Workplace atmospheres - Electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours - Part 4: Guide for selection, installation, use and maintenance

This European Standard gives guidance on the selection, installation, use and maintenance of electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours in workplace atmospheres. The primary purpose of such apparatus is to measure the concentration of a toxic gas or vapour in order to provide an exposure measurement and/or detection and warning of its presence. This European Standard is applicable to apparatus whose primary purpose is to provide an indication, alarm and/or other output function to give a warning of the presence of a toxic gas or vapour in the atmosphere and in some cases to initiate automatic or manual protective actions. It is applicable to apparatus in which the sensor automatically generates an electrical signal when gas is present. This European Standard is not applicable, but may provide useful information, for apparatus — used for the measurement of oxygen, — used only in laboratories for analysis or measurement, — used only for process measurement purposes, — used in car parks or tunnels (fixed apparatus only), — used in the domestic environment, — used in environmental air pollution monitoring, — used for the measurement of combustible gases and vapours related to the risk of explosion. It also does not apply to open-path (line of sight) area monitors. For apparatus used for sensing the presence of multiple gases, this European Standard applies only to the detection of toxic gas or vapour.

Arbeitsplatzatmosphäre - Elektrische Geräte für die direkte Detektion und direkte Konzentrationsmessung toxischer Gase und Dämpfe - Teil 4: Leitfaden für Auswahl, Installation, Einsatz und Wartung

Atmosphères des lieux de travail - Appareillage électrique utilisé pour la détection directe des vapeurs et gaz toxiques et le mesurage direct de leur concentration - Partie 4: Guide de sélection, d'installation, d’utilisation et d’entretien

Zrak na delovnem mestu - Električne naprave za neposredno odkrivanje in neposredno merjenje koncentracije strupenih plinov in hlapov - 4. del: Vodilo za izbiro, vgraditev, uporabo in vzdrževanje

Ta evropski standard vključuje navodila za izbiro, namestitev, uporabo in vzdrževanje električnih
naprav, ki se uporabljajo za neposredno odkrivanje in neposredno merjenje koncentracije strupenih plinov in hlapov v ozračju na delovnem mestu. Primarni namen takšnih naprav je izmeriti koncentracijo strupenih plinov ali hlapov, ki omogoča merjenje izpostavljenosti in/ali zaznavanje ter opozarjanje na njihovo prisotnost.
Ta evropski standard se uporablja za naprave, katerih primarni namen je izdati opozorilo, alarm in/ali drugo izhodno funkcijo, s katero se opozori na prisotnost strupenih plinov ali hlapov v ozračju in v nekaterih primerih tudi sproži samodejne ali ročne zaščitne ukrepe. Uporablja se za aparate, v katerih senzor ob prisotnosti plina samodejno ustvari električni signal.
Čeprav se ta evropski standard ne uporablja zanje, je vseeno lahko vir uporabnih informacij za naprave,
– ki se uporabljajo za merjenje kisika,
– ki se uporabljajo le v laboratorijih za analize ali merjenje,
– ki se uporabljajo samo za namene merilnega postopka,
– ki se uporabljajo v voznih parkih ali predorih (le nepremične naprave),
– ki se uporabljajo v domačem okolju,
– ki se uporabljajo pri nadzoru onesnaženja zraka v okolju,
– ki se uporabljajo za merjenje plinov in hlapov pri izgorevanju v zvezi z nevarnostjo eksplozije.
Prav tako se ne uporablja za senzorje z odprto merilno potjo (linija pogleda).
Pri napravah, ki se uporabljajo za zaznavanje prisotnosti več plinov, se ta evropski standard uporablja le za zaznavanje strupenih plinov ali hlapov.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Mar-2016
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
18-Mar-2016
Completion Date
18-Mar-2016

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
EN 45544-4:2016 - natisnjeno
English language
47 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Arbeitsplatzatmosphäre - Elektrische Geräte für die direkte Detektion und direkte Konzentrationsmessung toxischer Gase und Dämpfe - Teil 4: Leitfaden für Auswahl, Installation, Einsatz und InstandhaltungAtmosphères des lieux de travail - Appareillage électrique utilisé pour la détection directe des vapeurs et gaz toxiques et le mesurage direct de leur concentration - Partie 4: Guide de sélection, d'installation, d’utilisation et d’entretienWorkplace atmospheres - Electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours - Part 4: Guide for selection, installation, use and maintenance13.320Alarmni in opozorilni sistemiAlarm and warning systems13.040.30Kakovost zraka na delovnem mestuWorkplace atmospheresICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 45544-4:2016SIST EN 45544-4:2016en,de01-junij-2016SIST EN 45544-4:2016SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 45544-4:20021DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 45544-4:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 45544-4
March 2016 ICS 13.040.30; 13.320
Supersedes
EN 45544-4:1999
English Version

Workplace atmospheres - Electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours - Part 4: Guide for selection, installation, use and maintenance

Atmosphères des lieux de travail - Appareillage électrique utilisé pour la détection directe des vapeurs et gaz toxiques et le mesurage direct de leur concentration - Partie 4: Guide de sélection, d'installation, d'utilisation et d'entretien

Arbeitsplatzatmosphäre - Elektrische Geräte für die direkte Detektion und direkte Konzentrationsmessung toxischer Gase und Dämpfe - Teil 4: Leitfaden für Auswahl, Installation, Einsatz und Wartung This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 25 January 2016. CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2016 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 45544-4:2016 E SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ............................................................................................................................................. 4 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 6 3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 7 4 Properties and detection of toxic gases and vapours ..................................................................... 12 4.1 Properties and detection .................................................................................................................... 12 4.2 Effects of water vapour on detection ................................................................................................ 13 4.3 Detection by oxygen deficiency measurement ................................................................................ 13 5 Measurement tasks ............................................................................................................................. 14 5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 14 5.2 General gas detection ......................................................................................................................... 14 5.3 Exposure measurement ...................................................................................................................... 15 6 Selection of the apparatus ................................................................................................................. 16 6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 16 6.2 Performance and electrical tests ....................................................................................................... 17 6.3 Indication range, measuring range and uncertainty of measurement ........................................... 17 6.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 17 6.3.2 Apparatus conforming to EN 45544-2 ............................................................................................... 18 6.3.3 Apparatus conforming to EN 45544-3 ............................................................................................... 19 6.4 Selectivity requirements ..................................................................................................................... 19 6.5 The influence of environmental conditions ...................................................................................... 19 6.6 Time of response and time of recovery ............................................................................................ 19 6.7 Time to alarm ....................................................................................................................................... 20 6.8 Data logging ......................................................................................................................................... 21 6.9 Instruction manual .............................................................................................................................. 22 7 Operation of toxic gas detection apparatus ..................................................................................... 22 7.1 Alarm setting ........................................................................................................................................ 22 7.2 Operation of personal and portable apparatus ................................................................................ 23 7.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 23 7.2.2 Transportation ..................................................................................................................................... 24 7.2.3 Storage ................................................................................................................................................. 24 7.2.4 Inspection and functional checks ...................................................................................................... 24 7.3 Operation of transportable and fixed apparatus .............................................................................. 25 SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 3 7.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 25 7.3.2 Installation ............................................................................................................................................ 26 7.3.3 Commissioning and regular inspection ............................................................................................ 27 7.4 Sample lines and sampling probes ................................................................................................... 28 7.5 Accessories ......................................................................................................................................... 28 8 Maintenance and calibration .............................................................................................................. 29 8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 29 8.2 Maintenance ......................................................................................................................................... 29 8.3 Calibration ............................................................................................................................................ 29 8.3.1 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................. 29 8.3.2 Calibration period ................................................................................................................................ 30 8.4 Operation test ...................................................................................................................................... 31 8.5 Records ................................................................................................................................................ 31 9 Training ................................................................................................................................................ 32 9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 32 9.2 Operator training ................................................................................................................................. 32 9.3 Maintenance and calibration training ................................................................................................ 32 Annex A (normative)

Commonly used measurement principles................................................................ 34 A.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 34 A.2 Chemiluminescence ............................................................................................................................ 34 A.3 Colorimetry .......................................................................................................................................... 35 A.4 Electrochemical ................................................................................................................................... 36 A.5 Flame-ionization .................................................................................................................................. 37 A.6 Gas chromatography .......................................................................................................................... 38 A.7 Infrared photometry ............................................................................................................................ 39 A.8 Ion mobility spectrometry .................................................................................................................. 40 A.9 Mass spectrometry .............................................................................................................................. 41 A.10 Photo-ionization .................................................................................................................................. 42 A.11 Semiconductor .................................................................................................................................... 43 A.12 Ultra-violet visible photometry ........................................................................................................... 44 Annex B (informative) Table of significant changes in comparison to EN 45544-4:1999 ......................... 45 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 47

SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 45544-4:2016) has been prepared by CEN/CENELEC Joint Working Group "Continuous Measuring Instruments" (JWG CMI). The following dates are fixed: • latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2017-01-25 • latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the document have to be withdrawn

(dow) 2019-01-25 This document supersedes EN 45544-4:1999. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 5 Introduction National laws and regulations based on European Directives require the assessment of the potential exposure of a worker to chemical agents in workplace atmospheres. EN 45544, Workplace atmospheres – Electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours, consists of the following parts: — Part 1: General requirements and test methods; — Part 2: Performance requirements for apparatus used for exposure measurement; — Part 3: Performance requirements for apparatus used for general gas detection; — Part 4: Guide for selection, installation, use and maintenance. SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard gives guidance on the selection, installation, use and maintenance of electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours in workplace atmospheres. The primary purpose of such apparatus is to measure the concentration of a toxic gas or vapour in order to provide an exposure measurement and/or detection and warning of its presence. This European Standard is applicable to apparatus whose primary purpose is to provide an indication, alarm and/or other output function to give a warning of the presence of a toxic gas or vapour in the atmosphere and in some cases to initiate automatic or manual protective actions. It is applicable to apparatus in which the sensor automatically generates an electrical signal when gas is present. This European Standard is not applicable, but may provide useful information, for apparatus — used for the measurement of oxygen, — used only in laboratories for analysis or measurement, —

used only for process measurement purposes, — used in car parks or tunnels (fixed apparatus only), — used in the domestic environment, — used in environmental air pollution monitoring, — used for the measurement of combustible gases and vapours related to the risk of explosion. It also does not apply to open-path (line of sight) area monitors. For apparatus used for sensing the presence of multiple gases, this European Standard applies only to the detection of toxic gas or vapour. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 482:2012+A1:2015, Workplace exposure – General requirements for the performance of procedures for the measurement of chemical agents EN 45544-1:2015, Workplace atmospheres - Electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours - Part 1: General requirements and test methods EN 45544-2:2015, Workplace atmospheres - Electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours - Part 2: Performance requirements for apparatus used for exposure measurement EN 45544-3:2015, Workplace atmospheres - Electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours - Part 3: Performance requirements for apparatus used for general gas detection SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 7 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 toxic gas general term for any gas or vapour that can be harmful to human health Note 1 to entry: The term “gas” is used for both gases and vapours 3.2 interfering gases any gas other than the gas to be detected, including water vapour, which affects the indication 3.3 clean air or zero gas air free of gases to which the sensor is sensitive, or which influences the performance of the sensor 3.4 standard test gas test gas with a composition specified for each apparatus and gas to be tested 3.5 volume fraction (v/v) quotient of the volume of a specified component and the sum of the volumes of all components of a gas mixture before mixing 3.6 limit value occupational exposure limit of the time-weighted average of the concentration of a chemical agent in the air within the breathing zone of a worker in relation to a specified reference period [SOURCE: Council Directive 98/24/EC Art. 2(d) [1]] Note 1 to entry: Limit values are mostly set for reference periods of 8 h, but can also be set for shorter periods or concentration excursions, e.g. short-term exposure limit (STEL). Limit values for gases and vapours are stated in terms independent of temperature and air pressure variables in ml/m3, and in terms dependent on those variables in mg/m3 for a temperature of 20 °C and a pressure of 101,3 kPa. 3.7 exposure (by inhalation) situation in which a chemical agent is present in air that is inhaled by a person 3.8 time weighted average (TWA) concentration concentration of gas in air integrated over time and divided by the specified reference period 3.9 fixed apparatus apparatus intended to have all parts permanently installed 3.10 transportable apparatus apparatus not intended to be a portable apparatus, but which can readily be moved from one place to another SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 8 3.11 portable apparatus apparatus that has been designed to be readily carried from place to place and to be used while being carried Note 1 to entry: Portable apparatus is generally battery powered. 3.12 personal apparatus portable apparatus attached to a person that monitors the atmosphere in their breathing zone so that their exposure to toxic gases can be determined Note 1 to entry: Also known as a personal monitor. 3.13 aspirated apparatus apparatus that samples the atmosphere by drawing it to the sensor EXAMPLE A hand operated or electric pump can draw gas to the sensor. 3.14 alarm-only apparatus apparatus having an alarm but not having a display or other device to indicate the measured gas concentration 3.15 sensing element part of the sensor that is sensitive to the gas/vapour to be measured 3.16 sensor assembly in which the sensing element is housed and which can contain associated circuit components 3.17 remote sensor sensor that is not an integral part of the apparatus Note 1 to entry: A remote sensor is connected to a control unit or to a gas detection transmitter. 3.18 gas detection transmitter fixed gas detection apparatus that provides a conditioned electronic signal or output indication to a generally accepted industry standard, intended to be utilized with separate control units, or signal processing data acquisition, central monitoring and similar systems which typically process information from various locations and sources including, but not limited to, gas detection apparatus EXAMPLE An example of a generally accepted industry standard for an electronic signal or output indication is 4 mA - 20 mA. 3.19 control unit apparatus intended to provide display indication, alarm functions, output contacts and/or alarm signal outputs when operated with remote sensor(s) and/or gas detection transmitter(s) 3.20 alarm set point setting of the apparatus at which the measured concentration will cause the apparatus to initiate an indication, alarm or other output function SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 9 3.21 fault signal audible, visible or other type of output, different from the alarm signal that permits, directly or indirectly, a warning or indication that the apparatus is not working satisfactorily 3.22 sample line means by which the gas being sampled is conveyed to the sensor including accessories EXAMPLE Examples of accessories: filter, water trap. 3.23 sampling probe separate sample line that is attached to the apparatus as required Note 1 to entry: It can be supplied with or without the apparatus. It is usually short (e.g. of the order of 1 m) and rigid, although it can be telescopic. It can also be connected by a flexible tube to the apparatus. 3.24 field calibration kit means of calibrating or adjusting the apparatus EXAMPLE This can be a calibration mask. Note 1 to entry: The field calibration kit can also be used for verifying the operation of the apparatus. 3.25 zero indication indication given by an apparatus when exposed to zero gas in normal operating conditions 3.26 indication range range of measured values of gas concentration over which the apparatus is capable of indicating Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2. 3.27 zero scale indication smallest value of the measured quantity within the indication range Note 1 to entry: This is typically zero. Note 2 to entry: See Figure 2. 3.28 full scale indication largest value of the measured quantity within the indication range Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2. SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 10 3.29 measuring range range of measured values of gas concentration over which the accuracy of the apparatus lies within specified limits Note 1 to entry: For apparatus conforming to EN 45544–2, the requirements for expanded uncertainty in EN 482:2012+A1:2015, Table 1, are met. For apparatus conforming to EN 45544–3, the requirements for accuracy in EN 45544–3 are met. The measuring range is a subset of the indication range. Note 2 to entry: See Figure 2. 3.30 lower limit of measurement smallest value of the measured quantity within the measuring range Note 1 to entry: Indications below the lower limit of measurement will not necessarily meet the uncertainty requirements of this European Standard. Note 2 to entry: See Figure 2. 3.31 upper limit of measurement largest value of the measured quantity within the measuring range Note 1 to entry: Indications above the upper limit of measurement will not necessarily meet the uncertainty requirements of this European Standard. Note 2 to entry: See Figure 2. 3.32 expanded uncertainty quantity defining an interval around a result of a measurement, expected to encompass a large fraction of the distribution of values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand 3.33 zero uncertainty quantity defining an interval about the zero that might be expected to encompass a large fraction of the distribution of values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurement in clean air Note 1 to entry: In Figure 3, the mean value of the measured values in clean air is not equal to the zero scale indication to illustrate that there can be an offset due to drift. The mean value can be above or below the zero scale indication. 3.34 selectivity degree of independence from interfering gases 3.35 averaging time period of time for which the measuring procedure yields an averaged value 3.36 drift variation in the apparatus indication with time at any fixed gas volume fraction under constant environmental conditions SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 11 3.37 time of recovery (tx) time interval, with the apparatus in a warmed-up condition, between the time when an instantaneous decrease in volume fraction is produced at the apparatus inlet and the time when the response reaches a stated indication of x % of the initial indication Note 1 to entry: For alarm-only apparatus, the stated indication can be represented by the de-activation of the alarm set at a stated value. 3.38 time of response (tx) time interval, with the apparatus in a warmed-up condition between the time when an instantaneous increase in volume fraction is produced at the apparatus inlet and the time when the response reaches a stated indication of x % of the final indication Note 1 to entry: For alarm-only apparatus, the stated indication can be represented by the activation of the alarm set at a stated value. 3.39 warm-up time time interval, with the apparatus in a stated atmosphere, between the time when the apparatus is switched on and the time when the indication reaches and remains within the stated tolerances Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Example of warm-up time in clean air 3.40 calibration procedure that establishes the relationship between a measured value and the volume fraction of a test gas SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 12 3.41 adjustment procedure carried out to minimize the deviation of the measured value from the test gas volume fraction Note 1 to entry: When the apparatus is adjusted to give an indication of zero in clean air, the procedure is called ’zero adjustment’. 3.42 special state all states of the apparatus other than those in which monitoring of gas concentration and/or alarming takes place, for example warm-up, calibration mode or fault condition 4 Properties and detection of toxic gases and vapours 4.1 Properties and detection In Clause 4, a distinction is drawn between gases, which remain gaseous at typical ambient pressures and temperatures, and vapours where liquid can also exist at any relevant pressure or temperature. Toxic gases typically become harmful at low concentrations (limit values typically range from ppb to 1 % v/v levels). At distances far from the source of toxic gas release, the relative density of such a gas mixture is not significantly different from that of air. However, close to the source, the relative density can be significantly different. Gases and mixtures with relative densities between 0,8 and 1,2 should generally be considered to behave like air and are therefore capable of propagating in all directions. High pressure leaks can generate gas clouds that propagate over significant distances from the source before mixing. This can occur for sources where the gas can be of any density. Spillage of liquids can result in toxic vapour clouds that can disperse over long distances and accumulate in trenches, drains, tunnels etc. This is a result of liquid and vapour flow under gravity, cooling due to evaporation, and densities greater than air. The vapour cloud tends to stay close to the ground until well mixed with air. Nevertheless, concentrations in the breathing zone can approach harmful levels. Gases and vapours fully mix with each other by diffusion over time or if stirred, e.g. by convection or mechanical ventilation. Once they have been mixed, they will remain mixed, unless a component is removed chemically or is absorbed, for instance on a charcoal filter. Additionally, in the case of vapours, the concentration can be lowered by condensation due to increased pressure or reduced temperature. Some gases can react chemically with each other on mixing, e.g. nitric oxide and oxygen. Air movement by convection, mechanical ventilation or wind can have a marked effect on gas distribution. A heat source in an enclosed space, for example, can create a circular flow where the heated gas rises, runs along the ceiling and falls as it cools, then runs along the floor back to the heat source. Flow patterns can become very complicated and voids may well exist in which the gas may accumulate. Consequently, each workplace scenario could be different. The use of smoke tubes, mathematical modelling or scale models placed in wind tunnels may help to optimize the location of fixed detectors. Small environmental changes can modify the composition of the atmosphere significantly. For example, where a liquid is present, the rate of evaporation of vapour will increase with temperature, which will significantly increase the toxic vapour concentration. Also, a decrease in pressure will increase toxic vapour concentration. SIST EN 45544-4:2016

EN 45544-4:2016 (E) 13 Some gases tend to stick (sorb) on surfaces, which leads to a decrease of their concentration in air. This behaviour can be significant, especially with low gas concentrations and for reactive gases. Sorbed gases can desorb and produce a respon

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.