Terminology for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission

Applies to terminology for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems and especially to HVDC converter substations where electronic converters are used for the conversion from a.c. to d.c. or vice versa.

Terminologie für Hochspannungsgleichstromübertragung (HGÜ)

Terminologie pour le transport d'énergie en courant continu à haute tension (CCHT)

S'applique au transport d'énergie en courant continu à haute tension (CCHT) et spécialement aux sous-stations de conversion de CCHT dans lesquelles des convertisseurs électroniques de puissance sont utilisés pour la conversion du courant alternatif en courant continu ou vice versa.

Terminology for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission (IEC 60633:1998)

Ta mednarodni standard določa termine za visokonapetostni enosmerni (HVDC) sistem prenosa moči in za visokonapetostne enosmerne naprave, ki uporabljajo elektronske močnostne pretvornike za pretvorbo izmeničnega v enosmerni tok in obratno.
Ta standard se uporablja za visokonapetostne enosmerne naprave z vodovno komutiranimi pretvorniki, ki običajno temeljijo na povezavah trifaznega mostu (dvosmernih) (glejte sliko 2), v katerem so uporabljene enosmerne elektronke, npr. polprevodniške elektronke.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
17-Jan-1999
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Parallel Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
18-Jan-1999
Completion Date
18-Jan-1999

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60633:2001
01-junij-2001
Terminology for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission (IEC 60633:1998)
Terminology for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission
Terminologie für Hochspannungsgleichstromübertragung (HGÜ)

Terminologie pour le transport d'énergie en courant continu à haute tension (CCHT)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60633:1999
ICS:
01.040.29 Elektrotehnika (Slovarji) Electrical engineering
(Vocabularies)
29.200 8VPHUQLNL3UHWYRUQLNL Rectifiers. Convertors.
6WDELOL]LUDQRHOHNWULþQR Stabilized power supply
QDSDMDQMH
SIST EN 60633:2001 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 60633:2001
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SIST EN 60633:2001
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SIST EN 60633:2001
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SIST EN 60633:2001
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SIST EN 60633:2001
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SIST EN 60633:2001
NORME
CEI
INTERNATIONALE
IEC
60633
INTERNATIONAL
Deuxième édition
STANDARD
Second edition
1998-12
Terminologie pour le transport d'énergie
en courant continu à haute tension (CCHT)
Terminology for high-voltage
direct current (HVDC) transmission
 IEC 1998 Droits de reproduction réservés  Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,

procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photo- including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in

copie et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. writing from the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission 3, rue de Varembé Geneva, Switzerland
Telefax: +41 22 919 0300 e-mail: inmail@iec.ch IEC web site http://www.iec.ch
CODE PRIX
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
PRICE CODE V
International Electrotechnical Commission
Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
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SIST EN 60633:2001
60633 © IEC:1998 – 3 –
CONTENTS
Page

FOREWORD ................................................................................................................... 11

Clause

1 Scope....................................................................................................................... 13

2 Normative references................................................................................................ 13

3 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 13

3.1 List of letter symbols........................................................................................ 13

3.2 List of subscripts ............................................................................................. 15

3.3 List of abbreviations......................................................................................... 15

4 Graphical symbols .................................................................................................... 17

5 General terms related to converter circuits ................................................................ 17

5.1 Conversion ...................................................................................................... 17

5.2 Converter connection....................................................................................... 17

5.3 Bridge (converter connection) .......................................................................... 17

5.4 (Converter) arm ............................................................................................... 17

5.5 By-pass path ................................................................................................... 19

5.6 Commutation ................................................................................................... 19

5.7 Commutating group ......................................................................................... 19

5.8 Commutation inductance ................................................................................. 19

5.9 Pulse number p ............................................................................................... 19

5.10 Commutation number q.................................................................................... 19

6 Converter units and valves........................................................................................ 21

6.1 Converter unit.................................................................................................. 21

6.2 (Converter) bridge ........................................................................................... 21

6.3 Valve ............................................................................................................ 21

6.4 Main valve ....................................................................................................... 21

6.5 By-pass valve .................................................................................................. 21

6.6 Thyristor module.............................................................................................. 21

6.7 Reactor module ............................................................................................... 23

6.8 Valve section ................................................................................................... 23

6.9 (Valve) thyristor level ....................................................................................... 23

6.10 Valve support .................................................................................................. 23

6.11 Valve structure ................................................................................................ 23

6.12 Valve interface (electronics) (unit).................................................................... 23

6.13 Valve electronics ............................................................................................. 23

6.14 Valve arrester .................................................................................................. 23

6.15 Converter unit arrester..................................................................................... 23

6.16 Converter unit d.c. bus arrester........................................................................ 23

6.17 Midpoint d.c. bus arrester ................................................................................ 25

6.18 Valve (anode) (cathode) reactor....................................................................... 25

6.19 Converter transformer...................................................................................... 25

6.20 By-pass switch................................................................................................. 25

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SIST EN 60633:2001
60633 © IEC:1998 – 5 –
Clause Page

7 Converter operating conditions.................................................................................. 25

7.1 Rectifier operation; rectification........................................................................ 25

7.2 Inverter operation; inversion............................................................................. 25

7.3 Forward direction............................................................................................. 25

7.4 Reverse direction............................................................................................. 25

7.5 Forward current ............................................................................................... 27

7.6 Reverse current............................................................................................... 27

7.7 Forward voltage............................................................................................... 27

7.8 Reverse voltage............................................................................................... 27

7.9 Conducting state.............................................................................................. 27

7.10 Valve voltage drop ........................................................................................... 27

7.11 Non-conducting state; blocking state................................................................ 27

7.12 Firing ............................................................................................................ 27

7.13 (Valve) control pulse........................................................................................ 27

7.14 (Valve) firing pulse........................................................................................... 27

7.15 Converter blocking........................................................................................... 29

7.16 Converter deblocking....................................................................................... 29

7.17 Valve blocking ................................................................................................. 29

7.18 Valve deblocking ............................................................................................. 29

7.19 Phase control .................................................................................................. 29

7.20 (Trigger) delay angle α .................................................................................... 29

7.21 (Trigger) advance angle β ................................................................................ 29

7.22 Overlap angle μ ............................................................................................... 29

7.23 Extinction angle γ............................................................................................. 29

7.24 Hold-off interval ............................................................................................... 29

7.25 Conduction interval .......................................................................................... 31

7.26 Blocking interval; idle interval........................................................................... 31

7.27 Forward blocking interval ................................................................................. 31

7.28 Reverse blocking interval................................................................................. 31

7.29 False firing ...................................................................................................... 31

7.30 Firing failure .................................................................................................... 31

7.31 Commutation failure......................................................................................... 31

7.32 Short-circuit ratio (SCR)................................................................................... 31

7.33 Effective short-circuit ratio (ESCR)................................................................... 31

8 HVDC systems and substations ................................................................................ 31

8.1 HVDC system .................................................................................................. 31

8.2 HVDC transmission system.............................................................................. 33

8.3 Unidirectional HVDC system ............................................................................ 33

8.4 Reversible HVDC system ................................................................................. 33

8.5 (HVDC) (system) pole...................................................................................... 33

8.6 (HVDC) (system) bipole ................................................................................... 33

8.7 Bipolar (HVDC) system .................................................................................... 33

8.8 Monopolar (HVDC) system............................................................................... 35

8.9 HVDC substation ............................................................................................. 35

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SIST EN 60633:2001
60633 © IEC:1998 – 7 –
Clause Page

8.10 (HVDC) substation bipole................................................................................. 35

8.11 (HVDC) substation pole ................................................................................... 35

8.12 HVDC transmission line ................................................................................... 35

8.13 HVDC transmission line pole............................................................................ 35

8.14 Earth electrode ................................................................................................ 35

8.15 Earth electrode line.......................................................................................... 35

9 HVDC substation equipment ..................................................................................... 37

9.1 AC filter ........................................................................................................... 37

9.2 DC (smoothing) reactor.................................................................................... 37

9.3 DC reactor arrester.......................................................................................... 37

9.4 DC filter........................................................................................................... 37

9.5 DC damping circuit .......................................................................................... 37

9.6 DC surge capacitor .......................................................................................... 37

9.7 DC bus arrester ............................................................................................... 37

9.8 DC line arrester ............................................................................................... 37

9.9 HVDC substation earth .................................................................................... 37

9.10 (DC) neutral bus capacitor ............................................................................... 37

9.11 (DC) neutral bus arrester ................................................................................. 39

9.12 Metallic return transfer breaker (MRTB) ........................................................... 39

9.13 Earth return transfer breaker (ERTB) ............................................................... 39

10 Modes of control ....................................................................................................... 39

10.1 Control mode................................................................................................... 39

10.2 Voltage control mode....................................................................................... 39

10.3 Current control mode ....................................................................................... 39

10.4 Power control mode......................................................................................... 39

10.5 Reactive power control mode ........................................................................... 39

10.6 Frequency control mode .................................................................................. 39

10.7 Damping control mode..................................................................................... 39

11 Control systems........................................................................................................ 41

11.1 (HVDC) Control system.................................................................................... 41

11.2 HVDC system control....................................................................................... 41

11.3 (HVDC) master control..................................................................................... 41

11.4 (HVDC system) bipole control .......................................................................... 41

11.5 (HVDC system) pole control............................................................................. 41

11.6 (HVDC) substation control ............................................................................... 41

11.7 Converter unit control ...................................................................................... 41

11.8 Valve control ................................................................................................... 43

12 Control functions....................................................................................................... 43

12.1 Equal delay angle control; individual phase control........................................... 43

12.2 Equidistant firing control .................................................................................. 45

12.3 α control .......................................................................................................... 45

12.4 Minimum α control ........................................................................................... 45

12.5 γ control........................................................................................................... 45

12.6 Minimum γ control............................................................................................ 45

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SIST EN 60633:2001
60633 © IEC:1998 – 9 –
Clause Page

12.7 Control order ................................................................................................... 45

12.8 Current margin ................................................................................................ 45

12.9 Voltage dependent current order limit (VDCOL)................................................ 45

12.10 Pole (current) balancing................................................................................... 45

Figures............................................................................................................................ 47

1 Graphical symbols .................................................................................................... 47

2 Bridge converter connection...................................................................................... 47

3 Example of a converter unit ...................................................................................... 49

4 Commutation process at rectifier and inverter modes of operation ............................. 51

5 Illustrations of commutation in inverter operation....................................................... 53

6 Typical valve voltage waveforms ............................................................................... 55

7 Example of an HVDC substation ............................................................................... 57

8 Example of a bipolar two-terminal HVDC transmission system................................... 59

9 Example of a multiterminal bipolar HVDC transmission system with parallel connected

HVDC substations .................................................................................................... 59

10 Example of a multiterminal bipolar HVDC transmission system with series connected

HVDC substations .................................................................................................... 61

11 A simplified steady-state voltage-current characteristic of an HVDC system............... 61

12 Hierarchical structure of an HVDC control system ..................................................... 63

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................65

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SIST EN 60633:2001
60633 © IEC:1998 – 11 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
___________
TERMINOLOGY FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT (HVDC)
TRANSMISSION
FOREWORD

1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of the IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, the IEC publishes International Standards. Their preparation is

entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may

participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization

for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two

organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested National Committees.

3) The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form

of standards, technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense.

4) In order to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International

Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Any

divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly

indicated in the latter.

5) The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards.

6) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject

of patent rights. The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60633 has been prepared by subcommittee 22F: Power electronics

for electrical transmission and distribution systems, of IEC technical committee 22: Power

electronics.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1978. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
22F/49/FDIS 22F/53/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
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SIST EN 60633:2001
60633 © IEC:1998 – 13 –
TERMINOLOGY FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT (HVDC)
TRANSMISSION
1 Scope

This International Standard defines terms for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) power

transmission systems and for HVDC substations using electronic power converters for the

conversion from a.c. to d.c. or vice versa.

This standard is applicable to HVDC substations with line commutated converters, most

commonly based on three-phase bridge (double way) connections (see figure 2) in which

unidirectional electronic valves, e.g. semiconductor valves, are used.
2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this International Standard. At the time of publication, the editions

indicated were valid. All normative documents are subject to revision, and parties to

agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility

of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. Members of

IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
IEC 60027 (all parts), Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology

IEC 60050-551:1998, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 551: Power electronics

IEC 60146-1-1:1991, General requirements and line commutated convertors – Part 1-1:

Specifications of basic requirements

IEC 60617-5:1996, Graphical symbols for diagrams – Part 5: Semiconductors and electron

tubes

IEC 60617-6:1996, Graphical symbols for diagrams – Part 6: Production and conversion of

electrical energy
3 Symbols and abbreviations

The list covers only the most frequently used symbols. For a more complete list of the symbols

which have been adopted for static converters see IEC 60027 and other standards listed in the

normative references and the bibliography.
3.1 List of letter symbols
U direct voltage (any defined value)
U conventional no-load direct voltage
U ideal no-load direct voltage
di0
U rated direct voltage
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SIST EN 60633:2001
60633 © IEC:1998 – 15 –

U line-to-line voltage on line side of converter transformer, r.m.s. value including

harmonics
U rated value of U
LN L
U r.m.s. value
no-load phase-to-phase voltage on the valve side of transformer,
excluding harmonics
direct current (any defined value)
I rated direct current
current on line side of converter transformer, r.m.s. value including harmonics
I I
rated value of
LN L
I current on valve side of transformer, r.m.s. value including harmonics
α (trigger) delay angle
β (trigger) advance angle
γ extinction angle
μ overlap angle
p pulse number
q commutation number
3.2 List of subscripts
0 (zero) at no load
N rated value or at rated load
d direct current or voltage
i ideal
L line side of converter transformer
v valve side of converter transformer
max maximum
min minimum
n pertaining to harmonic component of order n
3.3 List of abbreviations
The following abbreviations are always in capital letters and without dots.
HVDC high-voltage direct current
MVU multiple valve (unit) (see 6.3.2)
SCR short-circuit ratio (see 7.32)
ESCR effective short-circuit ratio (see 7.33)
MTDC multiterminal HVDC transmission system (see 8.2.2)
MRTB metallic return transfer breaker (see 9.12)
ERTB earth return transfer breaker (see 9.13)
VDCOL voltage dependent current order limit (see 12.9)
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SIST EN 60633:2001
60633 © IEC:1998 – 17 –
4 Graphical symbols

Figure 1 shows the specific graphical symbols which are defined only for the purposes of this

standard. For a more complete list of the graphical symbols which have been adopted for static

converters, see IEC 60617-5 and IEC 60617-6.
5 General terms related to converter circuits
For the purposes of this standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE – For a more complete list of the terms which have been adopted for static converters, see IEC 60050(551)

and IEC 60146-1-1.
5.1
conversion

in the context of HVDC, the transfer of energy from a.c. to d.c. or vice versa, or a combination

of these operations
5.2
converter connection

electrical arrangement of arms and other components necessary for the functioning of the main

power circuit of a converter
5.3
bridge (converter connection)

double-way connection comprising six converter arms which are connected as illustrated in

figure 2

NOTE – The term “bridge” may be used to describe either the circuit connection or the equipment implementing that

circuit (see 6.2).
5.3.1
uniform bridge
bridge where all converter arms are either controllable or non-controllable
5.3.2
non-uniform bridge
bridge with both controllable and non-controllable converter arms
5.4
(converter) arm

part of an operative circuit used for conversion which is connected between an a.c. terminal

and a d.c. terminal, with the ability to conduct current in only one direction, defined as the

forward direction (see 7.3)

NOTE – The main function of a converter arm is conversion; it may also perform additional functions such as

voltage limiting, damping, etc.
5.4.1
controllable converter arm

converter arm in which the start of forward conduction may be determined by an externally

applied signal
5.4.2
non-controllable converter arm

converter arm in which the start of forward conduction is determined solely by the voltage

applied to its terminals
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SIST EN 60633:2001
60633 © IEC:1998 – 19 –
5.5
by-pass path

low resistance path between the d.c. terminals of one or several bridges excluding the a.c.

circuit

NOTE – The by-pass path may either constitute a unidirectional path, e.g. a by-pass arm (see 5.5.1), or a by-pass

pair (see 5.5.2), or it may constitute a bidirectional path, e.g. a by-pass switch (see 6.20).

5.5.1
by-pass arm

unidirectionally conducting by-pass path connected only between d.c. terminals, commonly

used with mercury arc valve technology (not shown in figure 2)
5.5.2
by-pass pair

two converter arms of a bridge connected to a common a.c. terminal and forming a by-pass

path (see figure 2)
5.6
commutation

transfer of current between any two paths with both paths carrying current simultaneously

during this process

NOTE – Commutation may occur between any two converter arms, including the connected a.c. phases, between a

converter arm and a by-pass arm, or between any two paths in the circuit.
5.6.1
line commutation

method of commutation whereby the commutating voltage is supplied by the a.c. system

5.7
commutating group

group of converter arms which commutate cyclically and independently from other converter

arms, i.e. the commutations are normally not simultaneous (see figure 2)

NOTE – In the case of a bridge, a commutating group is composed of the converter arms connected to a common

d.c. terminal. In certain cases, e.g. when large currents and/or large commutation inductances are inv

...

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