Radiation protection instrumentation - Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments - Part 2: Specific requirements for 222Rn and 220Rn measuring instruments

This part of IEC 61577 describes the specific requirements for instruments measuring the activity concentration of airborne 222Rn and 220Rn outdoors, in dwellings, and in workplaces including underground mines. This standard applies practically to all types of electronic measuring instruments that are based on either spot or continuous measurements. The activity concentration can be measured by pumping or by diffusing the air containing 222Rn and/or 220Rn into the sensitive volume of the detection unit or at a particular moment by taking an air sample (grab sampling).

Strahlenschutz-Messgeräte - Geräte für die Messung von Radon und Radon-Folgeprodukten - Teil 2: Besondere Anforderungen für Messgeräte für Rn-222 und Rn-220

Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Instruments de mesure du radon et des descendants du radon - Partie 2: Exigences spécifiques pour les instruments de mesure du 222Rn et du 220Rn

L'IEC 61577-2:2014 décrit les exigences spécifiques relatives aux instruments destinés au mesurage de l'activité volumique des 222Rn et 220Rn en suspension dans l'air à l'extérieur, dans les habitations et sur les lieux de travail, y compris dans les mines souterraines. En pratique, la présente norme s'applique à tous les types d'instruments de mesure électroniques utilisant des méthodes basées sur des prélèvements instantanés ou encontinu. Les différents types d'instrumentation utilisés pour les mesures sont indiqués par l'IEC 61577-1. Cette nouvelle édition inclut les modifications techniques significatives suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: - ajout de nouvelles exigences et de nouveaux essais concernant la performance; - harmonisation des exigences et des essais, concernant la performance, avec d'autres normes dans ce domaine.

Instrumenti za zaščito pred sevanjem - Instrumenti za merjenje radona in njegovih razpadnih produktov - 2. del: Posebne zahteve za instrumente za merjenje 222Rn in 220Rn

Ta del standarda IEC 61577 opisuje posebne zahteve za instrumente za merjenje koncentracije 222Rn in 220Rn v zraku na prostem, v stanovanjih in na delovnih mestih, vključno s podzemnimi rudniki.
Ta standard se uporablja za skoraj vse vrste elektronskih merilnih instrumentov, ki temeljijo na točkovnih ali neprekinjenih meritvah. Koncentracijo aktivnosti je mogoče izmeriti s črpanjem ali z razprševanjem zraka, ki vsebuje 222Rn in/ali 220Rn, v občutljivi detektor ali z odvzemom vzorca zraka v določenem trenutku (trenutno vzorčenje).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Aug-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
04-Sep-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Radiation protection instrumentation - Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments - Part 2: Specific requirements for 222Rn and 220Rn measuring instruments17.240Merjenje sevanjaRadiation measurements13.280Varstvo pred sevanjemRadiation protectionICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 61577-2:2017SIST EN 61577-2:2017en01-oktober-2017SIST EN 61577-2:2017SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 61577-2:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 61577-2
August 2017 ICS 13.280 English Version

Radiation protection instrumentation - Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments - Part 2: Specific requirements for 222Rn and 220Rn measuring instruments (IEC 61577-2:2014 , modified)

Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Instruments de mesure du radon et des descendants du radon - Partie 2: Exigences spécifiques pour les instruments de mesure du 222Rn et du 220Rn (IEC 61577-2:2014 , modifiée)

Strahlenschutz-Messgeräte - Geräte für die Messung von Radon und Radon-Folgeprodukten - Teil 2: Besondere Anforderungen für Messgeräte für Rn-222 und Rn-220 (IEC 61577-2:2014 , modifiziert) This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2017-06-16. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2017 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 61577-2:2017 ESIST EN 61577-2:2017

EN 61577-2:2017 (E) 2 European foreword This document (EN 61577-2:2017) consists of the text of IEC 61577-2:2014 prepared by IEC/SC 45B "Radiation protection instrumentation" of IEC/TC 45 "Nuclear instrumentation", together with the common modifications prepared by CLC/TC 45B "Radiation protection instrumentation".

The following dates are fixed:

• la≥es≥ da≥e by which ≥his documen≥ has ≥o be implemen≥ed a≥ na≥ional level by publica≥ion of an iden≥ical na≥ional s≥anda±d o± by endo±semen≥ (dop) 2018-06-16 • la≥es≥ da≥e by which ≥he na≥ional s≥anda±ds conflic≥ing wi≥h ≥his documen≥ have ≥o be wi≥hd±awn (dow) 2020-06-16

Clauses, subclauses, no≥es, ≥ables, figu±es and anne•es which a±e addi≥ional ≥o ≥hose in IEC 61577-2:2014 a±e p±efi•ed “Z”.

This documen≥ has been p±epa±ed unde± a manda≥e given ≥o CENELEC by ≥he Eu±opean Commission and ≥he Eu±opean F±ee T±ade Associa≥ion. Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 61577-2:2014 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard with agreed common modifications. SIST EN 61577-2:2017

EN 61577-2:2017 (E) 3 COMMON MODIFICATIONS

Table 1 — Reference conditions and standard test conditions (unless otherwise indicated by the manufacturer) In the line “Ambient temperature” replace “22 °C” with “24 °C”. In the line “Relative humidity” replace “50 %” with “40 %. In the line “Ambient dose equivalent” replace “< 0,20 µSv⋅h–1” in the second column with “Negligible” and “0,20” in the third column with “0,25”. Then the table looks like the following: Quantity Reference conditions Standard test conditions Warm-up time 10 min ≥ 10 min Activity concentration of 222Rnb < 10 Bq⋅ m–3 < 10 Bq⋅ m–3 Activity concentration of 220Rnc < 10 Bq⋅ m–3 < 10 Bq⋅ m–3 Ambient temperature 20 °C 18 °C to 24 °C

Relative humidity 65 % 40 % to 75 % Atmospheric pressure 101,3 kPa 90 kPa to 106 kPaa Power supply voltage Nominal supply voltage UN Nominal supply voltage UN ± 0,5 % AC power supply frequency Nominal frequency Nominal frequency ± 0,5 % AC power supply waveform Sinusoidal Sinusoidal with a total harmonic distortion less than 5 % Ambient dose equivalent rate Negligible < 0,25 µSv⋅h–1

Electromagnetic field of external origin Negligible Negligible Magnetic induction of external origin Negligible Negligible Radio frequency Negligible Less than the lowest value that causes interference Sampling flow-rate Nominal flow-rate Nominal flow-rate ± 0,5 % a

Where the detection technique is particularly sensitive to variation in atmospheric pressure, the conditions shall be limited to ± 0,5 % of the reference pressure. b

Only for instruments measuring of 220Rn. c
Only for instruments measuring of 222Rn. SIST EN 61577-2:2017
EN 61577-2:2017 (E) 4 Annex ZA (normative)

Normative references to international publications with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here: www.cenelec.eu.

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year IEC 60068-2-27 -

Environmental testing -- Part 2-27: Tests - Test Ea and guidance: Shock EN 60068-2-27 -

IEC 61000-6-4 -

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) -- Part 6-4: Generic standards - Emission standard for industrial environments EN 61000-6-4 -

IEC 61140 -

Protection against electric shock - Common aspects for installation and equipment EN 61140 -

IEC 61187 -
Electrical and electronic measuring equipment - Documentation EN 61187 -
IEC 61577-1 -

Radiation protection instrumentation - Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments - Part 1: General principles - -

ISO 11665-1 -
EN ISO 11665-1 -
ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 -

Uncertainty of measurement -- Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM:1995) - -

SIST EN 61577-2:2017

IEC 61577-2 Edition 2.0 2014-07 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NORME INTERNATIONALE Radiation protection instrumentation – Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments –

Part 2: Specific requirements for 222Rn and 220Rn measuring instruments

Instrumentation pour la radioprotection – Instruments de mesure du radon et des descendants du radon –

Partie 2: Exigences spécifiques pour les instruments de mesure du 222Rn et du 220Rn

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION COMMISSION ELECTROTECHNIQUE INTERNATIONALE T ICS 13.280 PRICE CODE CODE PRIX ISBN 978-2-8322-1675-0

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale ®

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé. SIST EN 61577-2:2017

– 2 – IEC 61577-2:2014 © IEC 2014 CONTENTS FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6 1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7 2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7 3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8 4 General design considerations......................................................................................... 9 4.1 Design considerations for the measurements .......................................................... 9 4.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9 4.1.2 Effects caused by physical properties of 222Rn and 220Rn ........................... 10 4.2 Design considerations for handling and maintenance ............................................ 10 4.2.1 Portability ...................................................................................................... 10 4.2.2 Application under harsh environmental conditions ......................................... 10 4.2.3 Automatic operation ....................................................................................... 11 4.2.4 Reliability ...................................................................................................... 11 4.2.5 Capability for operational testing ................................................................... 11 4.2.6 Adjustment and maintenance facilities ........................................................... 11 4.2.7 Acoustic noise level ....................................................................................... 11 4.2.8 Electromagnetic interference ......................................................................... 11 4.2.9 Storage ......................................................................................................... 12 5 Technical components ................................................................................................... 12 5.1 Sampling assembly ............................................................................................... 12 5.2 Radiation detection assembly ............................................................................... 12 5.3 Data processing and recording ............................................................................. 13 5.4 Measurement display ............................................................................................ 13 5.5 Power supply ........................................................................................................ 13 6 Test conditions .............................................................................................................. 14 6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14 6.2 Standard test conditions ....................................................................................... 14 6.3 Execution of tests ................................................................................................. 14 6.4 Reference atmospheres ........................................................................................ 14 7 Requirements and tests concerning radiation detection performance ............................. 15 7.1 Reference response to a test source ..................................................................... 15 7.1.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 15 7.1.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 15 7.2 Cross-interference to other radon isotopes ........................................................... 15 7.2.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 15 7.2.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 15 7.3 Linearity of indication ............................................................................................ 15 7.3.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 15 7.3.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 16 7.4 Instrument statistical fluctuation ............................................................................ 16 7.4.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 16 7.4.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 16 7.5 Response time ...................................................................................................... 17 7.5.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 17 SIST EN 61577-2:2017

IEC 61577-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 3 – 7.5.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 17 7.6 Signal accumulation .............................................................................................. 17 7.6.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 17 7.6.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 17 8 Requirements and tests concerning air circuit performance ........................................... 17 8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 17 8.2 Flow-rate stability ................................................................................................. 18 8.2.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 18 8.2.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 18 8.3 Accuracy of the air flow-rate measurement ........................................................... 18 8.3.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 18 8.3.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 18 8.4 Effect of filter pressure drop .................................................................................. 18 8.4.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 18 8.4.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 18 8.5 Indication of low sampling flow-rate ...................................................................... 19 8.5.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 19 8.5.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 19 9 Requirements and tests concerning environmental performance .................................... 19 9.1 Response to ambient gamma radiation ................................................................. 19 9.1.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 19 9.1.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 19 9.2 Ambient temperature ............................................................................................ 19 9.2.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 19 9.2.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 19 9.3 Relative humidity and condensed moisture ........................................................... 20 9.3.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 20 9.3.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 20 9.4 Atmospheric pressure ........................................................................................... 20 10 Requirements and tests concerning electrical performance ........................................... 20 10.1 Power supply variations ........................................................................................ 20 10.1.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 20 10.1.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 20 10.2 Battery test ........................................................................................................... 21 10.2.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 21 10.2.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 21 11 Requirements and tests concerning mechanical performance ........................................ 21 11.1 Requirements ....................................................................................................... 21 11.2 Test method .......................................................................................................... 21 12 Operation and maintenance manual .............................................................................. 21 13 Type test report and certificate ...................................................................................... 22

Table 1 – Reference conditions and standard test conditions (unless otherwise indicated by the manufacturer) .............................................................................................. 23 Table 2 – Tests of the radiation detection performance ......................................................... 23 Table 3 – Tests of the air circuit performance ....................................................................... 24 Table 4 – Tests performed with variation of influence quantities............................................ 24

SIST EN 61577-2:2017

– 4 – IEC 61577-2:2014 © IEC 2014 INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION ____________

RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION –
RADON AND RADON DECAY PRODUCT
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS –
Part 2: Specific requirements for 222Rn and 220Rn
measuring instruments

FOREWORD 1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. 2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user. 4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter. 5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any services carried out by independent certification bodies. 6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication. 7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is indispensable for the correct application of this publication. 9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. International Standard IEC 61577-2 has been prepared by sub-committee 45B: Radiation protection instrumentation, of IEC technical committee 45: Nuclear instrumentation. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition issued in 2000. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This second edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) Addition of new requirements and tests concerning radiation detection performance. b) Addition of new requirements and tests concerning environmental performance. SIST EN 61577-2:2017

IEC 61577-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 5 – c) Harmonization of the requirements and tests concerning electrical and mechanical performance with other standards in the area of radon and radon decay product instrumentation. The text of this standard is based on the following documents: FDIS Report on voting 45B/793/FDIS 45B/798/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above table. This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. A list of all parts of IEC 61577 series, under the general title Radiation protection instrumentation – Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments, can be found on the IEC website. The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed, • withdrawn, • replaced by a revised edition, or • amended.
SIST EN 61577-2:2017

– 6 – IEC 61577-2:2014 © IEC 2014 INTRODUCTION Radon is a radioactive trace gas produced by the decay of 226Ra, 223Ra and 224Ra, respectively decay products of 238U, 235U and 232Th which are present in the earth's crust. By decay, radon isotopes (i.e. 222Rn, 219Rn, 220Rn) produce three decay chains, each ending in a stable lead isotope. The radon isotope 220Rn is generally known as thoron1. NOTE In normal conditions, due to the very short half-life of 219Rn, its activity and the activity of its RnDP2 are considered negligible compared to the activity of the other two series. Its health effects are therefore not important. Thus in this standard 219Rn and its decay products are not considered. In order to facilitate its use, the IEC 61577 series is divided into the following different parts: IEC 61577-1: This part emphasizes the terminology and units used in the specific field of radon and radon decay products (RnDP) measurement techniques and describes briefly the concept of System for Test Atmospheres with Radon (STAR) used for test and calibration of radon and RnDP measuring devices.

IEC 61577-2: This part is dedicated to the tests of 222Rn and 220Rn measuring instruments. IEC 61577-3: This part is dedicated to the tests of RnDP222 and RnDP220 measuring instruments. IEC 61577-4: This part is dedicated to the construction of a STAR and its use for testing. IEC/TR 61577-5 (informative): This is a technical report (to be developed) concerning special features of radon and/or RnDP measurement. ————————— 1 The term thoron is not used in this standard. Instead, the term radon is used to denote the radionuclides 220Rn and 222Rn. In the case that one of these radionuclides is to be explicitly specified, the atomic mass number and the chemical symbol are given. 2 RnDP is the acronym for Radon Decay Products, which are sometimes called radon progeny. The term Radon Decay Products or its abbreviation (RnDP) denotes the whole set of short-lived decay products that becomes the focus of this standard. A particular isotope is indicated by its chemical symbol preceded by its mass number. The subscripts 222, 220 added to the symbol RnDP refer to the whole set of short-lived decay products of the corresponding radon isotope (RnDP222: 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi, 214Po, and RnDP220: 216Po, 212Pb, 212Bi, 212Po, 208Tl). SIST EN 61577-2:2017

IEC 61577-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 7 – RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION – RADON AND RADON DECAY PRODUCT MEASURING INSTRUMENTS –

Part 2: Specific requirements for 222Rn and 220Rn measuring instruments

1 Scope This part of IEC 61577 describes the specific requirements for instruments measuring the activity concentration of airborne 222Rn and 220Rn outdoors, in dwellings, and in workplaces including underground mines. This standard applies practically to all types of electronic measuring instruments that are based on either spot or continuous measurements. The activity concentration can be measured by pumping or by diffusing the air containing 222Rn and/or 220Rn into the sensitive volume of the detection unit or at a particular moment by taking an air sample (grab sampling). The different types of instrumentation used for measurements are stated in IEC 61577-1. The standard does not apply to instruments using charcoal adsorption, electrets or solid state nuclear track detectors.

2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. IEC 60068-2-27, Environmental testing – Part 2-27: Tests – Test Ea and guidance: Shock IEC 61000-6-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-4: Generic standards – Emission standard for industrial environments IEC 61140, Protection against electric shock – Common aspects for installation and equipment

IEC 61187, Electrical and electronic measuring equipment – Documentation IEC 61577-1, Radiation protection instrumentation – Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments – Part 1: General principles ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement – Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM:1995) ISO 11665-1, Measurement of radioactivity in the environment – Air: radon-222 – Part 1: Origins of radon and its short-lived decay products and associated measurement methods SIST EN 61577-2:2017

– 8 – IEC 61577-2:2014 © IEC 2014 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1

conventionally true value of a quantity c value attributed to a particular quantity and accepted, sometimes by convention, as having an uncertainty appropriate for a given purpose Note 1 to entry: "Conventionally true value of a quantity" is sometimes called assigned value, best estimate of the value, conventional value or reference value. [SOURCE: IEC 60050-394:2007, 394-40-10] 3.2

rated range range of a quantity to be measured, observed, supplied, set, or assigned to the instrument [SOURCE: IEC 60050-394:2007, 394-39-42] 3.3

error

error of measurement result of a measurement minus a true value of the measurand Note 1 to entry: Since a true value cannot be determined, a conventional true value is used in practice. Note 2 to entry: When it is necessary to distinguish “error” from “relative error”, the former is sometimes called “absolute error of measurement”. This should not be confused with “absolute value of error”, which is the modulus of the error. [SOURCE: IEC 60050-394:2007, 394-40-13] 3.4

relative error er error of measurement divided by a true value of the measurand Note 1 to entry: Since a true value cannot be determined, in practice a conventional true value is used. [SOURCE: IEC 60050-394:2007, 394-40-11] 3.5

intrinsic error ei error of a measuring instrument, determined under reference conditions [SOURCE: IEC 60050-394:2007, 394-40-12] 3.6

response (of a radiation measuring assembly) ratio, under specified conditions, given b

...

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