figure 1 – TN system with separate protective conductor (PE) in the entire system (TN-

S network) ............................................................................................................................13

Figure 2 – TN system with functional earthing and protective (FPE, PEN) combined with

an external line conductor (TN-C system) ..............................................................................13

Figure 3 – TT system ............................................................................................................14

Figure 4 – IT system .............................................................................................................15

Figure 5 – Converters with intermediate DC circuit (IT-system) (Example) .............................15

Figure A.1 – Parallel operation mode circuit...........................................................................30

Figure A.2 – Battery charge current interlaced with frequent temporary discharge events

due to a load current exceeding the current supply capability.................................................31

Figure A.3 – Response mode operation circuit.......................................................................32

Figure A.4 – IU-or CC-CV charge profile................................................................................32

Figure A.5 – Time dependant profile of current I and voltage U ..............................................32

Figure B.1 – Safety distance d as a function of the rated capacity for various charge

currents I (mA/Ah).................................................................................................................36

Table 1 – Values for current I when charging with IU- or U-charging profiles (see also

Annex A)...............................................................................................................................21

Table 2 – Recommended upper limits of AC ripple current flowing through the battery

as I per 100 Ah rated battery capacity................................................................................27

eff

Table A.1 – Float charge voltages for lead-acid and NiCd batteries........................................30

Table A.2 – Typical charge voltage levels at 20 °C.................................................................33

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SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
– 4 – 62485-2 © IEC:2010
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY BATTERIES
AND BATTERY INSTALLATIONS –
Part 2: Stationary batteries
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62485-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 21:

Secondary cells and batteries.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21/711/FDIS 21/718/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts of the IEC 62485 series can be found, under the general title Safety

requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations, on the IEC website.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
62485-2 © IEC:2010 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
– 6 – 62485-2 © IEC:2010
INTRODUCTION

The described safety requirements comprise the protective measures to protect from hazards

generated by the electricity, the electrolyte, and the explosive gases when using secondary

batteries. In addition measures are described to maintain the functional safety of batteries and

battery installations.

For the electrical safety (protection against electric shock) under Clause 4, this standard refers

to IEC 60364-4-41. The pilot function of this standard is fully observed by indication of cross-

reference numbers of the relevant clauses, but interpretation is given where adoption to direct

current (DC) circuits is required.

This safety standard comes into force with the date of publication and applies to all new

batteries and battery installations. Previous installations are intended to conform to the existing

national standards at the time of installation. In case of redesign of old installations this

standard applies.

Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries used in stationary battery installations are intended to fulfil

safety requirements in accordance to IEC 60896-21 and IEC 60896-22.
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SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
62485-2 © IEC:2010 – 7 –
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY BATTERIES
AND BATTERY INSTALLATIONS –
Part 2: Stationary batteries
1 Scope

This part of the IEC 62485 applies to stationary secondary batteries and battery installations

with a maximum voltage of DC 1 500 V (nominal) and describes the principal measures for

protections against hazards generated from:
– electricity,
– gas emission,
– electrolyte.

This International Standard provides requirements on safety aspects associated with the

erection, use, inspection, maintenance and disposal.
It covers lead-acid and NiCd / NiMH batteries.
Examples for the main applications are:
– telecommunications,
– power station operation,
– central emergency lighting and alarm systems,
– uninterruptible power supplies,
– stationary engine starting,
– photovoltaic systems.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60364-4-41, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 4-41: Protection for safety –

Protection against electric shock

IEC 60364-4-43, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 4-43: Protection for safety –

Protection against overcurrent

IEC 60364-5-53, Electrical installations of buildings – Part 5-53: Selection and erection of

electrical equipment – Isolation, switching and control
IEC 60529:1989, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 60622:2002, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes –Sealed nickel cadmium prismatic rechargeable single cells

IEC 60623:2001, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes –Vented nickel-cadmium prismatic rechargeable single cells
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
– 8 – 62485-2 © IEC:2010

IEC 60664-1, Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems – Part 1:

Principles, requirements and tests

IEC/TR 60755, General requirements for residual current operated protective devices

IEC 60896-11:2002, Stationary lead-acid batteries – Part 11: Vented types – General

requirements and methods of tests

IEC 60896-21:2004, Stationary lead-acid batteries – Part 21: Valve regulated types – Methods

of test

IEC 60896-22:2004, Stationary lead-acid batteries – Part 22: Valve regulated types –

Requirements
IEC 60900, Live working – Hand tools for use up to 1 000 V a.c. and 1 500 V d.c.

IEC 61140, Protection against electric shock – Common aspects for installation and equipment

IEC 61340-4-1, Electrostatics – Part 4-1: Standard test methods for specific applications –

Electrical resistance of floor coverings and installed floors

IEC 61660-1, Short-circuit currents in d.c. auxiliary installations in power plants and

substations – Part 1: Calculation of short-circuit currents

IEC 61660-2, Short-circuit currents in d.c. auxiliary installations in power plants and

substations – Part 2: Calculation of effects

IEC 62259:2003, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline and other non-acid

electrolytes – Nickel cadmium prismatic secondary single cells with partial gas recombination

ISO 3864 (all parts), Graphical symbols – Safety colours and safety signs
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
(secondary) cell
(rechargeable) cell
single cell

assembly of electrodes and electrolyte which constitutes the basic unit of a secondary battery

NOTE This assembly is contained in an individual case and closed by a cover.
3.2
vented (secondary) cell

secondary cell having a cover provided with an opening through which gaseous products may

escape
3.3
valve regulated (secondary) cell

secondary cell which is closed under normal conditions but has an arrangement which allows

the escape of gas if the internal pressure exceeds a predetermined value. The cell cannot

normally receive addition to the electrolyte
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-2:2018
62485-2 © IEC:2010 – 9 –
3.4
gastight sealed (secondary) cell

secondary cell which remains closed and does not release either gas or liquid when operated

within the limits of charge and temperature specified by the manufacturer. The cell may be

equipped with a safety device to prevent dangerously high internal pressure. The cell does not

require addition to the electrolyte and is designed t
...

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